The slogan of the workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor is of particular importance due to the crisis of leadership of the proletariat. The pace of the capitalist crisis is progressing faster than the pace in building a mass revolutionary party. It follows that the mass of workers and the oppressed can direct their hopes set for a radical change only to the old, rotten parties of the labour bureaucracy (Social Democrats or Stalinists), trade unions etc. or to new parties, but which are also part of the old swamp of bourgeois ideology.
Under these conditions, the revolutionary vanguard must not wait passively until the masses finally have broken with these petty-bourgeois parties, and created new, revolutionary workers' parties. It is rather necessary to apply the united front tactic, to reach to the consciousness of the broad masses and to demand from the parties of the workers and oppressed, that they break with the bourgeoisie and form a government on this basis.
These petty-bourgeois parties are never able to replace capitalism with the workers council's dictatorship of the proletariat. Of course it is not excluded that they may be forced under the pressure of revolutionary crises and explosive class conflicts to go further than they want. Even the abolition of capitalist relations of production is not excluded under exceptional conditions (see Eastern Europe, China, Cuba and Vietnam in the second half of the 20th century).
But even in this case these parties do not smash the bourgeois state apparatus in order to replace it by the power of workers 'and peasants' councils and militias, but rather retain the structure of a bourgeois state apparatus and therefore establish the dictatorship of a bureaucratic caste. A repetition of such developments cannot be excluded for the future (e.g. Venezuela under Chavez). But the Bolsheviks-Communists reject such a bureaucratic counter-revolutionary upheaval. It only leads – regardless of the social progress through the abolition of capitalist exploitation conditions – to a suppression of the working class. In such a case the working class would have the task of the political revolution against the bureaucracy and for the destruction of its state apparatus.
But leaving aside these probabilities and improbabilities, the slogan of a workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor is of educational value. For it helps the masses, to put demands to "their" parties and thus go through the experiences of their inability to break with capitalism. In this way, this slogan can be helpful to accelerate the process of detachment from these political parties and the building of a revolutionary workers party.
The demand, put to the petty-bourgeois parties that rely on the workers, peasants and urban poor, to break with the openly bourgeois parties and the form a sole government is always correct, because it helps to remove the excuse of the petty-bourgeois leaderships of these parties that they would like but could not meet the interests of the workers out of consideration for its coalition partners. But Bolshevik-Communists always connect such demands with a full action programme that culminates in the perspective of a real workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor. That means a government that breaks with the bourgeois state apparatus and is instead based on the power of the councils and militias of the workers and the oppressed and that starts the expropriation of the capitalist class. In this sense, the workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor, is nothing more than a transitional stage on the way to civil war against the bourgeoisie and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
In the old imperialist countries where the peasants constitute only a tiny minority and urban poor still exist until now only to a relatively small extent, the Bolshevik-Communist pose this transitional slogan in the form of a workers' government. But the vast majority of the world's population lives in poor semi-colonial or underdeveloped imperialist countries. For these countries, the slogan of workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor is valid.
The Communist International at the time of Lenin and Trotsky advocated the slogan of a workers' and peasants' government. Given the social changes since then we have developed this into the slogan of a workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor. Thus we express,
* That the working class is the leading class in such an alliance and pulls with it the other classes and layers;
* That we – as the Communist International already pointed out - differentiate within the peasantry between the upper and lower classes and strata, and we focus mainly on the alliance between the proletariat and the semi-proletarian, landless and petty-bourgeois, non-exploiting poor peasants;
* That we recognise the fact that today in the poorer countries 45% of the population lives in cities, where one third belongs to the urban poor. This layer is characterised by an exceptional degree of unstable social conditions and class relations. Here the transitions from peasantry to the proletariat, from the proletariat to the lumpenproletariat and the urban petty bourgeoisie as well as the peasantry (see the importance of agriculture in the semi-colonial cities) dominate. Because of these special conditions – marked by semi-proletarian, semi-petty bourgeois, semi-lumpenproletarian elements – we have integrated the urban poor into the government slogan.
A revolutionary programme for a workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor should always include slogans that mark the decisive break with the bourgeoisie:
* Nationalisation of banks and fusion into a single central bank, nationalisation of large companies, large wholesale trade and transport, social, health, education and communication sector without compensation and under workers' control! Introduction of a foreign trade monopoly!
* Expropriation of the capitalist class and especially the banks, corporations and speculators!
* For a workers' government, based on the poor peasants and the urban poor, on the basis of councils in the enterprises and neighbourhoods as well as armed militias; Their representatives are under the direct election and can be recalled by the workers and they receive not more than an average skilled workers salary!