V. Islamophobia & VI. Conclusions

 

Islamists killing of Jews like the 2012 shooting at a Jewish school in Toulouse or the case of the Hypercacher kosher supermarket in 2015 should be condemned. Yet not every killing of a Jew by a Muslim can be categorized as Anti-Semitism. One such known case, was the 2017 murder of Sarah Halimi, a sixty-six-year-old Jewish woman beaten in her home by a Muslim man under the influence of drugs. While killing her he was yelling “Satan” and then he threw Halimi from her balcony onto the street, this was a crime of temporary insane person not a case of Anti-Semitism.

The real enemy of the Muslims and the Jews are the far-right parties that recruit mostly middle class people and the bourgeois politicians who denounce Islam and the Muslims as a primitive terrorist religion and by doing so strengthen the far-right and Islamophobia.

In some aspects there are similarities between Anti-Semitism prior to WW2 and Islamophobia, especially in relation to immigrants. Muslims, to a large degree have replaced the Jews as scapegoats. While anti-Semitism is on the rise, Islamophobia at this time is much worse than Anti-Semitism (Anti-Jewish), because of the racist agenda of the far-right against Muslims has become mainstream and there are more attacks on Muslims than on Jews.

Very few non-Jews or non-Muslims believe our days that the Jews are controlling the world while many people in France believe that unless they will stop the Muslims, they will control France even though in reality it’s utter nonsense.

It is not clear when Islamophobia began, but it existed already in the time of the crusades and the long struggle between the Muslim and Christian kingdoms in Spain–Andalusia. Later on it developed with the European struggles with the Ottomans and the occupation of the Arab East and North Africa.

The image of the Arabs and the Muslims as terrorists who want to occupy the West is hiding the fact that in modern times it is the imperialist West that occupies the Arab and Muslim countries whether before or after WW2.

The imperialist wars, the super-exploitation of the Middle East, Afghanistan and Africa, the economic crisis of 2008 have produced a large wave of refugees and Muslim immigrants to Europe. The reactionary politicians have diverted the anger of the mostly insecure middle class against the refugees and Muslim immigrants. The demagogic cry “They are going to control Europe” became the battle cry of the reaction. This was the battle cry of the reactionaries against Jews prior to WW2.

In this situation a united front of the minorities with the working class to defend themselves from racist terrorist attacks is called for. It is no more the case where only the far-right extremist groups on the political fringe of the society are Islamophobes, but rather the far-right racism that moved to the center of political power.

Consequently, it is not only right-wing extremist groups that rely on Anti-Muslim propaganda but social democrats, liberals, and centrists who are infected with this virus. This united front of Muslims and Jews has been sabotaged by the Zionists who have joined the crusades against the Muslims and from time to time are the leading force of Islamophobia.

According to the European Islamophobia Report for 2017 there were 101 attacks on Mosques, 1413 attacks on refugees and 908 hate crimes against German Muslims. This report points out to the growing influence of the Anti-Muslim reactionaries.

“While most far-right parties are still in opposition, some have gained major influence by becoming governing parties such as in the cases of Austria, Bulgaria, and Finland. While others may still be in opposition, their Islamophobic discourse, which is so central to most of them, has become mainstream since their issues have been co-opted by former centrist political parties.

In Sweden, for instance, the once marginal anti-Muslim Sweden Democrats became the third or second largest party in opinion polls, pushing most other parties to adjust their policies accordingly. Secondly, we also observe a stronger cooperation of various Islamophobic parties in Europe. For instance, the Czech Freedom and Direct Democracy Party (SPD) organized a meeting of representatives of its partners from the European Parliament in December 2017 in Prague. Politicians such as Geert Wilders (Dutch Freedom Party) and Marine Le Pen (Front National) were amongst some of the participants.[1]

“In the Czech Republic, a new party called ANO won the elections. Its leader supported the notorious Islamophobic politician, Czech President Miloš Zeman. The leader of the right-wing populist party Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD), which campaigns continuously for a legal ban of Islam...[2]

“In Serbia, there are ministers such as Aleksandar Vulin, minister of defense, and Nebojša Stefanovic, minister of the interior, who attract attention by stirring ethnic and religious hostilities.[3]

In Poland state-funded media outlets seem to carefully select their guests, who spread a stereotypical portrayal of Muslims as “violent,” “terrorists,” “Jihadists,” “sexists,” “rapists,” “uncivilized,” “double-faced,” and in general “a threat” to European and Christian values.[4]

In the US, Trump issued executive orders to limiting the entry of nationals of certain majority-Muslim countries. In September 2016 an armed right-wing demonstrated against the proposed building of a mosque in Newton County. The county government delayed granting the building permit. Leading Islamophobic figures like Pamela Geller, lawyer David Yerushalmi, Daniel Pipes of the Middle East Forum, commentator Steven Emerson, Robert Spencer and Frank Gaffney play a major role in the anti-Islamic lobby - which under Trump has translated into White House policy. [5]

In August 2016, the New York imam and his associate were shot and killed by a right racist. In Canada in January 2017 Alexandre Bissonnette, 27, killed six Muslim worshippers and injures scores of others in an attack at a Quebec City mosque. In London, on June 2017 a 48-year-old man drove a van into a group of worshippers coming out of a mosque and a 51-year-old man was killed and nine others were injured. [6] In March 2019 at least 51 Muslim worshippers were killed at two mosques in New Zealand.

The right-wing Zionists encourage Islamophobia out of fear that the growing number of Muslim immigrants to Europe and the US will influence public opinion in favor of the Palestinians, while the fear of Anti-Semitism pushed Jews to immigrate to Israel and pushes Israelis even further to the right. In recent years some 60,000 French Jews moved to Israel.

In 2011, the Center for American Progress (CAP) issued a report, which examined the so-called ‘misinformation propagating Islamophobic ideas in the public sphere that reached millions of Americans.’ It traced donations from the seven most significant donors, among them the David Horowitz Freedom Center. The CAP report notes the Zionist connections to many of the personnel involved in the Islamophobia industry. ”The figures demonstrate an undeniable overlap in the giving patterns of at least four out of seven of the foundations, which as well as funding Islamophobia, gave indisputably significant amounts to Zionist projects during roughly the same period: The Anchorage Foundation & William Rosenwald Family Fund gave around $1.1 million; Fairbrook Foundation gave almost $1.8 million; Newton & Rochelle Becker Foundations & Charitable Trust gave just under $2.4 million; and the Russell Berrie Foundation gave $4.6 million.” [7]

Arun Kundnani has observed, in the context of the US, that:

“The extent to which pro-Israel lobby groups have cultivated such an atmosphere [of Islamophobia] has reflected their anxiety that the Muslim-American population is growing, and that the political influence of Muslims in the US might one day reflect their numbers….This fear – that acceptance of Muslim participation in democratic processes could influence domestic government policy on, as well as public attitudes about, the Middle East – has been articulated by Alan Mendoza, director of the UK’s Henry Jackson Society, with regard to the European context. When he spoke at the AIPAC conference in Washington, in June 2013, about waning support for Israel on the continent, he pointedly noted that: ‘The European Muslim population has doubled in the past 30 years and is predicted to double again by 2040.’ Therefore, the so-called ‘demographic threat’ commonly discussed in Israel with regard to Palestinians (referred to as ‘Israeli-Arabs’), is transposed to the USA and to Europe.” [8]

 

Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia in France

 

An estimate 600,000 Jews and 5.7 million Muslim live in France. Up to 10% of its population comes from Muslim backgrounds. They are descendants of the country’s former French colonies: Algeria, Mali, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia, and Senegal. Many of them are working poor who have been struggling for equality against systematical discrimination in a manner similar to the U.S. civil rights movement. A French person of non-French background is two to three times less likely to be called to a job interview if he or she is assumed to be a Muslim rather than a Christian. [9]

Like most immigrants in industrialized countries, the Muslims who came to France during the second half of the twentieth century have endured lasting economic and social hardships. They first had low-level jobs, predominantly in the industrial sector, when they arrived in the 1960s and early 1970s. Their situation became more difficult as the abundant, stable jobs of the postwar boom disappeared in the economic downturn of the 1970s and 1980s. That helps explain why the economic and social indicators for this population have been so unfavorable. Immigrants have experienced higher unemployment than the rest of the population; a higher incidence of accidents on the job; housing problems, such as being isolated in large, high density housing projects on the outskirts of big cities that were slowly deserted by native French families; problems at school; and high levels of crime and unrest. Those problems have been reinforced by the economic situation in France, especially the stagnant job market, and they failed to improve in the 1990s” [10]

France is the country of the most known case of Anti-Semitism at the end of the 19th century - the case of Captain Alfred Dreyfus who was convicted, in December 1894, of treason. His trial was part of the Anti-Semitic attack on the Jews as disloyal citizens of France. What made it an Anti-Semitic case is who stood behind the accusations: the church, the army commands and the reactionary politicians and judges. Once again we see that racism including Anti-Semitism is institutional.

In recent years mass media has focused on incidents where Muslims attacked Jews as proof that Islam is Anti-Semitic and racist towards white people. The Islamophobia, with its rhetoric ”We are in war against terrorism’, portrays Islam as the enemy of the Western civilization, which ultimately leads to terrorism. By calling Muslims “Islamic fascists”, Islamophobia turns the victims of the imperialist destructive bloody wars in Iraq, Libya and Syria to the enemy of civilization. In a very similar manner, as we’ve seen, colonists portrayed the “Indians” of North America.

To understand the uneasy relationship between Jews and Muslims in France it is necessary to examine the social and political conditions of both Jews and Muslims, the imperialist wars of France against Muslim countries, the role of Israel and its oppression of the Palestinians and the role of the Zionists in France.

Beginning in 1989, an Anti-Muslim debate surfaced in France known as “The headscarf debate”. Muslim girls were suspended or expelled from schools for refusing to remove their headscarves. In 2004, all religious symbols were outlawed in public schools in the entire country. In 2016, a number of beach towns banned the burkinis, a body-covering swimsuit. In 2017, the far-right presidential candidate Marine Le Pen, in her campaign, demonized Islam by comparing Muslim prayers to the Nazi occupation of France. Her slogan was “eat pork or go hungry”. It was aimed at putting pressures on schools to stop offering alternative meals to the Muslim students.

Anti-Muslim sentiments were used by other politicians including the Stalinist leader Andre Gerin who ignited the debate on the headscarf. “Andre Gerin, a Parliament member who is pushing for a ban, told the Post that full-face veils are the visible tip of an Islamist underground that threatens the French way of life.” [11]

While the major victims of French racism are the Muslims, Jews are targeted as well by the re-emergence of right-wing nationalism. Desecrated cemeteries and spray-painted swastikas are part of this ugly picture.

The interest of the majority of the Jews and the Muslims is to fight together alongside the workers against the racists. Racism will disappear only in a world socialist society. However the enemies of socialism, among them the Zionists, are acting to fan the flames of hatred against the Muslims and to instill fear of Muslims in the minds of the Jews. No doubt there are reactionary Muslims who would oppose such an alliance as well.

“There is increasing evidence that Israel and far-right groups around the world are converging in a global movement that aims to promote and grow far-right ideology and politics…At the core of this emerging union is the conspiracy theory of the "great replacement" which was laid out by the infamous far-right ideology Renaud Camus in his book "Le Grand Remplacement". Camus offers an extreme interpretation of Samuel Huntington's "clash of civilizations", arguing that Europe faces a Muslim invasion which will lead to "change of civilization". This idea has spread beyond Europe and reached as far as North and South America, India, Australia, etc. In it, Israel sees a reflection of its own demographic anxiety about the fact that the Palestinians have been and remain the majority on the ground in Palestine. And while this theory in some places has also acquired anti-Semitic tinges - such as in the US, where in 2017 a far-right march chanted "Jews will not replace us!" - Israel has actively encouraged belief in it. European far-right ideologues and groups who espouse the "great replacement" conspiracy theory are also all eager supporters of Israel. Camus, himself, has expressed his admiration for Israel on a number of occasions. In December 2017, after Donald Trump moved the US embassy to Jerusalem, he tweeted: "Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. Israel is a model of resistance. We must make Europe a greater Israel''. [12]

When France was forced to leave Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, large populations of Jews in those countries fled to France, especially from Algeria, where the Jews unlike the Muslims had French citizenship as part of the imperialist policy of divide and rule. 90% of Jews in that country headed for France. The North African Jews were more willing than their predecessors in France to engage in politics along ethnic anti-Muslim lines, coming out, for example in support of Israel during the 1967 war.

While Jews have been allowed to integrate into the mainstream and became mostly middle class, this has not been the case for the Muslim immigrants that have been discriminated by the French imperialist state. In the 1980s, tensions began to grow between the two communities. By the end of the 1980s the possibilities for the cooperation between the two communities had been weakened dramatically because of three reasons: the First Intifada that the Muslims supported while many Jews supported Israel; the rising electoral strength of the National Front that had an impact of its anti-immigrant feeling upon the French middle class that feels insecure because of the globalization and the economic crisis; and the first headscarf debate in 1989, which focused on Muslim religious customs. Muslim activists emphasized the structural bias against Muslims, while Jewish activists began to emphasize Jews’ long history in France and their integration compared to Muslims.

In other words, many Jews express their support for Islamophobia. It was similar to their support for French colonialism when they became citizens of France in Algeria.

French Jews overwhelmingly voted for Macron who is a pro-Zionist and an Islamophobe investment banker in the final round. While most Jews see the far-right parties as an enemy, a growing number of right-wing Zionists are voting for these parties – Fidesz in Hungary; the Freedom party in Austria; Lega in Italy; Alternative for Germany; and National Rally (formerly the National Front) in France. They also support France’s imperialist war in Mali. Needless to say this does not win them any favor among Muslims.

For these reasons, while we are bombarded with stories about the Anti-Semitism of the Muslims, we hardly hear about the real French Anti-Semites like the French website Démocratie participative ("Participating in Democracy") that posted articles accusing Jews of setting the fire in Notre Dame. The first article, posted April 15, 2019, was titled "The Jews Are Burning France."

“DP is formatted almost identically to the U.S.-based white supremacist and neo-Nazi website Daily Stormer. Like the latter, DP calls for donations "in shekels," purports to be against violence, and features the disclaimer that it is "committed to peace and non-violence." (The Daily Stormer is, in turn, based on the World War II-era Nazi propaganda tool, the German antisemitic newspaper Der Stürmer.)”[13]

There have been a number of cases where Muslims killed Jews in France. The slaughter of Jewish children at an Orthodox school in Toulouse in 2012, the terrorist attack on a kosher supermarket in a Paris suburb in 2015 and the brutal murder in 2018 of Mireille Knoll, a Holocaust survivor, got a lot of publicity. The mass media have presented these killing as proof of Anti-Semitism. [14]

While these criminal killings must be condemned, they are not Anti-Semitic in nature simply because they are not actions of people in power, but of the very marginal section of society. They can kill some individuals but they cannot for example organize a pogrom or death camps, because they do not get support from ministers of government or the police. The publicity they get is because their actions serve the interest of the French ruling class to divert the anger from them to the Muslims and to justify the war in Mali, for example.

At the same time, we hardly hear about the racist activities resulting from Islamophobia in France. Attacks on mosques and Islamic sites have been a common occurrence since 2007 when 148 Muslim headstones in a national military cemetery near Arras were smeared with anti-Islamic slurs and a pig's head was placed among them. Dozens of French mosques were also assaulted following the Charlie Hebdo attacks in January 2015, with some targeted with firebombs, grenades or gunfire.

In 2005, riots broke out in cities across France in reaction to the killing of two boys chased by police officers in Paris. Decades of discrimination, alienation, and police violence had turned the suburbs into a tinderbox. Yet for the Zionists these protests were simply manifestations of Anti-French, Anti-White racism.

The Zionist French philosopher Finkielkraut, in an interview with the Israeli daily Haaretz, said that these protests “are directed against France as a former colonial power, against France as a European country, against France, with its Christian or Judeo-Christian tradition.” [15] This was an echo of the line of the Zionists right-wingers in Israel.

It is still taboo in some French elite circles to mention that a significant third motivation for some of the rioters was racist-ethnic, namely, anti-French and anti-white. Politically correct members of the European elite have long maintained, against all evidence, that there is only one type of racism-that of whites against the colored. During the recent turmoil, some of the rioters told the media explicitly that they were driven by anti-French and anti-white feelings.” [16]

In February 2019 when the Yellow Vests protesters saw him, some cried: “Go back to Tel-Aviv”. “Zionist” France's president Emmanuel Macron has condemned this cry as anti-Semitic abuse hurled at the French philosopher in Paris. [17]

 

Zionism as Racism

 

The Zionist movement was born as a reaction of the Jewish petit-bourgeoisie to modern Anti-Semitism, but it is based on the main tenant of Anti-Semitism that the Jews are a foreign body in the nations they live in. The term Anti-Semitism was coined by Wilhelm Marr in 1878. In that year, he published a pamphlet titled “The Victory of Judaism over Germandom.” It stated, in part:

“There is no stopping them. German culture has proved itself ineffective and powerless against this foreign power. This is a fact; a brutal [inescapable] fact. State, Church, Catholicism, Protestantism, Creed and Dogma, all are brought low before the Jewish tribunal, that is, the irreverent daily press [which the Jews control]. The Jews were late in their assault on Germany, but once they started there was no stopping them. Gambetta, Simon, and Crémieux were the dictators of France in 1870–1871. Poor, Judaized France! In England, the Semite Disraeli [Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli], a German hater . . . , holds in his vest pocket the key to war and peace in the Orient [the East].” [18]

For Marr the Jews were a Semitic race even though in reality it is a group of languages of the Middle East and Africa (Amharic Aramaic, Arabic and Hebrew). To Marr and a growing number of other Europeans, all Jews, regardless of their religious beliefs, belonged to the “Semitic race.” In the late 1800s, many European and American scientists invented race “science” that divided the human race into different races to justify the oppression of certain groups.

The “Semitic race“, according to him, was dangerous and alien. He founded the League of Anti-Semites in Berlin in 1879 that was a failure, but another political party—the Christian Socialist Workers’ Party, founded a year earlier by Protestant theologian Adolf Stoecker that was also anti-Jewish was a success. The unification of Germany in 1871 united the Jews of Germany and a layer of Jews participated in the rapid mid-century growth of industry and trade. Although they accounted for only 1% of the population and most were not wealthy, more Jews than ever became increasingly visible members of society. [19]

This was also a time that the Social Democratic Party (SPD) was growing and its message was the unity in struggle of all the working class against the capitalist class. Anti-Semitism was useful for the capitalist class to divert the anger of workers and of the petit-bourgeoisie from the capitalist class to the Jews.

Zionists claim that Herzl who first thought that the solution of the Jews is to convert to Christianity became a Jewish nationalist in response to Alfred Dreyfus case. This is most likely not true because Herzl, the journalist, at the beginning joined the accusation of Dreyfus as a traitor. When he became a Zionist he accepted the same assumption of the Anti-Semites that the Jews are a foreign body in the countries they live in. They must leave and form their own state.

For Herzl it was not very important where European Jews would form a colony, but he became convinced later on, that to form a mass movement he must appeal to the sentiment of the Jews for Palestine. The fact that Palestine was inhabited by Arabs did not concern him and his followers who coined the slogan of “a land without a people for a people without land.”

The Zionists love to claim that the Anti-Semites distort Herzl’s writing. For example Lisa Abramowicz, in an article on Ynet under the title “Getting Away with Anti-Semitism”, charged Ingmar Karlsson, a former top Swedish diplomat of forgery because she claimed he misquoted Herzl.

Karlson quoted: “It is essential that the sufferings of Jews become worse. This will assist in the realization of our plans. I have an excellent idea. I shall induce anti-Semites to liquidate Jewish wealth. The anti-Semites will assist us thereby in that they will strengthen the persecution and oppression of Jews. The anti-Semites shall be our best friends."

She wrote that there is no such entry, neither in the German edition from 1922, nor in the complete English translation of Herzl’s diaries from 1960. The latter has an entry which shows that the first two sentences have been added by Karlson and the rest of the alleged quote has been distorted so as to completely alter the message. [20]

She quotes Herzl: “It would be an excellent idea to call in respectable, accredited anti-Semites as liquidators of property. To the people they would vouch for the fact that we do not wish to bring about the impoverishment of the countries that we leave. At first they must not be given large fees for this; otherwise we shall spoil our instruments and make them despicable as 'stooges of the Jews' Later their fees will increase, and in the end we shall have only Gentile officials in the countries from which we have emigrated. The anti-Semites will become our most dependable friends, the anti-Semitic countries our allies.”

Clearly Herzl in both quotes says that the anti-Semites will liquidate Jewish properties and will be paid for it. They will be friends of the Zionist movement, the anti-Semitic countries its allies because this will force to Jews to live their countries.

It looks like poor Lisa simply does not understand what she reads. The idea in both quotes is the same and testify to Herzl’s concept that Jews should be forced to leave their countries by the Anti-Semites - i.e. the best friends of the Zionists.

But Lisa’s accusation that Ingmar Karlsson added two of his own sentences is wrong as well.

“There’s an amusing Youtube video in which a journalist presents a number of Israeli students with a quote from Herzl and asks who they thought wrote it. Every one of them says Hitler. They are shocked to discover the truth; the Herzl they learned about in school could not have written such an anti-Semitic statement. This is the quote: An excellent idea enters my mind — to attract outright anti-Semites and make them destroyers of Jewish wealth.[21]

In his book, “Der Judenstaat”, published in 1896 Herzl wrote:

“The Jewish question exists wherever Jews live in perceptible numbers. Where it (i.e. Anti-Semitism) does not exist, it is carried by Jews in the course of their migration. We naturally move to those places where we are not persecuted and there our presence produces persecution…. The unfortunate Jews are now carrying the seeds of Anti-Semitism into England; they have already introduced it into America.”

It is not an accident that Herzl was loved by the Anti-Semites like Édouard Drumont who published the virulently Anti-Semitic La France Juive, in 1886 and by Eugen Dühring who in the final editions of the Judenfrage, wrote that: “Since the Jewish character was an unchangeable one, the only means that would be effective against them would have to be of a terroristic nature. In the last edition of his work (1901), Duhring even suggested that all the specific social and political remedies proposed by him against the Jewish evil in the earlier editions were bound to be inadequate in the long run and must necessarily be reinforced by stronger means which do not permit the possibility of Jewish existence within the European communities any longer.” [22]

A very well-known pogrom against the Jews took place in 1903 in Kishinev. Most historians consider that Pavolaki Krushevan was the chief instigator of the Kishinev Pogrom, but there is no doubt that he was a servant of the government in Petersburg, that used him to implement the atrocities in Kishinev and in other places. The Minister of Interior, von Plehve was behind the Pogrom together with von Raaben, the Minister for Bessarabia and his deputy Ustrgov. Prime Minister Levendal and Tchemzenkov, the commander of the local gendarmes and civilians like Pronin, the notary Pisarevsky, Semigradov, Bolinsky, I. Popov, the judge Davidovich and many others. The Prime Minister of Russia before the First World War, Count Sergei Witte writes in his memoirs about the role of von Plehve, the Minister of Interior in his government:

“When von Plehve was Minister of the Interior he searched psychological methods to crash the revolutionary movements of the masses especially during the Japan War. Von Plehve believed that the Pogroms against the Jews are just the ways to stop the revolutions. This is how we can explain the big number of these brutal pogroms, especially the one in Kishinev, during his time in office.[23]

For Herzl this pogrom was a chance to recruit Jews to his colonial project with the backing of the government of the Tsar. After the pogrom Herzl met with von Plehve.

Leni Brenner wrote on this meeting: “The Russians were concerned about the effect of Kishinev on Western opinion and he prepared a memo for the minister. If the Russians would intervene with the Turks on behalf of Zionism, and subsidize Jewish emigration, the announcement could be made at “Our Congress, which will meet at Basel from the 10th to the 23rd of August... This would, at the same time, put an end to certain agitation.” Von Plehve explained his concern about the new directions he saw Zionism taking:

“Lately the situation has grown even worse because the Jews have been joining the revolutionary parties. We used lobe sympathetic to your Zionist movement, as long as it worked toward emigration. You don’t have to justify the movement to me. Vous prêchez à un converti [You are preaching to a convert]. But ever since the Minsk conference we have noticed our changement des gros bonnets [a change of bigwigs]. There is less talk now of Palestinian Zionism than there is about culture, organization, and Jewish nationalism. This doesn’t suit us. We have noticed in particular that your leaders in Russia... do not really obey your Vienna Committee

Herzl jumped at his opening: “Help me to reach land sooner and the revolt will end. And so will the defection to the socialists.” Herzl and von Plehve exchanged letters. The Russians formally announced, in the vaguest terms, their support for Zionism, on proviso that the local organization confined itself to emigration and did nothing on behalf of Jewish national rights inside the empire.

In return Herzl enclosed a letter he had just written to one of the Rothschilds: It would substantially contribute to the further improvement of the situation if the pro-Jewish papers stopped using such an odious tone toward Russia. We ought to try to work toward that end in the near future.” [24]

Thus, Herzl indeed saw the Anti-Semites as the best friends of the Zionists. He was an enemy of the Jewish masses suffering from repression and pogroms. Instead of calling on the Jews to join the self-defense of the Jews organized by the socialists, he promised the Tsar to take the Jews away from the influence of the socialists. He was one of the first to prove that it was possible and even likely to love the Zionist project and hate the Jews. At the same time Herzl’s project of settler colonialism in the service of imperialism was a racist project against the native Arabs. Herzl is known for writing in his 1896 treatise on the Jewish State:

We should there [in Palestine, Ed.] form a portion of the rampart of Europe against Asia, an outpost of civilization as opposed to barbarism.[25]

Herzl formed the model other leaders of the Zionists adopted later on. The Zionist movement has a long history of collaboration with the most racist murdering regimes that, among others, have killed Jews.

On the collaboration of the Zionists with the Nazis (Haavara - sabotaging the boycott of German goods, adding pressure to the US policy of closed doors before the Jewish refugees) Leni Brenner wrote the Iron Wall and Zionism in the Age of Dictators [26] and there is little to add.

What should be added is the close relations of the Israeli state with far-right parties and regimes in our days:

Israel may have crossed a red line today when it was flaunted on the major News portal, both in Lithuanian and in English, that Israeli ambassador Amir Maimon had found the time this week to stage a demonstrative PR-photographed visit to the chief campaigner for The parliament’s decision less than one month ago to name 2018 in honor of Adolfas Ramanauskas —, who is a prime icon of the ultranationalist camp that often glorifies various collaborators and participants in the Holocaust on the grounds that they were also anti-Soviet activists. The PR move came just after a major political commentator asked what Lithuania is getting in return for its staunch political support for the Netanyahu government.[27]

The meeting of the so-called Visegrad states in Israel that had been scheduled for Feb. 19 was the natural culmination of the efforts of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to integrate his country into the nationalist, racist, and anti-Semitic Eastern European bloc that is the enemy of the liberal West. Then, last week, Netanyahu declared that “Poles cooperated with the Nazis” while his acting foreign minister, Israel Katz, asserted that Poles “suckle anti-Semitism with their mother’s milk,” leading to fury in Warsaw. Katz’s remarks—quoting the late Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, a Jew who grew up in Poland like his predecessors David Ben-Gurion and Menachem Begin—may have been nasty, but many Polish Jews in Israel would agree with them.But the fact that Poland’s governing Law and Justice party pulled out of the scheduled meeting in order to protect its credibility with its rabidly nationalist and anti-Semitic base and that the event has become a series of bilateral meetings instead of a summit has not changed its basic purpose.[28]

It is baffling that some Zionist organisations have links with far-right groups who fuel hatred against Jews. Mick Napier of the Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign (SPSC) has said that the organisation has been harassed by pro-Israel activist Sammy Stein. “[Stein] works on behalf of the Israeli Embassy to defend Israeli mass murder, torture, sexual abuse of Palestinian women and children and every manner of Israeli crime,” Napier points out. “Stein was caught in flagrante recently with neo-Nazi Max Dunbar.

Dunbar was a leading promoter of the British National Party’s neo-Nazi ideology of White supremacy, which included Holocaust denial. He and Stein have been filmed and photographed working together to harass those tending a Scottish Palestine Solidarity Campaign street stall. To be fair, when the SPSC exposed Dunbar’s far-right pedigree the link was severed.

Napier, the co-founder of the SPSC, is perhaps a little less forgiving. “Like Trump caught boasting of his serial sexual assaults,” he responded, “or the Israeli Chief Military Rabbi endorsing rape of Palestinian women by Israeli soldiers in time of war, the glare of publicity on such practices usually prompts a public apology or retreat, but few take seriously such retreats [made] under pressure.

Moreover, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has had no such qualms at all about meeting Italy’s Deputy Premier Matteo Salvini, who is on record as expressing admiration for his country’s former Fascist Dictator Benito Mussolini. Salvini’s visit to Israel in December last year was exploited by what remains of the Israeli left, who accused Netanyahu of embracing fascists like Salvini, Hungary’s Viktor Orban and Poland’s Mateusz Morawiecki. The director of the Richard Koebner Minerva Centre for German History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, historian Moshe Zimmermann, explained recently that the new European fascists, who hate Muslims, love Netanyahu because of what he has done to the Palestinians.” [29]

The truth is that the systematic oppression of the Palestinians did not begin with Netanyahu. It began with the arrival of the Zionist colonialist settlers. It began by the forced removal of the Fellahin (peasants) from Fula in 1920. It continued with the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians in 1947-8 (The Nakba). It continued with the Massacre of Kefar Qasem in 1956, with the occupation of the West-Bank and Gaza in 1967, with the settlements in the 1967 occupied lands, with the annexation of Jerusalem and the Golan with the siege of Gaza and the killing of protesting Palestinians every Friday.

The Zionists are doing to the Palestinians what the American settler colonialists did to the Indians and the Afrikaners of South Africa did to the black Africans. Thus Zionism is clearly racist towards the Palestinians. [30]

In 1975 in a period which was less reactionary than the current ultra-reactionary rule of the capitalists, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning Zionism as racism.

Resolution 3379 (XXX). Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination stated: Recalling its resolution 1904 (XVIII) of 20 November 1963, proclaiming the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and in particular its affirmation that "any doctrine of racial differentiation or superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous" and its expression of alarm at "the manifestations of racial discrimination still in evidence in some areas in the world, some of which are imposed by certain Governments by means of legislative, administrative or other measures".

Recalling also that, in its resolution 3151 G (XXVIII) of 14 December 1973, the General Assembly condemned, inter alia, the unholy alliance between South African racism and Zionism.

Taking note of the Declaration of Mexico on the Equality of Women and Their Contribution to Development and Peace, 1/ proclaimed by the World Conference of the International Women's Year, held at Mexico City from 19 June to 2 July 1975, which promulgated the principle that "international co-operation and peace require the achievement of national liberation and independence, the elimination of colonialism and neo-colonialism, foreign occupation, Zionism, apartheid and racial discrimination in all its forms, as well as the recognition of the dignity of peoples and their right to self-determination".

Taking note also of resolution 77 (XII) adopted by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity at its twelfth ordinary session, 2/ hold at Kampala from 28 July to 1 August 1975, which considered "that the racist regime in occupied Palestine and the racist regimes in Zimbabwe and South Africa have a common imperialist origin, forming a whole and having the same racist structure and being organically linked in their policy aimed at repression of the dignity and integrity of the human being."

Taking note also of the Political Declaration and Strategy to Strengthen International Peace and Security and to Intensify Solidarity and Mutual Assistance among Non-Aligned Countries, 3/ adopted at the Conference of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Non-Aligned Countries held at Lima from 25 to 30 August 1975, which most severely condemned zionism as a threat to world peace and security and called upon all countries to oppose this racist and imperialist ideology, determines that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination.[31]

Thus when the Zionists say that Anti-Zionism is Anti-Semitism while they work together with the Anti-Jewish far-right, whether in East or West Europe, they purposely confuse the real Anti-Semites with those who struggle against oppression. It is impossible to be against oppression without being Anti-Zionist. At the same time Jews in Europe and the US should be defended against the real Anti-Semites who love Trump and Israel and hate the Jews.

 

Anti-Semitism Today

 

It is a difficult time to be a Jew, not only because real Anti-Semitism is rising but because many bourgeois politicians are responding, not by protecting Jews, but by victimizing the Palestinians and Muslims in general.

On March 14, 2017, the European Court of Justice (EJC), for the first time, made two decisions to rule on non-discrimination at work on religious grounds. The EJC ruled that employers would be able to prohibit the wearing of religious garments by their employees. This was despite the content of Article 9, which secures the freedom of thought, conscience and religion of the European Convention on Human Rights.

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance of the Council of Europe (ECRI) publishes an annual report, which covered the year 2016. The ECRI points to the fact that “Muslims continue to experience discrimination in various areas of social life, including education, employment and housing.”

And while Islamophobia is spreading a new official definition of Anti-Semitism has been adopted by the reactionary politicians. This definition, produced by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in 2016, includes among its “contemporary examples” of Anti-Semitism “denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination”. In other words, anti-Zionism is equated to Jew hatred. This definition has been adopted by imperialist France, Germany, Britain, the United States and 30 other governments that serve the imperialists.

The pro-Zionists argue that to deny the Jews the right of self-determination amounts to singling out the Jews and discriminate against them. This argument is false as the anti-racist movement opposed the right of self -determination of South Africa’s apartheid. The American progressive movement in the 19th century opposed the right of self-determination of the American South because of so called “unique intuition” namely slavery.

Those who supported the self-determination of white South African and the Southern confederation were racists. Most of those who support the Zionist state, not only oppose the full rights of the Palestinians for self-determination that includes the right of return of the Palestinians refugees who were expelled from their own country, but do not support the right of self-determination of oppressed nations like the Armenians, the Catalonians and many others.

For the record, the Zionists refused until 2016 to recognize the genocide of the Armenians. This denial began already with Herzl, because he hoped to get the approval of Hamid the Sultan for his colonialist project. For years, Israel and the Zionists organizations in the US refused not only to recognize the genocide of the Armenians, but the right of the self-determination of the Kurds in Turkey, because of close relations with Turkey. At the same time Israel had close relations with Barzani Kurds in Iraq.

AIPAC, ADL, AJC, B’nai B’rith, and JINSA (Jewish Institute for National Security of America) have colluded with Turkey to defeat Armenian Genocide resolutions in Congress. Demanding Holocaust legislation while thwarting recognition of another genocide is hypocrisy and moral bankruptcy”.[32]

However, the adage that governed Israel's relations with the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) was the opposite of that with the Barzani-dominated Kurdish Democratic Party. With the PKK, the reality was: "My enemy's friend is my enemy." The PKK's friends were Syria and radical Palestinian groups acting under Damascus's auspices while Israel's long-time friend was Turkey”. [33]

Another, but similar, pro-Zionist argument is that maybe Israel should not have been formed, but now it is a fact that must be recognized. South Africa’s apartheid was formed in the same manner Israel was formed. Yet it was politically and morally correct to put an end to it.

A third argument, which is false, is that those who are Anti-Zionists are also Anti-Semites. In the real world, many of the most pro-Zionists like the American Evangelists are anti-Jewish.

The truth is that you cannot be for the right of self- determination of the Zionists and the Palestinians. One is excluding the other. The formula of “two states for two people” is a hoax. Under its cover, the Zionist state is taking over the West Bank, and divides the Palestinians into three different parts - the West Bank, Gaza and the Palestinian citizens of Israel.

It is impossible to remove the Zionist settlers in the West Bank short of a civil war and in Israel there is no power to fight the settlers. Israel is by far under the influence of the settlers and their religious supporters.

The interest of the international working class supports only the right of self–determination of the oppressed nation and Israel is an oppressive imperialist nation of a settler-colonialist nature.

The pro-Palestinian movement of middle class activists and working class is known as the BDS. The Zionists attack this movement claiming it is Anti-Semitic. In the real world, BDS is not an Anti-Semitic organization. David M. Halbfinger, Michael Wines and Steven Erlanger, in an article that appeared on July 27 2019 in the New York Times, wrote:

“What is B.D.S.?

The B.D.S. movement seeks to mobilize international economic and political pressure on Israel in solidarity with the Palestinians. Modeled on the fight against the apartheid regime in South Africa, it calls for countries, businesses and universities to sever ties with Israel unless it meets three demands:

* Ending its occupation of all land captured in 1967 and dismantling the wall and fence that separate Israel from much of the West Bank, dividing many Palestinian neighborhoods.

* Granting “full equality” to Palestinian citizens of Israel.

* Assuring the right of Palestinian refugees and their descendants to return to the homes and properties from which they or their ancestors were displaced in the wars that led to the establishment of Israel in 1948.Many who embrace B.D.S. see it aimed primarily at ending Israel’s occupation of the West Bank.

The Zionists say that full equality for Arab citizens of Israel would require overturning or amending Israeli laws that grant Jews automatic citizenship and define Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish people. Granting a right of return to the Palestinians classified as refugees — the original refugees and their millions of descendants — would spell the end of a Jewish majority. In an interview, Omar Barghouti, a top B.D.S. spokesman, called the Israeli laws racist and exclusionary. A democratic state could still provide asylum for Jewish refugees, showing “some sensitivity to the Jewish experience,” he said, “but it cannot be a racist law that says only Jews benefit.” Asked if that means Jews cannot have their own state, he said, “Not in Palestine.” [34]

Clearly to accuse BDS of Anti-Semitism is similar to the accusation of white Afrikaners who argued that those who supported the sanctions against South Africa’s apartheid are anti-white racists.

Defenders of Israel deny the similarity between Israel and South Africa’s apartheid. Yet the activists who participated in the struggle against the apartheid have said that Israel is like South Africa, In 2014 “Desmond Tutu, the noted civil rights leader who became the first black archbishop of Cape Town, compared Israel's treatment of the Palestinians to the apartheid regime that discriminated against blacks in his native South Africa…."I have witnessed the systemic humiliation of Palestinian men, women and children by members of the Israeli security forces," he said in a statement.

Their humiliation is familiar to all black South Africans who were corralled and harassed and insulted and assaulted by the security forces of the apartheid government."

Observers in South Africa are preparing to mark "Israeli Apartheid Week" on Monday. Tutu, meanwhile, has declared his support for the use of boycotts and economic sanctions as a means to compel Israel to alter its policies.

In South Africa, we could not have achieved our democracy without the help of people around the world, who through the use of non-violent means, such as boycotts and divestment, encouraged their governments and other corporate actors to reverse decades-long support for the apartheid regime," he told News24.

The same issues of inequality and injustice today motivate the divestment movement trying to end Israel's decades-long occupation of Palestinian territory and the unfair and prejudicial treatment of the Palestinian people by the Israeli government ruling over them.” [35]

From 1973 on Israel maintains very close relations with South Africa’s apartheid. It declared the ANC a terrorist organization in 1976. During the 5th Conference of Non-Aligned Nations in Colombo, Sri Lanka, a resolution calling for an oil embargo against France and Israel because of their arms sales to South Africa was adopted.

From the middle of the 1970s, Israel was involved in joint nuclear-weapons development and testing. According to Seymour Hersh, for example, the 1979 Vela Incident was the third joint Israeli–South African nuclear test in the Indian Ocean. [36] Thus as the maxim says “Tell me who your friends are and I will tell who you are.”

Real Anti–Semitism is a form of racism. Yet due the role Israel plays as a front line for the imperialist control of the Middle East, the Israeli state has been able, with the support of the imperialist states and the imperialists mass media, to confuse Anti-Semitism with Anti-Zionism, then charge the pro-Palestinians as Anti-Semites and the semi-colonies states or organizations that are enemies of Israel of being “Nazi regimes”.

According to NGO Monitor, a pro-Zionist organization: ”On May 17, 2019, the German Bundestag passed a resolution defining BDS (boycott, divestment, and sanctions) campaigns against Israel as Antisemitic. The joint resolution, “Stand Resolutely Against the BDS Movement: Combat Anti Semitism,” was supported by the CDU/CSU (The Union), SPD (Social Democratic Party), FDP (Free Democratic Party), and Green parties”.[37] “The equating of BDS with antisemitism echoes the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance’s (IHRA) working definition of antisemitism (officially recognized by the German Federal Government), which defines attempts to deny “the Jewish people their right to self-determination” and apply “double standards” as anti-Semitic”.[38] Among the organizations declared as Anti-Semitic are Heinrich Boll Foundation and Rosa Luxemburg Foundation.

Yet in Germany the Nazi marches are protected by the police. In May 2019, on the eve of Holocaust Remembrance Day, the neo Nazis “The Third Way” in black uniforms marched in Plauen Saxony shouting “National Socialism Now”! Another Neo Nazi rally protected by the police took place in Duisburg with Signs calling for the destruction of Israel. [39]

Yet in Germany in May 2019 the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that broadcaster ARD must air the racist advertisement by the National Party of Germany (NPD) on free speech grounds. [40]

The same is true in the US. In July this year the US House of Representatives overwhelmingly passed a resolution that condemns the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign against Israel. The bill, formally known as House Resolution 246, also calls for increased security aid to Israel. [41]

Yet in the US the Neo Nazis, that under the Anti-Semite President feel free to march in the American streets, are protected by the police. This is a place where Trump blamed the Jewish victims of Pittsburgh synagogue, for not hiring armed guards. This is a place where Trump accused the Jews who support the Democratic Party as disloyal and it does not matter whether he meant disloyal to the US, Israel or himself. The double loyalty of Jews is an old Anti-Semitic propaganda.

Manfred Gerstenfeld of the Zionist Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies wrote: “Accusations of dual loyalty are the main anti-Semitic hate motif worldwide, as well as in the US. Extrapolating from poll data, it can be inferred that up to seventy-five million Americans might believe their Jewish co-citizens are more loyal to Israel than to the US… The recent murder of 11 Jews in a synagogue in Pittsburgh was followed by the release of a 2017 FBI publication that reported that 60% of all religiously biased hate crime incidents in the US were anti-Jewish, far exceeding the figure for other religions… The 2014 ADL Global 100 study also found that the false accusation of dual loyalty is the main international anti-Semitic stereotype. Forty-one percent of the world populations included in the survey believe this to be true… The charge that Jews are not loyal to the society or country in which they live existed long before the State of Israel was founded. During the mid-fourteenth century, at the time of the Black Death, Jews were burned on the accusation that they had poisoned food, wells, and streams.[42]

What Gerstenfeld fails to mention is that Israel has used the political sympathy of American Jews to Israel to spy on the US as was the case of Jonathan Pollard, who was convicted by the US of spying for Israel. A case that convinced the Anti-Semites that the American Jews are more loyal to Israel than the USA. To make things worse, for the Zionist propaganda Pollard is the modern Alfred Dreyfus. If this were true then Dreyfus was disloyal to France as the French Anti-Semites claimed in 1894.

 

Israel and Iran

 

The Zionists claim that Iran is a Nazi regime. This January Energy Minister Yuval Steinitz declared that “Iran is like Nazi Germany,” and said “the world had not learned the lessons of the Holocaust in light of the threat Iran poses to the Jewish state.Steinitz made his comments at Israel’s official ceremony marking International Holocaust Remembrance Day. [43]

At the same time Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu likened Iran’s “dangerous” flouting of the nuclear deal to the Nazis occupation of the Rhineland in 1936, in a call for European countries to sanction the Islamic Republic over its ramped-up uranium enrichment. [44]

This is pure demagogy. If Iran since 1979 is like Nazi Germany why did Israel provide it with weapons in the Iran-Iraq war? If Iran was in 1980 a Nazi regime and Israel provided it with weapons what does it make Israel?

“In the wake of the past two decades of acrimony between Iran and Israel, it may be hard to imagine that the countries ever had friendly relations and cooperation on multiple levels. Yet they were once friends and allies. And even after the Islamic Revolution of 1979, when Iran abruptly severed diplomatic ties with Israel, military cooperation continued for several years as Iran turned to Israel to arm it during its devastating war with neighboring Iraq.” [45]

Even though the Iranian regime is a reactionary one that should be toppled by the Iranian workers and poor [46], it cannot be compared to Nazi Germany that was an imperialist state while Iran is a regional power, a type of intermediate semi-colonial state. [47]

Germany needed markets and cheap labor for its industry. Iran is not seeking super cheap labor power. Germany exterminated, among others, Jews, however, in Iran Jews have a party in the Parliament and no one touches them. While the Israeli army attacks Iranian military positions very often in Syria, Iran does not seek war with Israel that is much stronger than Iran. Iran wants to develop its nuclear capacity while Israel possesses atomic bombs.

If nuclear weapons for Iran is like the Nazis occupation of the Rhineland in 1936 as the PM of Israel claims why in 1975 Israel and Iran cooperated on “Project Flower,” a joint plan to develop a missile that could carry a nuclear warhead.

Iran has the right to develop nuclear weapons to defend itself from American-Israeli–Saudi-Egyptian possible imperialist war. Trump and Israel want to topple the regime and bring back a Shah-type regime, the kind of regime Israel supported while the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who consolidated his power after a U.S.-led coup restored him to power in 1953, had a toilet made of gold in a country that many people did not have enough food.

By equating Iran and Nazi Germany the state of Israel is helping those Anti-Semites who deny the holocaust. Since Iran does not kill Jews, Nazi Germany did not kill Jews.

The question to ask is why the Zionist state hates the Iranian regime so much? Three weeks after Ayatollah Khomeini returned from Exile on February 18 1979 he severed relations with Israel. Adding insult to injury, Khomeini turned the evacuated Israeli Embassy over to the PLO. Supporting the Palestinians is a great sin in the eyes of the Israeli government. Even more importantly by severing relations with Israel, Iran was no more a close to semi-colony of Israel as it was in the 1960s and 1970s “when, Israel had so many contractors and military advisers resident in Tehran, that a Hebrew-language school was opened there for Israeli children. And El Al operated regular flights between Tel Aviv and the Iranian capital.[48]

 


VI. Conclusions

 

 

 

In summary, not every verbal writing or action which is expressions of prejudice against person/persons of different ethnic background is racism. Racism is a systematic discrimination that can lead to mass incarceration, police shootings, pogroms, labor camps and even to genocide of the discriminated group. Verbal and written expressions of racism by the powerful group are the justification for the systematic oppression.

 

In a class society the powerful group is the ruling class that owns the means of production, the state apparatus, the education system and the mass media. States are the instrument of the ruling classes.

 

Expressions and actions of hate of the oppressors by the oppressed are not forms of racism but resistance to racism. Thus, ethnic minorities may express racial prejudice, but this is not racism as they do not have the power to subjugate the powerful class systematically, discriminate against them or massively kill them by genocide.

 

Racism is not a natural part of the human race. It is a policy that originated in the interests of the capitalist class from its early days and continues today. It serves the capitalist ruling not only to justify the super-exploitation including enslavement, the robbery of the native people of their land and natural resources but to divert the anger of the petit-bourgeoisie, a layer of the working class and the lumpenproletariat from the capitalist class to an ethnic and national minorities who are blamed for the hard and insecure life. The racism of these layers of society who act in a racist manner is the “socialism of fools” as August Babel said very correctly.

 

The confusion between prejudice and racism is very useful for the ruling class as it enables this class to accuse the oppressed of racism. Today it manifests itself on one hand as Islamophobia that to a degree has replaced the Anti-Semitism of the twenty century and the accusation of the Anti-Zionists as Anti-Semites.

 

Zionism is a form of racism and anti-racists cannot be but anti-Zionists. It is racist not only against Muslims and Arabs but also against Jews. It is not a mere accident that Zionists and the Israeli state are the best friends of the Anti-Semite regimes and parties.

 

Racism will exist as long as capitalism and in particular imperialism will continue to exist. The only way to get rid of this disease is by overthrowing the capitalist system and creating a world socialist system leading to communism.

For this armed working class revolutions are necessary. The RCIT is committing to build the new working class International – the Fifth International! Join us!



[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

[8] Ibid

[11] Nadra Kareem Nittle: Race Card: French Law to Target Muslim Women, 17 January 2010, https://www.bitchmedia.org/post/race-card-french-law-to-target-muslim-women

[12] Ramzy Baroud & Romana Rubeo: Hating Muslims, Loving Zionists: Israel As A Far-Right Model Al Jazeera 29 Mar 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/Indepth/Opinion/Hating-Muslims-Loving-Zionists-Israel-Model-190322145619468.html

[14] See on this e.g. the following documents of the RCIT: RCIT: France after the Attacks in Paris: Defend the Muslim People against Imperialist Wars, Chauvinist Hatemongering, and State Repression! 9.1.2015, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/statement-paris-attacks/; Michael Pröbsting: The Racist Character of Charlie Hebdo and the pro-imperialist campaign “Je Suis Charlie”. Solidarity with Muslim People instead of Solidarity with Charlie Hebdo! 17.1.2015, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/racist-charlie-hebdo/; Michael Pröbsting: After the Paris Attack: Socialists must Join Hands with Muslim People against Imperialism and Racism! Reformist and Centrist Forces try to derail the Workers Movement by Failing to Stand up for Solidarity with the Muslims and Against Imperialist War-Mongering! 17.1.2015, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/france-defend-muslims/

[15] Quoted in: Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld: The Autumn 2005 Riots in France – Part I, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Feb.1 2006, http://jcpa.org/article/the-autumn-2005-riots-in-france-part-i/

[16] Ibid

[17] Lindsey Johnstone: Yellow vests': Macron slams abuse of French philosopher Alain Finkielkraut at protests, 17/02/2019 Euro News

[23]The Pogrom of 1903, translated by Sheli Fain, https://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/Kishinev/kis073.html

[24] Leni Brenner: The Iron Wall, Zed Books, London 1984, pp. 14-15

[25] Theodor Herzl: A Jewish State. An Attempt at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question, Federation of American Zionists, New York 1917, p. 12

[26] Lenni Brenner: Zionism in the Age of the Dictators. A Reapparaisal, Lawrence Hill, Westport 1983

[29] Yvonne Ridley: Zionism, its links with the far right and increasing anti-Semitism, Middle East Monitor, January 30 2019, https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20190130-zionism-its-links-with-the-far-right-and-increasing-anti-semitism/

[30] On the RCIT’s analysis of the Zionist state and the Palestinian liberation struggle see e.g. the program of our section in Israel/ Occupied Palestine: which can can be read here: http://www.the-isleague.com/our-platform/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/summary-of-isl-program/; See also Yossi Schwartz: Israel's War of 1948 and the Degeneration of the Fourth International, http://the-isleague.com/1948-war-5-2013/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/israel-s-war-of-1948/; Michael Pröbsting: On some Questions of the Zionist Oppression and the Permanent Revolution in Palestine, http://the-isleague.com/zionist-oppression-and-permanent-revolution/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/permanent-revolution-in-palestine/

[32] David Boyajian: Hypocritical Jewish Organizations and the Armenian Genocide, Forgin Policy Journal, Jun 25, 2019, https://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2019/06/25/hypocritical-jewish-organizations-and-the-armenian-genocide/

[33] Ofra Bengio: Surprising Ties between Israel and the Kurds, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2014 https://www.meforum.org/3838/israel-kurds

[34] David M. Halbfinger, Michael Wines and Steven Erlanger: Is B.D.S. Anti-Semitic? A Closer Look at the Boycott Israel, The New York Times, July 27 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/27/world/middleeast/bds-israel-boycott-antisemitic.html

[36] Hersh, Seymour (1991). The Samson option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy. Random House

[38] Ibid

[39] Associated Press and Israel Hayom: Jewish group alarmed after German police allowed neo Nazi March, May 3 2019, https://www.israelhayom.com/2019/05/03/jewish-group-alarmed-after-german-police-allow-neo-nazi-march/

[45] David B. Green: From Friends to Foes: How Israel and Iran Turned Into Arch-enemies, Haaretz, May 08, 2018, https://www.haaretz.com/middle-east-news/iran/MAGAZINE-how-israel-and-iran-went-from-allies-to-enemies-1.6049884

[46] See on this e.g. RCIT statements: Iran: Long Live the Popular Uprising against the Mullah Regime! Unite with the popular insurrections in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria etc. to a single Intifada! Down with the US sanctions against Iran! 18 November 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/iran-long-live-the-popular-uprising-against-the-mullah-regime/; For the Iranian Revolution! Down with the capitalist Mullah dictatorship! Down with Imperialism! For a working class revolution in Iran! Action Platform for Iran by the RCIT, February 2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/iran-platform/; The U.S. Aggression against Iran and Revolutionary Tactics. Defend Iran against any imperialist aggression! But no political support for the reactionary Mullah Regime in Teheran! Continue the popular liberation struggles of the Syrian, Iraqi, Yemeni and Iranian people!, 06 January 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/the-u-s-aggression-against-iran-and-revolutionary-tactics/

[47] See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: Semi-Colonial Intermediate Powers and the Theory of Sub-Imperialism. A contribution to an ongoing debate amongst Marxists and a proposal to tackle a theoretical problem, 1 August 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/semi-colonial-intermediate-powers-and-the-theory-of-sub-imperialism/

[48] David B. Green: From Friends to Foes: How Israel and Iran Turned Into Arch-enemies