Cuba‘s Revolution Sold Out?

The Road from Revolution to the Restoration of Capitalism



written by Michael Pröbsting


(International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency)


Published in 2013

Capitalist Restoration in Cuba_WEB.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.2 MB




List of Tables (see below)
List of Figures (see below)






I. The Cuban Revolution 1959-61
Misery and Imperialist Super-Exploitation before the Cuban Revolution in 1959
Revolutionary Upheavals and Treacherous Stalinists
The Petty-Bourgeois Castroite Movimiento 26 de Julio
Background of Cuba’s Liquidation of Capitalism
i) The Cuban Working Class as an Active Force in the Revolution
ii) Aggression of US imperialism
iii) Support and Alignment with the Stalinist Soviet Bureaucracy
Cuba’s Bureaucratic Social Revolution towards a Stalinist Degenerated Workers State
The Cuban Working Class and Its Political Expropriation by the Castroite Stalinists


II. Stalinism, Permanent Revolution and Capitalist Restoration in the Light of Marxist Theory
i) Trotsky’s Theory of the Permanent Revolution
ii) The Nature of the Stalinist Bureaucracy in a Degenerated Workers State
iii) Trotsky’s Program of Political Revolution against the Stalinist Dictatorship
iv) The Program of Political Revolution against the Castroite/Stalinist Regime in Cuba
v) Stalinism and the Restoration of Capitalism


III. Capitalist Restoration in Cuba: How it Took Place
Social Gains of the Revolution in Danger
Many Roads Lead to Capitalist Restoration
Crossing the Rubicon in Cuba: The 2010/11 Reforms

Implementing the Law of Value in State-Owned Enterprises: Restructuring and Mass Lay-Offs
Promoting Capitalism in the Agrarian Sector
Promoting a Private Capitalist Sector
Helping to Strengthen the Formation of a Domestic Capitalist Class of Private Property Owners
Cutting Back the Social Benefits to Create an Industrial Reserve Army of Labor
Women Particularly Affected by Capitalist Restoration
Opening the Economy for Imperialist Capital
Semi-Colonial Cuba to Get on Imperialist China’s Bandwagon
Keeping the Authoritarian Rule of the Stalinist PCC
Excurse: A Short Note on Cuba and the Maccabiah Games


IV. The Program for Socialist Revolution in Cuba
Defend the Social Achievements!
Down with the Castroite dictatorship! Democracy for the working class and the popular masses!
Down with US Embargo! Defend Cuba against US imperialism and the Gusanos!
Expropriate and Expel the Chinese Imperialists!
A Program for Workers Power!
Internationalization of the Revolution!
For a Revolutionary Party! For the Fifth Workers International!


V. Summary

Map of Cuba


Appendix: Major Events in Cuban History 1868-1962




About the Author


RCIT: What We Stand For


List of Tables

Table 1: Cuba: The Private Sector in Agriculture 1961
Table 2: Composition of the 100-member Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party in 1965 
Table 3: Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Cuba, 2002-2010
Table 4: Availability of Basic Goods and Services per Capita - Cuba 1958-1978
Table 5: Private Sector Share in GDP and Employment in Eastern Europe and the Former USSR 1991-2002
Table 6: China: Employment by Ownership in Selected Years 1980-2000
Table 7: China: GDP by Ownership in Selected Years 1980-2000
Table 8: China: State Share of Gross Industrial Output Value, 1991-1999
Table 9: Workers Employed in the Entire Economy, and the Private and Cooperative Sectors, 2008-2011
Table 10: More Entrepreneurs in the Workforce 
Table 11: Cuba’s Creditors, 2008 and 2010
Table 12: Foreign Investment Inflows to Cuba, 1993-2001
Table 13: FDI flows in Cuba, 2006-2011
Table 14: FDI Flows as a Percentage of Gross Fixed Capital Formation 2006-2010


List of Figures (The Figures can only be viewed in the PDF file, see above)
Figure 1: Cuban Domestic Industrial Output 1989-2010
Figure 2: Cuban Sugar Production, Area under Cultivation, and Yield 
Figure 3: Capital Formation in China: 1978-2007
Figure 4: Cuba: Self-Employment Licenses Granted 1989-2012 
Figure 5: Cuba: Self-Employment as Percent of Total Employment 1970-2011