Wages, Productivity and the Rate of Exploitation: Some Concrete Examples

Revealing figures in the latest edition of the ILO’s “Global Wage Report”

 

By Michael Pröbsting, Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 26 July 2023, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

The latest edition of the ILO’s Global Wage Report contains a number of interesting figures which demonstrate how the bosses are offloading the consequences of the capitalist crisis on the shoulders of the working class. The study shows, among others, that the real wages are more or less stagnating while the capitalists force the workers to produce more and more commodities. [1]

 

Karl Marx explained in Capital Vol. 1 that the working day of a worker can basically be divided in two parts. One portion which he calls "necessary labour time” is “that portion of the working day during that portion of his day's labour in which he produces the value of his labour power." This is the labour time necessary to create the equivalent to buy food, pay the rent etc. – in other words to reproduce the living conditions of the workers and his or her family.

 

The other portion of the working day which Marx calls “surplus labour time” is that portion of the working day in which the worker “expends labour power; but his labour, being no longer necessary labour, he creates no value for himself. He creates surplus value which, for the capitalist, has all the charms of a creation out of nothing. [2]

 

From this, Marx concluded that the relationship between necessary labour and surplus labour creates the basis for the “rate of surplus value”, i.e. it reflects the share which the capitalist can appropriate from the worker. Since, on the one hand, the values of the variable capital and of the labour power purchased by that capital are equal, and the value of this labour power determines the necessary portion of the working day; and since, on the other hand, the surplus value is determined by the surplus portion of the working day, it follows that surplus value bears the same ratio to variable capital, that surplus labour does to necessary labour, or in other words, the rate of surplus value[3]

 

From this follows that such relationship between necessary labour and surplus labour reflects the degree of capitalist exploitation. “The rate of surplus value is therefore an exact expression for the degree of exploitation of labour power by capital, or of the labourer by the capitalist.[4]

 

 

 

Stagnation of wages

 

 

 

It is hardly surprising that bourgeois economists are not interested in producing statistics which allow precise insight in the economic process of capitalist exploitation. However, this does not mean that such statistics are not useful to provide an understanding of the fundamental dynamic of capitalist economy.

 

The above-mentioned ILO report is useful to show the dire situation of the global working class. The authors emphasise that the economic slump in 2020 (which they wrongly attribute to the COVID-19 pandemic) destroyed many jobs. “According to ILO estimates, although the COVID-19 crisis destroyed many wage and salaried jobs during the first full year of the pandemic, with global wage employment dropping from 1.75 billion in 2019 to 1.69 billion in 2020.

 

As a result, in nearly all countries around the world, wages have basically stagnated in the past years since the beginning of the Great Depression in late 2019. [5] In Table 1 we show the average real monthly wage growth for global wage labourers both with as well as without China.

 

It is important to note that these figures do not fully reflect the development of real wages for the mass of the global proletariat. This is for several reasons. First, the ILO includes into the category of wage labourers not only the working class but also sectors which are part of the waged middle class.

 

Secondly, such average figures do not reflect the increasing inequality within the wage earners. As we pointed out somewhere else, there is an increasing gap between the upper strata of the working class – the privileged and bribed strata of the labor aristocracy – and the mass of the proletariat. [6] Still, however, these figures reflect a clear general dynamic – the impoverishment of the world working class.

 

 

 

Table 1. Annual Average Real Monthly Wage Growth, Global, 2020-22 (in Percentage) [7]

 

                                                                                                   2020                    2021                     2022

 

Global                                                                                      1.5%                    1.8%                    -0.9%

 

Global (without China)                                                         0.9%                    0.9%                    -1.4%

 

 

 

In Table 2 we show the dynamic of real wage growth in 2020-22 in various regions. While certain differences exist – the massive decline in workers income in Africa is particularly striking – there is a general trend of stagnation of even decline.

 

 

 

Table 2. Annual Average Real Wage Growth, by Region, 2020-22 (in Percentage) [8]

 

Region                                                                                       2020                    2021                    2022

 

Africa                                                                                       -10.5%                -1.4%                    -0.5%

 

Arab States                                                                              0.8%                    0.5%                    1.2%

 

Eastern Europe                                                                       4.0%                    3.3%                    -3.3%

 

Northern, Southern and Western Europe                       0.0%                    0.9%                    -1.9%

 

Northern America                                                                  4.3%                    0.0%                    -3.2%

 

Asia and Pacific                                                                       1.0%                    3.5%                    1.3%

 

Latin America and the Caribbean                                      3.3%                    -1.4%                    -1.7%

 

 

 

 

 

The gap between productivity and real wages in increasing

 

 

 

The ILO study also provides interesting figures which helps to get an understanding of the long-term development of the degree of exploitation of the working class. Concretely, the authors show data for the years 1999-2022 which compare the development of labour productivity with that of real wages.

 

Unfortunately, the ILO presents such figures only for the so-called “high-income countries” which are mostly imperialist countries in Europe, North America, Japan, South Korea and Australia. Hence, the report leaves out that part of the world where the large majority of the global working class is living – China and the semi-colonial countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

 

However, even if the data are limited to the working class living in the imperialist countries, they provide a useful indicator of the increasing rate of exploitation. Concretely, the authors compare the development the labour productivity – which they calculate as GDP (the mainstream category for annual output) per worker – with that of real wages. They take the year 1999 as the starting point (1999 = 100). Again, one needs to take into account the limitations of these categories which we already pointed out above.

 

As Figure 1 shows, the gap between labour productivity and real wages has continuously increased since 1999. The ILO states “that, in real terms, labour productivity has increased more rapidly than wages over the past 22 years, with the former growing by 1.2 per cent annually and the latter by around 0.6 per cent annually.

 

This shows that average wages of workers in the imperialist countries increased only by meagre 0.6% per annum since the beginning of the century.

 

Furthermore, this shows that workers have produced an additional amount of capitalist value of which they received compensation only for half of it. The other half of this additional value was appropriated by the capitalists which they partly used for business expenditures and partly for their personal luxury. These figures provide a genuine impression about the massive increase of capitalist exploitation in the past quarter of a century!

 

Add to all this that workers represent the overwhelming majority of people in the labour process while the capitalists are only a numerically insignificant minority (usually only 1-3%). Still, this extremely tiny minority of parasites appropriates as much additional value as all workers in total!

 

Such process of exploitation will continue as long as the capitalists own the means of production. Hence, the working class must expropriate them and replace the profit system with that of a democratically planned economy in the service of the society.

 

 

 

Figure 1. Average Real Wages and Labour Productivity in High-Income Countries, 1999-2022 (1999 = 100) [9]

 

See below

 



[1] Global Wage Report 2022–23: The impact of inflation and COVID-19 on wages and purchasing power. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2022. All figures and quotes are from this report if not indicated otherwise.

[2] Karl Marx: Capital. A Critique of Political Economy, Vol.1, in: MECW Vol. 35, p. 226

[3] Ibid, p. 227

[4] Ibid

[5] The RCIT has analysed the crisis of the capitalist world economy in much detail. The latest documents are compiled on a special sub-page on our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-great-depression/. See e.g. Michael Pröbsting: “Markets are wild“: Banks and Stock Markets Teeter on the Brink. Some notes on the nature of the crisis and its political and economic consequences, 15 March 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/banks-and-stock-markets-teeter-on-the-brink/; by the same author: World Economy: “The Next Decade Will Be Very Painful”. A revealing internal memorandum by China’s Huawei Founder Ren Zhengfei on the Great Depression, 26 August 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-the-next-decade-will-be-very-painful/; World Economy: It’s Official – the Recession has Begun, 30 July 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-it-s-official-the-recession-has-begun/; World Economy: The Second Slump Has Begun, 28 November 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-the-second-slump-has-begun/; World Economy: Heading towards a Second Slump? 2 October 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-heading-towards-a-second-slump/; see Chapter I and II in RCIT: World Perspectives 2021-22: Entering a Pre-Revolutionary Global Situation, 22 August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2021-22/; see Chapter I and II in Michael Pröbsting: The COVID-19 Global Counterrevolution: What It Is and How to Fight It. A Marxist analysis and strategy for the revolutionary struggle, RCIT Books, April 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-covid-19-global-counterrevolution/; by the same author: Another Great Recession of the Capitalist World Economy Has Begun. The economic crisis is an important factor in the current dramatic shift in the world situation, 19 October 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/another-great-recession-of-the-capitalist-world-economy-hasbegun/.

[6] On the RCIT’s analysis of the labor aristocracy see e.g. chapter III in Michael Pröbsting: Marxism and the United Front Tactic Today. The Struggle for Proletarian Hegemony in the Liberation Movement in Semi-Colonial and Imperialist Countries in the present Period, RCIT Books, Vienna 2016, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/book-united-front/; by the same author: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/, pp. 180-182; Income Inequality Within the Working Class – Globally and in China. New data from the ILO report confirms the Marxist thesis on the labor aristocracy, 13 July 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/income-inequality-within-the-working-class-globally-and-in-china/.

[7] ILO: Global Wage Report 2022–23, p. 37

[8] Ibid, pp. 45-46

[9] Ibid, p. 53

 

Salarios, productividad y tasa de explotación: algunos ejemplos concretos

Cifras reveladoras en la última edición del “Informe Mundial sobre Salarios” de la OIT

 

Por Michael Pröbsting, Corriente Comunista Revolucionaria Internacional (CCRI), 26 de julio de 2023, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

La última edición del Informe Mundial sobre Salarios de la OIT contiene una serie de cifras interesantes que demuestran cómo los patrones están descargando las consecuencias de la crisis capitalista sobre los hombros de la clase trabajadora. El estudio muestra, entre otros, que los salarios reales están más o menos estancados mientras los capitalistas obligan a los trabajadores a producir cada vez más mercancías. [1]

 

Karl Marx explicó en Capital vol. 1 que la jornada laboral de un trabajador puede dividirse básicamente en dos partes. Una parte que él llama "tiempo de trabajo necesario" es "la parte de la jornada laboral durante la parte de su jornada de trabajo en la que produce el valor de su fuerza de trabajo". Este es el tiempo de trabajo necesario para crear el equivalente a comprar alimentos, pagar el alquiler, etc., en otras palabras, reproducir las condiciones de vida del trabajador y su familia.

 

La otra parte de la jornada laboral que Marx llama “tiempo de trabajo excedente” es aquella parte de la jornada laboral en la que el trabajador “gasta fuerza de trabajo, pero no crea valor para él. En este periodo crea plusvalor, que le sonríe al capitalista con todo el encanto de algo surgido de la nada.”. [2]

 

A partir de esto, Marx concluyó que la relación entre el trabajo necesario y el trabajo excedente crea la base para la "tasa de plusvalía", es decir, refleja la parte que el capitalista puede apropiarse del trabajador. “Como el valor del capital variable es igual al valor de la fuerza de trabajo comprada con él, y como el valor de esta fuerza de trabajo determina la parte necesaria de la jornada laboral, estando, a su vez, el plusvalor determinado por la parte excedente de esta jornada, se desprende que el plusvalor es al capital variable como plusvalor es al trabajo necesario, o que la tasa de plusvalor.[3]

 

De aquí se sigue que tal relación entre trabajo necesario y plustrabajo refleja el grado de explotación capitalista. “La tasa de plusvalor es por ello, la expresión exacta del grado de explotación de la fuerza de trabajo por el capital, o sea, del obrero por el capitalista”. [4]

 

 

 

Estancamiento de salarios

 

 

 

No sorprende que los economistas burgueses no estén interesados en producir estadísticas que permitan una visión precisa del proceso económico de la explotación capitalista. Sin embargo, esto no significa que tales estadísticas no sean útiles para proporcionar una comprensión de la dinámica fundamental de la economía capitalista.

 

El informe de la OIT mencionado anteriormente es útil para mostrar la terrible situación de la clase trabajadora mundial. Los autores enfatizan que la crisis económica de 2020 (que atribuyen erróneamente a la pandemia de COVID-19) destruyó muchos puestos de trabajo. “Según estimaciones de la OIT, aunque la crisis de la COVID-19 destruyó muchos empleos asalariados durante el primer año completo de la pandemia, el empleo asalariado global cayó de 1750 millones en 2019 a 1690 millones en 2020”.

 

Como resultado, en casi todos los países del mundo, los salarios básicamente se han estancado en los últimos años desde el comienzo de la Gran Depresión a fines de 2019. [5] En la Tabla 1, mostramos el crecimiento del salario mensual real promedio para los trabajadores asalariados globales tanto con como como sin China.

 

Es importante señalar que estas cifras no reflejan completamente el desarrollo de los salarios reales para la masa del proletariado mundial. Esto es por varias razones. En primer lugar, la OIT incluye en la categoría de trabajadores asalariados no sólo a la clase trabajadora sino también a sectores que forman parte de la clase media asalariada.

 

En segundo lugar, tales cifras promedio no reflejan la creciente desigualdad dentro de los asalariados. Como señalamos en otro lugar, existe una brecha cada vez mayor entre los estratos superiores de la clase trabajadora, los estratos privilegiados y sobornados de la aristocracia obrera, y la masa del proletariado. [6] Aun así, sin embargo, estas cifras reflejan una clara dinámica general: el empobrecimiento de la clase trabajadora mundial.

 

 

Tabla 1. Crecimiento promedio anual del salario real mensual, global, 2020-22 (en porcentaje) [7]

 

                                                                                                   2020                    2021                      2022

 

Global                                                                                       1.5%                    1.8%                    -0.9%

 

Global (sin China)                                                                   0.9%                    0.9%                    -1.4%

 

 

 

En la Tabla 2 mostramos la dinámica del crecimiento del salario real en 2020-22 en varias regiones. Si bien existen ciertas diferencias, la disminución masiva de los ingresos de los trabajadores en África es particularmente sorprendente, existe una tendencia general de estancamiento o incluso disminución.

 

 

 

Tabla 2. Crecimiento anual promedio del salario real, por región, 2020-22 (en porcentaje) [8]

 

Región                                                                                       2020                    2021                     2022

 

África                                                                                         -10.5%                 -1.4%                    -0.5%

 

Estados árabes                                                                         0.8%                    0.5%                    1.2%

 

Europa del este                                                                        4.0%                    3.3%                    -3.3%

 

Europa del norte, sur y oeste                                                0.0%                    0.9%                    -1.9%

 

América del Norte                                                                   4.3%                    0.0%                    -3.2%

 

Asia y el Pacífico                                                                      1.0%                     3.5%                    1.3%

 

América Latina y el Caribe                                                    3.3%                    -1.4%                    -1.7%

 

 

 

La brecha entre la productividad y los salarios reales se está incrementando

 

 

 

El estudio de la OIT también proporciona cifras interesantes que ayudan a comprender el desarrollo a largo plazo del grado de explotación de la clase trabajadora. Concretamente, los autores muestran datos para los años 1999-2022 que comparan la evolución de la productividad laboral con la de los salarios reales.

 

Desafortunadamente, la OIT presenta tales cifras solo para los llamados "países de altos ingresos", que en su mayoría son países imperialistas en Europa, América del Norte, Japón, Corea del Sur y Australia. Por lo tanto, el informe deja de lado esa parte del mundo donde vive la gran mayoría de la clase trabajadora mundial: China y los países semicoloniales de África, Asia, Europa del Este y América Latina.

 

Sin embargo, incluso si los datos se limitan a la clase trabajadora que vive en los países imperialistas, proporcionan un indicador útil de la creciente tasa de explotación. Concretamente, los autores comparan el desarrollo de la productividad laboral, que calculan como el PIB (la categoría principal de producción anual) por trabajador, con el de los salarios reales. Toman como punto de partida el año 1999 (1999 = 100). Una vez más, hay que tener en cuenta las limitaciones de estas categorías que ya señalamos anteriormente.

 

Como muestra la Figura 1, la brecha entre la productividad laboral y los salarios reales ha aumentado continuamente desde 1999. La OIT afirma que “en términos reales, la productividad laboral ha aumentado más rápidamente que los salarios en los últimos 22 años, con la primera creciendo en un 1,2 por ciento. por ciento anual y el segundo por alrededor de 0.6 por ciento anual.”

 

Esto muestra que los salarios medios de los trabajadores en los países imperialistas aumentaron apenas un 0,6% anual desde principios de siglo.

 

Además, esto muestra que los trabajadores han producido una cantidad adicional de valor capitalista del cual recibieron compensación solo por la mitad. Los capitalistas se apropiaron de la otra mitad de este valor adicional, que utilizaron en parte para gastos comerciales y en parte para su lujo personal. ¡Estas cifras dan una impresión genuina sobre el aumento masivo de la explotación capitalista en el último cuarto de siglo!

 

Agregue a todo esto que los trabajadores representan la abrumadora mayoría de las personas en el proceso de trabajo, mientras que los capitalistas son solo una minoría numéricamente insignificante (generalmente solo 1-3%). Aun así, ¡esta minoría extremadamente pequeña de parásitos se apropia de tanto valor adicional como todos los trabajadores en total!

 

Tal proceso de explotación continuará mientras los capitalistas sean dueños de los medios de producción. Por lo tanto, la clase obrera debe expropiarlos y reemplazar el sistema de ganancias por el de una economía democráticamente planificada al servicio de la sociedad.

 

Figura 1. Salarios reales promedio y productividad laboral en países de ingresos altos, 1999-2022 (1999 = 100) [9]

 

 

 

Vea abajo

 

 

 

 

 



[1] Informe Mundial sobre Salarios 2022-2023. El impacto de la inflación y de la COVID-19 en los salarios y el poder adquisitivo. Ginebra: Oficina Internacional del Trabajo, 2022. Todas las cifras y citas son de este informe, a menos que se indique lo contrario.

[2] Karl Marx: El Capital. Crítica de la economía política. Vol. 1, Ed. Progreso, 1990. p. 206

[3] Ibid., p. 207

[4] Ibid.

[5] La CCRI ha analizado con mucho detalle la crisis de la economía mundial capitalista. Los documentos más recientes se compilan en una subpágina especial en nuestro sitio web: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-great-depression/. Ver, p. "Los mercados están salvajes": los bancos y las bolsas de valores se tambalean al borde del abismo. Algunas notas sobre la naturaleza de la crisis y sus consecuencias políticas y económicas, 5 de marzo de 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/banks-and-stock-markets-teeter-on-the-brink/#anker_1; por el mismo autor: World Economy: “The Next Decade Will Be Very Painful”. A revealing internal memorandum by China’s Huawei Founder Ren Zhengfei on the Great Depression, 26 August 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-the-next-decade-will-be-very-painful/; Economía mundial: ¡Ya es oficial, comenzó la recesión mundial!, 30 de julio de 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-it-s-official-the-recession-has-begun/#anker_1; Economía mundial: ha comenzado la segunda recesión. Las últimas cifras de un renombrado instituto económico burgués confirman el análisis de los marxistas, 28 de noviembre de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-the-second-slump-has-begun/#anker_1; Economía mundial: ¿Hacia una segunda recesión?, 2 de octubre de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/world-economy-heading-towards-a-second-slump/#anker_1; ver capítulos I y II en CCRI: Perspectivas mundiales 2021-22: Entrando en una situación global prerrevolucionaria, 22 de agosto de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2021-22/#anker_1; ver capítulo I y II en La Contrarrevolución del COVID-19: Qué es y Cómo Combatirla. Un análisis y una estrategia marxistas para la lucha revolucionaria, RCIT Books, abril de 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/home/espa%C3%B1ol/la-contrarrevoluci%C3%B3n-del-covid-19-qu%C3%A9-es-y-c%C3%B3mo-combatirla/; por el mismo autor: Ha comenzado otra gran recesión de la economía mundial capitalista. La crisis económica es un factor importante en el dramático cambio actual de la situación mundial, 19 de octubre de 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/home/espa%C3%B1ol/ha-comenzado-otra-gran-recesion-de-la-economia-mundial-capitalista/

[6] Sobre el análisis de la CCRI de la aristocracia obrera véase, p. capítulo III en Michael Pröbsting: El marxismo y la táctica del Frente Unido hoy. La Lucha por la Hegemonía del Proletariado en el Movimiento de Liberación en los Países Semi-Coloniales e Imperialistas en el Periodo actual, RCIT Books, Viena 2016, https://www.thecommunists.net/home/espa%C3%B1ol/libro-el-marxismo-y-la-tactica-del-frente-unido-hoy/; por el mismo autor: Anti-imperialismo en la Era de la Rivalidad de las Grandes Potencias. Los factores detrás de la Rivalidad acelerada entre los E.U, China, Rusia, la U.E y Japón. Una crítica del análisis de la izquierda y una semblanza de la Perspectiva Marxista, RCIT Books, enero de 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/home/espa%C3%B1ol/libro-anti-imperialismo-en-la-era-de-la-rivalidad-de-las-grandes-potencias/; p. 180-182. Income Inequality Within the Working Class – Globally and in China. New data from the ILO report confirms the Marxist thesis on the labor aristocracy, 13 July 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/income-inequality-within-the-working-class-globally-and-in-china/.

[7] Informe Mundial sobre Salarios 2022-2023 de la OIT, p. 37.

[8] Ibid, pp. 45-46

[9] Ibid, pp. 53

 

임금 정체와 착취율 증가

- ILO “세계 임금 보고서 최신판 수치들로 임금/ 생산성/ 착취율 동향

 

미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT), 2023 7 26, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

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국제노동기구 (ILO) 세계 임금 보고서 최신판은 어떻게 자본가들이 자본주의 공황의 결과를 노동자계급에게 전가하고 있는지 보여주는 일련의 수치를 싣고 있다. 연구보고서는 무엇보다도, 자본가들이 노동자에게 상품을 더욱 많이 생산하도록 강제하는 상황에서도 실질임금은 정체되고 있다는 것을 보여준다.[1]

 

맑스는 자본론 1권에서 노동자의 노동일은 기본적으로 부분으로 나눌 있다고 설명했다. 부분은 "필요 노동시간"으로, "노동일 노동자가 하루 노동에서 자신의 노동력 가치를 생산하는 부분"이다. 식료품을 사고 집세를 내는 등에 드는 등가의 가치를 창출하는 필요한, 노동자와 가족의 생활 조건을 재생산하는 필요한 노동시간인 것이다.

 

다른 부분은 "잉여 노동시간"인데 여기서는, 노동자가 노동력을 지출하지만, 그의 노동은 이상 필요 노동이 아니므로 자신을 위한 가치를 창출하지 않는 부분이다. 자본가가 무에서의 창조라는 모든 매력을 가진 잉여가치를 창출하는 노동시간인 것이다.”[2]

 

이로부터 맑스는 필요노동과 잉여노동 간의 관계가 "잉여가치율" 근거를 낳는다고 결론 지었다. 자본가가 노동자로부터 전유할 있는 (착취분) 나타내는 것이 바로 필요노동과 잉여노동 간의 관계라는 것이다. "한편으로는 가변자본의 가치와 자본으로 구매된 노동력의 가치가 동등하고, 노동력의 가치가 노동일의 필요노동 부분을 결정하기 때문에, 그리고 다른 한편으로는 노동일의 잉여노동 부분에 의해 잉여가치가 결정되기 때문에 가변자본에 대한 잉여가치의 비율은 필요노동에 대한 잉여노동의 비율과 같다. 달리 말하면 잉여가치율 S/V(잉여가치/가변자본)=잉여노동/필요노동이다."[3]

 

이로부터, 그러한 필요노동-잉여노동 관계는 자본주의 착취도를 나타낸다는 결론이 나온다. "따라서 잉여가치율은 자본에 의한 노동력의 착취 정도, 또는 자본가에 의한 노동자의 착취 정도에 대한 정확한 표현이다."[4]

 

 

 

임금정체

 

부르주아 경제학자들이 자본주의 착취의 경제적 과정에 대한 정확한 이해를 가능케 하는 통계를 생산하는 관심이 없다는 것은 놀라운 일이 아니다. 그러나 그렇다고 해서 그들의 통계가 자본주의 경제의 근본 동역학을 파악하는 아무 쓸모도 없다는 뜻은 아니다.

 

위에서 언급한 ILO 보고서는 세계 노동자계급의 경제적 열악화를 보여주는 유용성이 있다. 보고서 저자들은 2020 경제 침체 (그릇되게도 저자들은 공황 원인을 코로나 19 팬데믹 탓으로 돌린다) 많은 일자리를 파괴했다고 강조한다. “ILO 추산에 따르면, 코로나19 사태로 인해 팬데믹 동안 많은 임금·봉급 일자리가 파괴되어, 세계 고용 인구가 2019 17 5천만 명에서 2020 16 9천만 명으로 감소했다.”

 

그와 함께 거의 모든 나라에서 기본적으로 임금이 2019 대공황 시작 이래 지난 동안 정체되었다.[5] 아래 1 세계 임금 노동자의 평균 실질임금 증가율을 (중국을 포함할 경우와 제외할 경우 모두) 보여준다.

 

수치들은 세계 프롤레타리아트 대중의 실질임금 동향을 완전하게 반영하고 있지는 않다는 점에 유의할 필요가 있다. 이는 여러 가지 이유 때문인데 첫째, ILO 임금 노동자 범주에 노동자계급뿐만 아니라 임금 수령 중간계급 일부 층도 포함시킨다.

 

둘째, 이러한 평균 수치는 임금 소득자 내부의 증가하는 불평등을 제대로 반영하지 못한다. 우리가 다른 기사들에서 지적했듯이 노동자계급의 줌의 상층 제국주의 초과이윤 떡고물에 매수된 특권 노동귀족층 프롤레타리아트 대중 사이에 격차가 더욱 벌어지고 있다.[6] 그럼에도 이들 수치는 분명한 일반적 동향을 반영하고 있다. 세계 노동자계급의 궁핍화다.

 

 

 

1. 연간 평균 실질임금 증가율, 2020-22 [7]

 

2020 2021 2022

 

1.5% 1.8% -0.9%

 

0.9% 0.9% -1.4% (중국 제외 )

 

아래 2 세계 지역별로 2020-22 실질임금 증가율 동향을 보여준다. 특정 차이가 존재하지만 (아프리카에서 노동자 소득의 대폭 감소가 특히