Cuba and South Africa: Stalino-Capitalism in Action

Some advice to all socialists: judge parties by their actions, not by their general ideological commitments which do not commit them to anything!

by Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 17 July 2021, www.thecommunists.net

 

Catastrophic capitalism provokes more and more crisis, explosions, and popular uprising. Among the most important events in the last period are the mass protests in Cuba [1] and the hunger riots in South Africa. [2] Despite the large geographical distance between the two countries, these events have several things in common.

 

Both events have their deep roots in the misery caused by the system of capitalist exploitation. More concretely, the popular masses in both countries face the consequences of bourgeois austerity policy implemented by the respective governments.

 

Naturally, such austerity policy against the working class takes place in a global context: the Greater Depression which started in autumn 2019 and which constitutes the backdrop against which the ruling classes in all countries in the world try to offload the consequences of the crisis on the back of the working class and the poor.

 

In addition, this general background of the capitalist crisis is combined with concrete national conditions. In the case of South Africa, it is the ongoing unofficial Apartheid divisions in the society. And in the case of Cuba, it is the combination of sanctions by U.S. imperialism and the ongoing bureaucratic dictatorship by a Stalinist party. [3]

 

Rule and repress

 

This brings us to another important parallel between Cuba and South Africa: both countries are ruled by Stalinist-capitalist parties. In Cuba the PCC rules as the only legal party since more than six decades. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the regime – similar to its sister parties in China, Vietnam and North Korea – undermined and finally abolished the post-capitalist planned property relations, i.e. it restored capitalism.

 

In South Africa, the SACP is an important part of the so-called Tripartite Alliance (together with the ANC and COSATU). This alliance runs the country’s government since 1994 without interruption and the SACP has always held several ministry positions. [4]

 

Furthermore, both governments have reacted with repression against the popular unrest. The Cuban regime sent police and party thugs on the streets to suppress the protests. They killed one and arrested hundreds of demonstrators – including well-known communist dissidents and LGTB activists. In South Africa, the ANC-SACP-COSATU government has ordered 25,000 soldiers on the streets to smash the hunger riots. According to the latest figures, more than 2,500 people have been arrested and 212 people have died in the last days. [5]

 

In summary, the Stalinist parties in Cuba as well as in South Africa are ruling parties for decades. They administer a capitalist system resulting in social polarization and increasing misery. When the popular masses revolt, they react with brutal repression and send heavily armed police and army on the streets. [6]

 

In addition, both the Cuban as well as the South African Stalinists run governments which are close allies of China – the rising imperialist Great Power which challenges the U.S. as the long-standing hegemon of the capitalist world order. [7]

 

In short, the PCC as well as the SACP are Stalinist-capitalist parties and part of the camp dominated by Chinese (and Russian) imperialism. [8]

 

United against the poplar masses

 

It is therefore symbolic but not accidental that the South African CP is among the dozens of Stalinist parties which have published two days ago a joint statement in solidarity with the Cuban regime. Parroting the slander of the regime media that the popular protests are “provocations orchestrated by U.S. imperialism”, these parties pledge undying allegiance to the rulers in Havana. “The Communist and Workers’ Parties denounce the orchestrated provocations and undermining acts of counterrevolutionary groups in Cuba and abroad, which attempt to create an image of destabilization to justify the imperialist intervention against Cuba and its people.[9]

 

A number of Stalinists follow the example of their leaders also concerning the methods of repression. The latest death threats against our comrade Gabriela Capurro – a leading member of Convergencia Socialista (Argentina) – because of her support for the popular protests in Cuba demonstrate once more their political nature: these fanatical thugs are determined to silence any opposition against Stalino-capitalism by all available means. [10]

 

Let us note in passing that such threats reflect not only the rottenness of Stalinism but also the very fact that they are with their back to the wall. It becomes more and more obvious that they do not defend any kind of distorted “socialism” since the bureaucratically degenerated workers states have collapsed long time ago. In contrast, they have become open und undisguised defenders of capitalist regimes and imperialist powers. How can it be otherwise, that their supporters increasingly become demoralized, their members desert them, and the masses hate them?! There are no other means left for Stalinism than threats and violence against their opponents!

 

Of course, all their administration of capitalism, all the mobilization of the capitalist repression apparatus, all the threats against socialist activists – all this is done in the name of “socialism”, of “Marxism-Leninism” and maybe even the “Ten Commandments of Stalinism” (aka “Short Course). All these words are irrelevant. Such “Marxism” is an empty ideological commitment which doesn’t commit their advocates to anything in practice.

 

All these are powerful lessons for socialists today: judge parties by their actions, not by their words! In words, these parties might appear as “Marxist-Leninists”. In reality, these are Stalinist-capitalist forces and servants of Chinese and Russian imperialism!

 

 

 



[1] The RCIT and CS have published a number of statements and articles on the mass protests in Cuba. They are all compiled at a special sub-page on our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/cuba-solidarity-with-mass-protests-against-the-stalinist-capitalist-regime/

[2] RCIT: Hunger Revolt in South Africa. It is not about Zuma (anymore) – get the spontaneous protest organized! 15 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/hunger-revolt-in-south-africa/

[3] On the history of the Cuban revolution as well as the process of capitalist restoration see e.g. our book by Michael Pröbsting: Cuba‘s Revolution Sold Out? The Road from Revolution to the Restoration of Capitalism, August 2013, RCIT Books, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/cuba-s-revolution-sold-out/

[4] The RCIT has published many documents on capitalism and class struggle in South Africa. They can be viewed on our website at https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/.

[5] Andrew Meldrum: Leader backs order in South Africa, vows to catch plotters, 16.7.2021, https://apnews.com/article/africa-south-africa-6e49fbbcc4acf9a4628c718c94afdb04

[6] On the role of Stalinism and its changes in recent history see e.g. Michael Pröbsting: Cuba: “Trotskyist” Auxiliaries of the Stalinist-Capitalist Regime, 15 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/trotskyist-auxiliaries-of-the-stalinist-capitalist-regime-in-cuba/

[7] The RCIT has published numerous documents about capitalism in China and its transformation into a Great Power. See on this e.g. our book by Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/. See also by the same author an essay published in the second edition of The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism (edited by Immanuel Ness and Zak Cope), Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2020, https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-91206-6_179-1; China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power (2012), in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4, http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/revcom-number-4; How is it possible that some Marxists still Doubt that China has Become Capitalist? (A Critique of the PTS/FT), An analysis of the capitalist character of China’s State-Owned Enterprises and its political consequences, 18 September 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/pts-ft-and-chinese-imperialism-2/; Unable to See the Wood for the Trees (PTS/FT and China). Eclectic empiricism and the failure of the PTS/FT to recognize the imperialist character of China, 13 August 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/pts-ft-and-chinese-imperialism/. See many more RCIT documents at a special sub-page on the RCIT’s website: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

[8] The RCIT has published numerous documents about capitalism in Russia and its rise to an imperialist power. See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: Russia and China: Neither Capitalist nor Great Powers? A Reply to the PO/CRFI and their Revisionist Whitewashing of Chinese and Russian imperialism, 28 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/russia-and-china-neither-capitalist-nor-great-powers-reply-to-po-crfi/; see also several pamphlets by the same author: The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of “Catastrophism”. On the Marxist Theory of Capitalist Breakdown and its Misinterpretation by the Partido Obrero (Argentina) and its “Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International”, 27 May 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-catastrophic-failure-of-the-theory-of-catastrophism/; Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 21, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/. See various other RCIT documents on this issue at a special sub-page on the RCIT’s website: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/

[9] Joint Statement of Communist & Workers Parties: Cuba will win! 7/15/2021, http://www.solidnet.org/article/CP-of-Greece-Joint-Statement-of-Communist-Workers-Parties-Cuba-will-win/

[10] See on this RCIT: Argentina: Denounce the Stalinists Threats against Gabriela Capurro! Fanatical supporters of Cuban regime threaten “to shoot” a female leader of Convergencia Socialista, 16.7.2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/argentina-denounce-the-stalinists-threats-against-gabriela-capurro/

 

Los stalinistas gobiernan Cuba y Sudáfrica reprimiendo a sus pueblos

Un consejo para todos los socialistas: ¡juzguen a los partidos por sus acciones, no por sus compromisos ideológicos generales que no los comprometen con nada!

por Michael Pröbsting, Secretario Internacional de la Corriente Comunista Revolucionaria Internacional (CCRI), 17 de julio de 2021, www.thecommunists.net

 

El capitalismo en su etapa de decadencia catastrófica provoca cada vez más crisis, explosiones y levantamientos populares. Entre los hechos más importantes del último período se encuentran las protestas masivas en Cuba [1] y los disturbios de hambre en Sudáfrica. [2] A pesar de la gran distancia geográfica entre los dos países, estos eventos tienen varias cosas en común.

 

Ambos hechos tienen sus raíces profundas en la miseria provocada por el sistema de explotación capitalista. Más concretamente, las masas populares de ambos países enfrentan las consecuencias de la política de austeridad burguesa implementada por los respectivos gobiernos. Naturalmente, esta política contra la clase obrera se da en un contexto global: la Gran Depresión iniciada en otoño de 2019 y que constituye el telón de fondo en el que las clases dominantes intentan descargar las consecuencias de la crisis mundial a espaldas de la clase trabajadora y los pobres.

 

Además, este trasfondo general de la crisis capitalista se combina con condiciones nacionales concretas, como en el caso de Sudáfrica, a partir de las actuales divisiones no oficiales del Apartheid dentro de la sociedad. Y en el caso de Cuba, es la combinación de sanciones del imperialismo estadounidense y la dictadura burocrática en curso de un partido estalinista. [3]

 

Gobernar y reprimir

 

Esto nos lleva a otro importante paralelo entre Cuba y Sudáfrica: ambos países están gobernados por partidos capitalistas estalinistas. En Cuba el PCC gobierna como único partido legal, desde hace más de seis décadas. Allí, después del colapso de la URSS en 1991, el régimen, similar a sus partidos hermanos de China, Vietnam y Corea del Norte, socavó y finalmente abolió las relaciones de propiedad planificadas post-capitalistas, es decir, restauró el capitalismo.

 

En Sudáfrica, el SACP es una parte importante de la llamada Alianza Tripartita (junto con el ANC y COSATU) que dirige el gobierno del país desde 1994 sin interrupción, marco en el cual la SACP siempre ha ocupado varios cargos ministeriales. [4] Además, ambos gobiernos han reaccionado con represión contra el malestar popular. El régimen cubano envió policías y matones del partido a las calles para reprimir las protestas, matando a uno y arrestando a cientos, incluidos disidentes comunistas y activistas LGTB. En Sudáfrica, el gobierno ha ordenado a 25.000 soldados en las calles para aplastar los disturbios del hambre. Más de 2.500 personas han sido detenidas y 212 personas han muerto. [5]

 

Los partidos estalinistas tanto en Cuba como en Sudáfrica, administran desde hace décadas un sistema capitalista, provocando una polarización y miseria social creciente. Cuando las masas populares se rebelan, reaccionan con la misma represión brutal, enviando a los policías y efectivos del ejército a las calles. [6] Además, tanto los estalinistas cubanos como los sudafricanos dirigen gobiernos que son aliados cercanos de China, la gran potencia imperialista en ascenso que desafía a Estados Unidos como la hegemonía de larga data del orden mundial capitalista. (7) En resumen, tanto el PCC como el SACP son partidos capitalistas estalinistas y parte del campo dominado por el imperialismo chino (y ruso). [8]

 

Stalinistas unidos contra las masas

 

Por tanto, es simbólico, pero no casual, que el PC sudafricano se encuentre entre las decenas de partidos estalinistas que han publicado hace dos días una declaración conjunta de solidaridad con el régimen cubano. Repitiendo las difamaciones de los medios de comunicación del régimen, en cuanto a que las movilizaciones serían “provocaciones orquestadas por el imperialismo estadounidense”, prometen lealtad a los gobernantes de La Habana. “Los Partidos Comunista y Obrero denuncian las provocaciones orquestadas y los actos de socavación de los grupos contrarrevolucionarios en Cuba y en el exterior, que intentan crear una imagen de desestabilización para justificar la intervención imperialista contra Cuba y su pueblo”. [9]

 

Varios estalinistas siguen el ejemplo de sus líderes, también en lo que respecta a los métodos de represión. Las últimas amenazas de muerte contra nuestra compañera Gabriela Capurro -militante destacada de Convergencia Socialista (Argentina)- debido a su apoyo a las protestas populares en Cuba, demuestran una vez más su carácter político: estos matones fanáticos están decididos a silenciar cualquier oposición contra el estalinismo capitalista por todos los medios disponibles. [10]

 

Observemos de pasada que tales amenazas reflejan no solo la podredumbre del estalinismo, sino también el hecho de que están de espaldas a la pared, porque queda claro que no defienden ningún tipo de “socialismo” distorsionado, ya que los estados obreros burocráticamente degenerados se han derrumbado hace mucho. Por el contrario, se han convertido en defensores abiertos y sin disfraz de los regímenes capitalistas y las potencias imperialistas. ¿Cómo puede ser de otra manera, que sus partidarios se desmoralicen cada vez más, sus miembros los abandonen y las masas los odien? ¡No le quedan otros medios al estalinismo que las amenazas y la violencia contra sus oponentes!

 

Por supuesto, toda su actividad al servicio de administrar al capitalismo, toda la movilización del aparato de represión capitalista, todas las amenazas contra los activistas socialistas, todo esto se hace en nombre del "socialismo", del "marxismo-leninismo", e incluso tal vez en nombre de los "Diez Mandamientos" del estalinismo ”(también conocido como Curso corto). Todas estas palabras son irrelevantes. Tal "marxismo" es un compromiso ideológico vacío que no compromete a sus defensores con nada de manera práctica. ¡Estos partidos pueden aparecer marxistas-leninistas, pero, en realidad, son fuerzas capitalistas estalinistas y servidores del imperialismo chino y ruso!

 

Citas y referencias clickear aquí.

 

 

 

쿠바와 남아공: 작동 중인 스탈린주의-자본가 체제

사회주의자들을 위한 가지 충고: 당들을 그들의 말이 아니라 행동으로 판단하라!

미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 국제서기, 2021 7 17, www.thecommunists.net

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파국적인 자본주의가 점점 많은 위기와 폭발과 민중봉기를 촉발하고 있다. 최근 가장 중요한 사건 중에 쿠바의 대규모 시위[1] 남아프리카공화국의 기아 폭동[2] 있다. 나라 사이의 지리적 거리에도 불구하고 이들 사태는 가지 공통점이 있다.

 

사건 모두 자본주의 착취체제에 의해 야기된 빈곤과 참상에 뿌리를 두고 있다. 구체적으로, 쿠바와 남아공 나라의 인민대중은 정부가 시행한 부르주아 긴축·삭감 정책이 만들어낸 결과로 고통 받고 있다.

 

물론 이러한 노동자계급을 겨냥한 긴축·삭감 공격은 일국적 맥락을 넘어 글로벌 맥락 속에서 일어난다. 2019 가을에 시작된 세계자본주의 대공황이 무대 배경이다. 대공황을 배경으로 세계 모든 나라의 지배계급이 노동자계급과 빈곤 대중에게 위기를 전가하고 고통을 떠넘기려 하고 있다.

 

나아가 자본주의 위기의 일반적인 배경은 구체적인 일국 조건과 결합되어 있다. 남아공의 경우, 그것은 지금도 진행 중인 비공식 아파르트헤이트 사회분단 체제다. 그리고 쿠바의 경우는 제국주의에 의한 제재와 스탈린주의 당에 의한 관료독재, 양자의 결합이다.[3]

 

 

 

통치와 억압

 

이는 쿠바와 남아공 다른 중요한 유사점을 드러내주는데, 나라 모두 스탈린주의-자본가 당들이 통치하고 있다는 점이다. 쿠바에서는 쿠바공산당(PCC) 지금까지 60 동안 유일 합법 정당으로 통치하고 있다. 1991 소련 붕괴 이후 쿠바 정권은 중국, 베트남, 북한의 자매 정당들과 비슷한 방식으로 탈자본주의 계획경제 소유관계를 잠식해가다가 최종적으로 폐지했다.

 

남아공에서는 남아공공산당(SACP) ANC(아프리카민족회의) 정부의 중요한 일부다. 남아공공산당은 아파르트헤이트가 공식 폐지 1994년부터 중단 없이 ANC 함께 정부를 운영하며 항상 여러 정부부처 장관직을 맡아왔다.[4]

 

게다가 양국 정부는 민중 소요에 대해 탄압으로 대응해 왔다. 쿠바 정권은 경찰과 함께 당의 깡패들을 거리에 보내 시위를 진압했다. 이들이 이번 시위에서 시위자 명을 죽이고 수백 명을 체포했다. 체포된 사람 중에는 알려진 프랑크 에르난데스를 비롯한 반체제 공산주의자들과 성소수자 활동가들이 포함되어 있다. 남아공에서는 ANC-SACP 정부가 25 병력을 거리로 보내 기아폭동을 진압하라고 명령했다. 가장 최근 수치에 따르면 지난 며칠 동안 2,500 이상이 체포되었고 212명이 사망했다.[5]

 

요컨대 쿠바와 남아공 스탈린주의 당들은 수십 동안 집권당들이다. 그들이 사회 양극화와 궁핍·기아를 초래하는 자본주의 체제를 관리 운영한다. 민중이 반기를 들면 잔혹한 탄압으로 대응하고 중무장 경찰과 군대를 거리로 보낸다.[6]

 

나아가 쿠바와 남아공의 스탈린주의자들은 모두 중국과 가까운 동맹관계에 있는 정부를 운영하고 있다.[7] 그리하여 스탈린주의-자본가 정당으로서 쿠바공산당과 남아공공산당 모두 신흥 제국주의 강대국 중국 ( 러시아) 주도하는 진영 일부다.[8]

 

 

 

인민대중을 적으로 하여 뭉친

 

그러므로 남아공공산당이 이틀 쿠바 정권과 연대하는 공동성명을 발표한 수십 스탈린주의 당들 하나인 것은 우연이 아니다. 이들 당은 민중시위가 " 제국주의에 의해 사주 조종된 도발"이라는 정권 매체의 비방을 앵무새처럼 옮기며 쿠바 정권에게 영원한 충성을 맹세한다. "공산당·노동당은 쿠바와 쿠바 인민에 대한 제국주의 개입을 정당화하기 위해 불안정 이미지를 조성하려는 쿠바 국내외 반혁명 집단들의 사주 조종된 도발·와해 책동을 규탄한다."[9]

 

많은 스탈린주의자들이 탄압 방법과 관련해서도 그들 지도자들의 본보기를 따른다. 사회주의통합당 (CS 아르헨티나) 당원 가브리엘라 카푸로 동지에 대한 최근의 살해 위협 그녀가 쿠바 민중시위를 지지했다는 이유로 다시 스탈린주의 당들의 정치적 본질을 드러내준다. 이들 광신도 깡패들은 스탈린주의-자본가체제에 대한 어떠한 반대도 수단과 방법을 가리지 않고 잠재우고자 작정했다.[10]

 

이러한 위협은 스탈린주의의 썩어가는 부패상과 함께, 막다른 벽에 부딪힌 스탈린주의의 현주소를 비춰주고 있다. 관료적으로 타락한 노동자 국가가 붕괴된 오랜 시간이 지나 이제 스탈린주의자들이 방어하고 있는 것은 모종의 왜곡된 사회주의 아닌, 자본가 정권과 제국주의 강대국이라는 것을 점점 공공연하게 노골적으로 스스로 드러내고 있다. 그들의 지지자들이 점점 사기가 떨어져가고, 당원들이 그들을 버리고 떠나며, 대중이 그들에게 염증을 내고 하는 등등의 사태가 어떻게 일어날 있겠는가? 반대자들에 대한 위협과 폭력 외에는 스탈린주의에 남아 있는 수단은 없다!

 

물론, 그들의 자본주의 관리운영 모든 것이, 자본가체제의 탄압기구 동원 모두가, 사회주의 활동가들에 대한 위협 모든 것이 "사회주의" 이름으로, "맑스-레닌주의" 이름으로 행해진다. 단어들은 여기서 아무 관련이 없다. 그러한 맑스주의 껍데기만 남은 공문구고, 주창자들이 아무것도 실천으로 옮기지 않아도 되는 공허한 이데올로기적 공약이다.

 

모든 것들이 오늘 사회주의자들에게 강력한 교훈을 준다. 당들을 그들의 말이 아니라 행동으로 판단하라! 다시 말해, 당들은 "맑스-레닌주의자" 비칠지 모른다. 현실에서 이들은 스탈린주의-자본가 세력이고 · 제국주의의 시종들이다!

 

 

 

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[1] RCIT 사회주의통합당(CS) 쿠바 대중시위에 관한 일련의 성명과 기사를 냈다. 다음의 우리 웹사이트 상의 별도 하위 페이지에서 이것을 있다. https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/cuba-solidarity-with-mass-protests-against-the-stalinist-capitalist-regime/

 

[2] RCIT: Hunger Revolt in South Africa. It is not about Zuma (anymore) get the spontaneous protest organized! 15 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/hunger-revolt-in-south-africa/

 

[3] 쿠바 혁명의 역사와 자본주의 복고 과정에 대해서는 다음 책자를 보라. Michael Pröbsting: Cuba‘s Revolution Sold Out? The Road from Revolution to the Restoration of Capitalism, August 2013, RCIT Books, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/cuba-s-revolution-sold-out/

 

[4] RCIT 남아공에서의 자본주의와 계급투쟁에 관한 많은 문서를 발표했다. 다음 링크로 들어가서 보라. https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/.

 

[5] Andrew Meldrum: Leader backs order in South Africa, vows to catch plotters, 16.7.2021, https://apnews.com/article/africa-south-africa-6e49fbbcc4acf9a4628c718c94afdb04

 

[6] 스탈린주의의 역할과 최근 역사에서 역할의 변화에 대해서는 다음을 보라. Michael Pröbsting: Cuba: “Trotskyist” Auxiliaries of the Stalinist-Capitalist Regime, 15 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/trotskyist-auxiliaries-of-the-stalinist-capitalist-regime-in-cuba/

 

[7] RCIT 중국의 자본주의와 제국주의 열강 부상에 관한 많은 문서를 발표했다. 다음을 보라. Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. 같은 저자의 다음 책에 실린 글도 보라. the second edition of The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism (edited by Immanuel Ness and Zak Cope), Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2020, https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-91206-6_179-1; China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power (2012), in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4, http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/revcom-number-4; How is it possible that some Marxists still Doubt that China has Become Capitalist? (A Critique of the PTS/FT), An analysis of the capitalist character of China’s State-Owned Enterprises and its political consequences, 18 September 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/pts-ft-and-chinese-imperialism-2/; Unable to See the Wood for the Trees (PTS/FT and China). Eclectic empiricism and the failure of the PTS/FT to recognize the imperialist character of China, 13 August 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/pts-ft-and-chinese-imperialism/. 많은 문서들이 다음의 RCIT 웹사이트 별도 하위 페이지에 있다.https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

 

[8] RCIT 러시아의 자본주의와 제국주의 열강 부상에 관한 많은 문서를 발표했다. 다음을 보라. Michael Pröbsting: Russia and China: Neither Capitalist nor Great Powers? A Reply to the PO/CRFI and their Revisionist Whitewashing of Chinese and Russian imperialism, 28 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/russia-and-china-neither-capitalist-nor-great-powers-reply-to-po-crfi/; 다음도 보라. 같은 저자: The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of “Catastrophism”. On the Marxist Theory of Capitalist Breakdown and its Misinterpretation by the Partido Obrero (Argentina) and its “Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International”, 27 May 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-catastrophic-failure-of-the-theory-of-catastrophism/; Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 21, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/. 문제에 관한 여러 다른 RCIT 문서들이 다음의 RCIT 웹사이트 상의 별도 하위 페이지에 있다. https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/

 

[9] Joint Statement of Communist & Workers Parties: Cuba will win! 7/15/2021, http://www.solidnet.org/article/CP-of-Greece-Joint-Statement-of-Communist-Workers-Parties-Cuba-will-win/

 

[10] 이에 대해서는 다음을 보라. RCIT: Argentina: Denounce the Stalinists Threats against Gabriela Capurro! Fanatical supporters of Cuban regime threaten “to shoot” a female leader of Convergencia Socialista, 16.7.2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/argentina-denounce-the-stalinists-threats-against-gabriela-capurro/ [<