BOOK: THE GREAT ROBBERY OF THE SOUTH

Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital

Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

 

Written by Michael Pröbsting

(International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency)

 

Published in 2013

 

 

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CONTENTS

 

 

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

Bibliography

 

Introduction

 

 

1. Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism

 

“…as precise and full a Definition of Imperialism as possible”

 

Trotsky’s View of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism

 

The Division of the World into Oppressing and Oppressed Nations

 

The Semi-Colonial Countries: a modified Form of Imperialist Subjugation or Independent Capitalist States?

 

The Role of the Superstructure and its Relationship with the Economic Basis

 

Imperialism and the Semi-Colonial State

 

 

2. Monopolism and the increasing Role of Monopolies in the World Economy 

 

Imperialism as Policy or as Monopolism based on Economic Laws?

 

Monopolism and Monopoly Profit

 

The ever-increasing Grip of Monopolies in the World Economy

 

 

3. The Decline of Capitalism since the 1970s

 

 

4. Capitalist Value Production and the Working Class Move to the South

 

The Marxist Classics on the Industrialization of the South

 

Value and Price on the World Market: The Grand Distortion of the Value Creation in the South

 

The increasing Importance of the Proletariat in the South and the Emerging Imperialist Countries

 

 

5. Rising Exploitation, Super-Exploitation and the Lowering the Value of Labour Force

 

Marx and the Depressing the Wages below the Value of the Labor Force

 

Impoverishment and Précarisation of the World Working Class in the past Decades

 

The Rise in the Rate of Exploitation

 

 

6. Marxist Theory and Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries 

 

Unequal Exchange

 

Capital Export

 

Migration and Super-Exploitation

 

Centrist Objections

 

The Role of the Foreign Market

 

 

7. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 1)

 

An Overview on the Financial Net Transfer

 

Importance of Raw Materials and Food

 

The Role of Imperialist Capital Export to the Semi-Colonial World

 

Excurse: Capital Export and Capital Export is not the same

 

 

8. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 2)

 

i) Extra Profits via Capital Export as Productive Investment

 

Underestimation of surplus value and extra-profits extracted from the South

 

ii) Extra profits via Capital Export as Money Capital (Loans, Currency Reserves, Speculation, etc.)

 

Losses from Currency Exchange

 

Capital Flight

 

iii) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Unequal Exchange

 

iv) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Migration

 

Dramatic effects for semi-colonies: Brain Drain and Remittances

 

Direct and Indirect Exploitation of Migrants

 

Attempt for Total Calculation of Imperialist Plundering

 

Excurse: The Role of the Plundering of the Colonies for the Formation of

 

Capitalism in Western Europe in the 16th to 18th Century

 

 

9. Revisionist Critiques of the Leninist Theory of Imperialism

 

The Essence of Centrism

 

Denial of Concept of Semi-Colonies

 

Did Lenin and Trotsky know of Semi-Colonies?

 

When did the Epoch of Imperialism begin?

 

“Sometimes the Creation of ‚Independent’ States leads to a Strengthening of Imperialism.” (Lenin)

 

Backward Countries without Industry and Proletariat?

 

The CWI and the “imperialist” Argentina

 

The Example of Argentina

 

The SWP/IST and the Debt Dependency

 

Is there still a National Question of the Semi-Colonial Countries?

 

The new Theory of “Sub-Imperialism”

 

The Example of Turkey

 

“Sub-Imperialism” or Advanced Semi-Colonies?

 

Rejection of Concept of Labor Aristocracy

 

LFI: A formal Defense of Lenin’s Theory which disembowels its revolutionary Content

 

 

10. China‘s Transformation into an Imperialist Power

 

What are the Criteria for an Imperialist State?

 

China’s race to a World Major Economy

 

China’s Monopolies

 

Exploitation and Super-Exploitation of the Working Class

 

Capital Export as Bond and Loan Capital

 

Capital Export as Foreign Direct Investment

 

A Note on Hong Kong’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment

 

Where is China investing abroad?

 

Super-exploitation of the semi-colonies

 

China’s Military Forces

 

The Struggle for Control over the South China (or East) Sea

 

Where should the Working Class stand in possible Wars involving US and Chinese Imperialism and South-East Asian Nations?

 

Why did China’s Rulers succeed in becoming imperialist where others failed?

 

 

11. The Theory of Permanent Revolution and its Program for the Working Class Struggle

 

 

12. The Struggle against Imperialist Aggressions and Wars:

 

The Programme of the early Communist International and the Fourth International

 

i) Reactionary Wars and Conflicts between Imperialist States

 

ii) Just Wars and Resistance of the Oppressed

 

For the Destruction of the Apartheid State Israel!

 

Excursus: Capitalism as a unity of economic, political and ideological Spheres

 

iii) The Struggle for Class Independence and the Anti-imperialist United Front Tactic

 

iv) Liberation Struggles, Imperialist Interference and the Dual Military Tactics

 

The Public Opinion in the Imperialist World must not be the Starting Point for developing a Position towards a War!

 

How to approach various Forms of imperialist Military Interventions?

 

Consequences for the Military Tactic 

 

The Marxist Classics on Contradictory Factors in Wars

 

 

13. Centrism’s Failure in the Struggle against Imperialist Wars

 

i) The Malvinas War in 1982

 

ii) The Gulf War in 1991

 

iii) The imperialist War on Terror since 2001

 

Social-Imperialist ex-Stalinists

 

The IST’s specific Form of Opportunism 

 

How to fight for anti-imperialist Position and how not to fight for it

 

IST policy: Give us some Posts and we stop fighting for our Principles

 

CWI and their Capitulation to Imperialism

 

Socialist Zionism a la CWI

 

Is Revolutionary Defeatism too much for the Working Class?

 

On the CWI’ and IMT’s Falsification of Lenin’s and Trotsky’s Method

 

CMR/IRMT: Rejection of Anti-Imperialism in ultra-left Clothes

 

 

14. Some final remarks on the Perspectives for Class Struggle

 

i) A world historic revolutionary period

 

ii) The present historic period and its consequences for the semi-colonial world

 

The Shift to the South

 

The shift to Asia

 

Increasing Migration and Internationalization of the working class in the North

 

Great Power Rivalry and increasing imperialist leverage and wars of aggression against semi-colonies

 

Tendency towards Colonialism or more room to maneuver for the semi-colonial bourgeoisie? 

 

Globalization, regionalization and protectionism

 

The Prospects of Revolution and the Crisis of Working Class Leadership

 

 

15. Summary

 

 

List of Tables

Table 1: National composition of Top 50 control-holders Shareholders

 

Table 2: Growth Rate of the worldwide GDP 1971-2010

 

Table 3: Growth Rate of Industrial Production in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010

 

Table 4: Growth Rate of Gross Fixed Capital Formation in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010

 

Table 5: Growth Rates of Fixed Capital Stock, 1960-2000

 

Table 6: Share of Imperialist and (Semi-)Colonial Countries in World Industrial Production 1948-1979

 

Table 7: Manufacturing Share by Region, 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2010 (in %)

 

Table 8: Share of Output by Sector in Developed and Developing Countries 1990–2005

 

Table 9: Share of Economic Sectors of GDP in various World Regions 2008

 

Table 10: Developing and Developed Countries’ Share of Global Manufacturing Value added by Industry Sector, 1995–2009

 

Table 11: Wage laborer as a Share of all Employed by Regions, 1996-2008

 

Table 12: Female Wage Laborer as a Share of all Female Employed by Regions, 2008

 

Table 13: Share of all Labor Force in Economic Sectors in Regions, 1950, 1977 and 2008 (in %)

 

Table 14: Share of all Labor Force in different Regions in the years, 1965, 1995 and 2008/09

 

Table 15: Growth of the Working Class in the Semi-Colonial World

 

Table 16: Distribution of Wage Laborers in different Regions, 1995 and 2008/09

 

Table 17: Distribution of Labor Force in Industry in different Regions 2008/09

 

Table 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment for Developing and Developed Countries, by Industry Sector, 1993–2008

 

Table 19: Changes of Labor’s Share of GDP in Rich and Poor countries, 1960-1993

 

Table 20: Wages Growth and GDP Growth, 2001-2007

 

Table 21: Share of Wages in Manufacturing, 1975-1992

 

Table 22: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Countries and former Stalinist Countries, 1995-2011

 

Table 23: Gross Value of Capital Invested Abroad in 1914 and 1938

 

Table 24: Distribution of US Private FDI, 1950-1975

 

Table 25: Distribution of Western German Private FDI, 1960-1975

 

Table 26: Geographical Distribution of Foreign Direct Investments of Western Europe, USA and Japan, 1975

 

Table 27: Gross Value of Foreign Capital in Developing Countries 1870-1998

 

Table 28: Geographical Distribution of Inward FDI Stock, 1967-1997

 

Table 29: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1990-2011

 

Table 30: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1980-2011 (share of global FDI stock)

 

Table 31: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1980-1990

 

Table 32: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010

 

Table 33: FDI Outflows as a percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010

 

Table 34: Company Acquisitions and Creation by Foreign Capital in the US, 1983-1989

 

Table 35: Profit rates of Direct Investment of US corporations in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1951-1970

 

Table 36: Extra profits of US Monopolies in Semi-Colonies, 1970 and 1975

 

Table 37: Profits on US Direct Investment Overseas, 2006-2009

 

Table 38: Annually Repatriated Profits and Annual Growth of Foreign Investment by US Monopolies, 1950-1966

 

Table 39: International Banking Capital in relation to World Output, Trade and Investment, 1964-1991

 

Table 40: Long-Term Real Interest Rates in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries

 

Table 41: Increase of Debts in Regions, 1980-2002

 

Table 42: Gross Debt, Deposits and Net Debt, 1995

 

Table 43: Stock of foreign-born Labor Force in OECD countries, 1999-2008

 

Table 44: Distribution of National Income between the North and the South, 1850 and 1960

 

Table 45: Per Capita GDP in North and South, 1820 and 1998

 

Table 46: Industrialization in Latin American countries, 1929-1957

 

Table 47: Per Capita GDP and Interregional Spreads, 1870-1998

 

Table 48: Turkey’s FDI Stock, 1990-2011

 

Table 49: Wage Inequality in OECD Countries, 1970-2008

 

Table 50: Share of low-skilled Workers, 1995

 

Table 51: Unskilled and Skilled Workers, 2001

 

Table 52: List of the Top 10 Countries of the Global 500 companies

 

Table 53: Rural-to-Urban Migrants as a Proportion of Total Workforce

 

Table 54: Annual Increase in Labor Disputes in China, 1995-2006

 

Table 55: FDI Outward Stock by Country, 2011

 

Table 56: FDI flows from selected countries, 2006-2011

 

Table 57: Destinations of China’s Capital Export from 2005 to mid-2012

 

Table 58: China’s Non-Bond Investment by Type 2005-2010

 

Table 59: The 10 largest Military Spender, 2011

 

Table 60: The 10 largest Exporter of Major Arms, 2010

 

 

List of Figures

Figure 1: Global FDI flows to GDP

 

Figure 2: Transnational Corporations share of world GDP, 2010

 

Figure 3: Internationalization Statistics of the 100 largest non-financial TNCs worldwide & from Developing and Transition Economies, 2010

 

Figure 4: U.S. Parent Companies Account for Employment, Output, Capital, Investment, Exports and Research and Development, 2006

 

Figure 5: Rate of Profit in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2010

 

Figure 6: Rate of Profit of US Corporations, 1947-2009

 

Figure 7: Average Rate of Profit and Organic Composition in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2009

 

Figure 8: Manufacturing Capacity Utilization in USA

 

Figure 9: Financial Profits as a Percentage of Total Profits in USA

 

Figure 10: Share of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate in USA

 

Figure 11: U.S. Balance Of Payments, 1946–2008

 

Figure 12: Developing Economies’ Share in World Manufacturing Value Added and GDP, 1990–2010

 

Figure 13: Developed and Developing Countries’ Share of World Manufactured Exports, 1992–2009

 

Figure 14: Manufactured Exports Markets by Region, 2005 and 2009

 

Figure 15: Distribution of the Global Labor Force by Regions, 1965–2025

 

Figure 16: Developing Countries’ Share in World Manufacturing Employment, 1980–2008

 

Figure 17: Global Industrial Labor Force in Developed and Developing Countries, 1950–2005

 

Figure 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment in Developing Countries, 1998–2008

 

Figure 19: Employment Status in Turkey, 1988-2006 in Total Employment, 1970-2007

 

Figure 21: Informal Employment and Economic Development

 

Figure 22: Labor Share in OECD Countries, 1960-2000

 

Figure 23: Labor Income Shares in OECD Countries, 1980-2007

 

Figure 24: Share of Compensation of Employees in National Income, Selected Country Groups, 1980-2008

 

Figure 25: Wage Share of Value Added in Manufacturing Industry in South Korea, Mexico and Turkey, 1970-2003

 

Figure 26: Wage Share in Manufacturing Industry in Turkey, 1970-2005

 

Figure 27: Chinese Manufacturing Labour’s Share, 2002-2008

 

Figure 28: Trends in Wage Shares in Regions, 1983-2009

 

Figure 29: Rates of Surplus Value in Developed, Developing and Transition Economies, 1994-2008

 

Figure 30: Latin America: Net Transfer of Resources, 1950-2002

 

Figure 31: Net Financial Transfer from Semi-Colonies to Metropolises, 1980-1990

 

Figure 32: Costs of the Global Market to Developing Countries, 1990

 

Figure 33: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Economies and Economies in Transition, 1999-2011

 

Figure 34: EU Agricultural Imports by Origin, 1999-2010

 

Figure 35: FDI Inflows, World and Group of Economies, 1980-2010

 

Figure 36: Greenfield Investments by the largest 100 TNCs, 2007–2010

 

Figure 37: Geographical Differences between Hourly Wages in Manufacturing, 2008

 

Figure 38: Hourly Compensation Costs of Manufacturing Employees, selected Countries and Regions, 2005

 

Figure 39: Operating Profits derived from Operations in Developing and Transition Economies, selected top 100 TNCs, 2010

 

Figure 40: Share of Imported Inputs in Manufacturing, 1970-2000

 

Figure 41: Production Costs of an Apple iPhone assembled in China

 

Figure 42: US and oversee Employees in 1955 and in 2012

 

Figure 43: External Debt Service-to-Export Ratio, 2005-2010

 

Figure 44: Illicit Financial Flows from India, 1948-2008

 

Figure 45: World Imports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007

 

Figure 46: World Exports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007

 

Figure 47: Regions Share in World Exports, 1948-2007

 

Figure 48: World Manufactured Exports, by Region, 1995–2009

 

Figure 49: Development of Terms of Trade 1880-2000

 

Figure 50: Development of Terms of Trade for Non-Oil Producing Developing Countries, 1957-2000

 

Figure 51: Migrants as a percentage of the Population, 1960-2005

 

Figure 52: The share of Migrants in the population, 1960 and 2005

 

Figure 53: Wages in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1988-92

 

Figure 54: Turkey’s Rising Dependence on Short-Term Foreign Debt

 

Figure 55: Real Annual Family Income Growth by Quintile, 1947-1979 and 1979-2010

 

Figure 56: Changes in US Male Full-Time Workers Wages according to their different Education Levels, 1963-2008

 

Figure 57: Increase of Wage Inequality in OECD countries, 1980-2005

 

Figure 58: US Male Wage Inequality, 1937-2005

 

Figure 59: Share of Global Economic Output, 1981-2011

 

Figure 60: China’s Economic Performance

 

Figure 61: Share of global Manufacturing Exports; USA and Britain 1906-29 and China 2000-09 (in %)

 

Figure 62: Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Imperialist Countries, Semi-Colonial Countries and China, 1960-2011

 

Figure 63: International Comparison of Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector (2005) and Financial System Structure (2009)

 

Figure 64: Rate of Profit in the Chinese Manufacturing, 1978-2004

 

Figure 65: Size of State-Owned Enterprises and Rate of Return in Private and State Enterprises in China, 1998-2010

 

Figure 66: Share of Informal Employment in Urban Labor Market amongst Migrant and Local Workers in China, 2001-2010

 

Figure 67: Government Expenditures for Education, Health, Environmental and Social Protection, 2007-2009

 

Figure 68: Inequality in Real Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities between top and bottom layer of Workers, 1988-2001

 

Figure 69: Inequality in Nominal Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities, 1988-2001

 

Figure 70: Workers Protests in State and Private Enterprises, 2000-2010

 

Figure 71: China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves and its US Securities Holdings, 2002-2011

 

Figure 72: China as the world second biggest Net Capital Exporter, 2011

 

Figure 73: China’s Outward Investment, 2005 – mid 2012

 

Figure 74: Composition of China’s Foreign Investments, 2009‐2011

 

Figure 75: Foreign Assets of China’s main non‐banking SOEs, 2010

 

Figure 76: China’s Trade with Africa, 1995-2010

 

Figure 77: China’s Trade with East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990 and 2010

 

Figure 78: China’s First and Second Island Chains in the Pacific Sea

 

Figure 79: Sovereignty Claims in the South China Sea

 

 

List of Abbreviations

Comintern: Communist International

 

CMR: Committee for Marxist Revival

 

CWI: Committee for a Workers International

 

ECLAC/CEPAL: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

 

ELP: European Left Party

 

EU: European Union

 

FDI: Foreign Direct Investment

 

FLTI: Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional

 

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

 

ILO: International Labour Organization

 

IMF: International Monetary Fund

 

IMT: International Marxist Tendency

 

IST: International Socialist Tendency

 

IRMT: Iranian Revolutionary Marxists’ Tendency

 

LCFI: Liaison Committee for the Fourth International

 

LFI: League for the Fifth International

 

LINKE: Left Party in Germany

 

LRCI: League for a Revolutionary Communist International

 

LCW: Collected Works of Lenin

 

LW: Lenin Werke (Collected Works of V. I. Lenin in German language)

 

MECW: Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

 

MEW: Marx Engels Werke (Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in German language)

 

NPA: Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste

 

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

 

p.a.: per annum (per year)

 

PCF: Parti Communiste Français

 

PPP: Purchasing Power Parity

 

RCIT: Revolutionary Communist International Tendency

 

RKOB: Revolutionäre Kommunistische Organisation zur Befreiung

 

Schriften: Trotzki Schriften (Trotsky Writings in German language)

 

SWP: Socialist Workers Party

 

TNC: Transnational Corporation

 

UN: United Nations

 

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

 

UNDP: United Nations Development Programme

 

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization

 

UN-DESA: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

 

US: United States of America

 

WTO: World Trade Organization

 

 

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____ The Failure of Capitalist Production. Underlying Causes of the Great Recession, London 2011

 

Kristensen, Hans M. and Norris, Robert S.: British nuclear forces, 2011, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 2011, http://bos.sagepub.com/content/67/5/89.full.pdf+html

 

Lantier, Alex: The CIA proxy war in Syria and the pro-imperialist “left”, WSWS 3.8.2012, http://www.wsws.org/articles/2012/aug2012/pers-a03.shtml

 

Lanz, Rainer and Miroudot, Sebastian: Intra-Firm Trade: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications”, (2011), OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 114, OECD Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kg9p39lrwnn-en

 

Lazzeri, Thomas: EPAs and the European Raw Materials Initiative, in: AEFJN: Forum for Action No.55 (March 2011)

 

League for a Revolutionary Communist International: The situation in Yugoslavia and the position of proletarian revolutionaries, 30.09.1991, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/situation-yugoslavia-and-position-proletarian-revolutionaries

 

____ Bosnia - which side are you on?, 05.03.1993, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/bosnia-which-side-are-you

 

____ War and Peace in Bosnia. No imperialist solutions!, 30.05.1993, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/war-and-peace-bosnia-no-imperialist-solutions

 

____ Stoppt die NATO-Angriffe! Unabhängigkeit für Kosovo! (1999), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/ast100kosova.html

 

____ and PTS: Der albanische Aufstand (1997), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/rm21albanischeraufstand.html

 

Lee, Peter: Maybe that war with China isn't so far off, Asia Times Online 22.12.2011, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/ML22Ad05.html

 

Lejour, Arjan M. and Tang, Paul J.G.: Globalisation and wage inequality (1999), CPB Netherlands Bureau of Economic policy Analysis, https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/resources/download/1260.pdf

 

Lenin, Vladimir Illich: The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of it in Mr. Struve’s Book (The Reflection of Marxism in Bourgeois Literature) (1894); in: Collected Works, Volume 1

 

____ Certain Features of the Historical Development of Marxism (1910); in: Collected Works, Volume 17

 

____ The War and Russian Social-Democracy (1914); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

 

____ Conspectus of Hegel’s ‘Science of Logic’ (1914); in: Collected Works Vol. 38

 

____ The Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. Groups Abroad (1915); in Collected Works, Volume 21

 

____ The revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

 

____ The Defeat of one’s own Government in the Imperialist War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

 

____ What has been revealed by the Trial of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Duma Group (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

 

____ Preface to N. Bukharin’s Pamphlet Imperialism and world economy (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

 

____ On the Question of Dialectics (1915), in: Collected Works, Volume 38

 

____ The Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

 

____ The Junius Pamphlet (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

 

____ Imperialism. The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

 

____ The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22

 

____ A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

 

____ Imperialism and the split in socialism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

 

____ The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23

 

____ The State and Revolution. The Marxist Theory of the State and the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 25

 

____ Revision of the Party Programme (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 26

 

____ Letter to the Workers of Europe and America (1919); in: Collected Works, Volume 28

 

____ Randbemerkungen zu Nikolai Bucharins ‚Ökonomik der Transformationsperiode‘ (1920), Wien 1929; in English: W. I. Lenin: Notes on Nikolai Bukharins ‚Economics of the Transformation period‘ (1920)

 

____ Draft Theses on National and Colonial Questions for the Second Congress of the Communist International); in: Collected Works, Volume 31

 

____ Report of the Commission on the National and the Colonial Questions (at the Second Congress of the Communist International 1920); in: Collected Works, Volume 31

 

____ Letter to the German and the French Workers. Regarding the Discussion on the Second Congress of the Communist International (1920), in: Collected Works, Volume 31

 

____ Reden auf der Beratung der Mitglieder der deutschen, polnischen, tschechoslowakischen, ungarischen und italienischen Delegation, in: LW Ergänzungsband 1917-23

 

____ Notes on the Tasks of our Delegation at The Hague (1922); in: Collected Works, Volume 33

 

____ Imperialism and the Attitude towards it; in: Collected Works, Volume 39

 

____ Lenin Werke (Lenin Collected Works in 44 Volumes in German-Language), Berlin 1969 - 1971

 

____ Lenin Briefe. (Lenin Letters in 10 Volumes in German-Language), Berlin 1967 – 1976

 

____ Lenin: Sämtliche Werke, Band XVIII, Wien-Berlin 1929

 

____ and Zinoviev, Grigory: Socialism and War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21

 

Leon, Walter: Stop Israel's massacre in Gaza! IMT, 31.12.2008, http://www.marxist.com/stop-israels-massacre-in-gaza.htm

 

Liaison Committee for the Fourth International: Those who ‘howled along with the wolves’ and those who took a neutral position on the war in Libya, 14 September 2011, in: Socialist Fight No. 7 (2011)

 

____ What a strange but delightfully dialectical face ‘liberation’ has in Libya today! Reply to Michael Pröbsting (RCIT), in: Socialist Fight No. 11 (2012)

 

Liebert, Nicola: Schuldenkrise: Die Position der Gläubiger und das Potential für einen Schuldenerlaß; in: Probleme des Klassenkampfes (PROKLA) Nr. 71 (1988)

 

Lin, Li-Wen and Milhaupt, Curtis J., We are the (National) Champions: Understanding the Mechanisms of State Capitalism in China (November 1, 2011). Columbia Law and Economics Working Paper No. 409. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1952623 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1952623

 

Lin, Lilian: Unease Among the Moneyed Ranks, 1.8.2012, http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2012/08/01/unease-among-the-moneyed-ranks/

 

LINKE: LINKE weist Antisemitismus-Vorwürfe zurück. Erklärung des Parteivorstandes der LINKEN, 21.5.2011: http://www.die-linke.de/partei/organe/parteivorstand/parteivorstand20102012/beschluesse/linkeweistantisemitismusvorwuerfezurueck/

 

____ Parliamentary Group of the LINKE: Entschieden gegen Antisemitismus, 8.6.2011, http://www.die-linke.de/nc/dielinke/nachrichten/detail/artikel/entschieden-gegen-antisemitismus

 

Lipsey, Robert E. and Sjöholm, Fredrik: South–South FDI and Development in East Asia; in: Asian Development Review, vol. 28, no. 2, Asian Development Bank 2011

 

Lübker, Malte: Labour Shares (2007), ILO Policy Brief, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---integration/documents/publication/wcms_086237.pdf

 

Ludeña, Miguel Perez: Adapting to the Latin American experience; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

 

Lugt, Sanne van der, Hamblin, Victoria, Burgess, Meryl and Schickerling, Elizabeth: Assessing China’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment in Southern Africa, Oxfam Hong Kong and Centre for Chinese Studies 2011

 

Lukacs, Georg: Lenin: A Study on the Unity of his Thought (1924), http://www.marxists.org/archive/lukacs/works/1924/lenin/index.htm

 

Lunding, Andreas: Chinesische Firmen auf dem Vormarsch. Investitionen chinesischer Firmen im Ausland, Deutsche Bank Research, 7.11.2006

 

Luppol, Iwan K.: Lenin und die Philosophie. Zur Frage des Verhältnisses der Philosophie zur Revolution (1928)

 

____ Die materialistische Dialektik und die Arbeiterbewegung (1928); in: Unter dem Banner des Marxismus, II. Jahrgang (1928), Wien 1929

 

Luxemburg, Rosa: Was will der Spartakusbund? (1918), in: Gesammelte Werke, Band 4; in English: What Does the Spartacus League Want? (1918), http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/12/14.htm

 

Machin, Stephen and Reenen, John Van: Inequality: Still Higher, But Labour’s Policies Kept it Down (2010), http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/ea015.pdf

 

Maddison, Angus: The World Economy, Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective, Volume 2: Historical Statistics, Development Centre Studies, Paris 2006

 

Main, Peter: China: ‘socialism’ with capitalist characteristics; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 11, 1993

 

____ China: Stalinists draw near their capitalist goal; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 22, 1997

 

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____ China and International Perspectives (2006), LFI, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/china-and-international-perspectives

 

____ China: From Mao to the market; in: LFI: Fifth International, Vol. 2, No.4, 2007

 

Mandel, Ernest: Marxistische Wirtschaftstheorie (1962), Frankfurt a.M. 1968

 

____ Die Marxsche Theorie der ursprünglichen Akkumulation und die Industrialisierung der Dritten Welt; in: Folgen einer Theorie. Essays über ‚Das Kapital‘ von Karl Marx, Frankfurt a.M. 1967

 

____ Imperialism and National Bourgeoisie in Latin America (1971); in: International Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 1976), Theoretical Journal of the International Marxist Group (British Section of the Fourth International)

 

____ Der Spätkapitalismus, Frankfurt a.M. 1972

 

____ Late Capitalism. London 1975

 

____ Verschuldungskrise: Eine tickende Zeitbombe; in: Bortz/Castro/Mandel/Wolf: Schuldenkrise, Frankfurt a.M. 1987

 

Maoist Internationalist Movement (MIM): Coming to grips with the Labor Aristocracy, in: MIM THEORY No. 10 (1996)

 

____ Imperialism and Its Class Structure in 1997 (1997)

 

Marsh, Peter: China noses ahead as top goods producer, Financial Times, March 13, 2011, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/002fd8f0-4d96-11e0-85e4-00144feab49a.html#axzz21RSTHoK4

 

Martin, Philip L.: Bordering on Control: Combating Irregular Migration in North America and Europe (2003), IOM Migration Research Series No. 13, http://www.ir.metu.edu.tr/iom/pdf/iommrs9.pdf

 

____ Migration and development: Toward sustainable solutions (2004)

 

Marx, Karl: Thesen über Feuerbach (1845); in: Marx Engels Werke 3; in English: Karl Marx: Theses on Feuerbach

 

____ Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, in: Marx Engels Werke 42; in English: Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (English)

 

____ Vorwort zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (1859); in: Marx Engels Werke 13; in English: Karl Marx: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Preface (1859)

 

____ Ökonomisches Manuskript 1861-1863. Teil 1, in: Marx Engels Werke 43; in English: Karl Marx: Economic Manuscript of 1861-63

 

____ Economic Manuscripts of 1861-63. Capital and Profit; in: MECW Volume 33; http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/economic/ch57.htm

 

____ Lohn, Preis und Profit (1865); in: Marx Engels Werke 16; in English: Karl Marx: Value, Price and Profit

 

____ Das Kapital Band I, in: Marx Engels Werke 23; in English: Capital, Volume I

 

____ Das Kapital Band II, in: Marx Engels Werke 24; in English: Capital, Volume II

 

____ Das Kapital, Band III; in Marx Engels Werke 25; In English: Karl Marx: Capital, Volume III

 

____ Brief an Sigrid Meyer und August Vogt (94.1870); in: Marx Engels Werke 32; in English. Karl Marx: Letter to Sigfrid Meyer and August Vogt (9.4.1870)

 

____ Theorien über den Mehrwert, III. Teil, Marx Engels Werke 26.3; in English: Karl Marx: Theories of Surplus-Value, Vol. III

 

Matgamna, Sean: What if Israel bombs Iran? in: Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, Vol. 3, No. 136, 24.7.2008, http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/07/28/discussion-article-what-if-israel-bombs-iran

 

McKinsey Global Institute: The World at Work: Jobs, Pay, and Skills for 3.5 Billion People (2012)

 

____ Debt and deleveraging: Uneven progress on the path to growth (2012)

 

Mihalakas, Nasos: Chinese ‘Trojan Horse’ – Investing in Greece, or Invading Europe? (Part I), 15.1.2011, http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/01/15/chinese-%E2%80%98trojan-horse%E2%80%99-investing-in-greece-or-invading-europe-part-i/

 

Miller, Morris: Where Is Global Interdependence Taking Us? Why We Need A "New (Improved) Bretton Woods"; From "Social Tensions & Armed Conflict: Ethnic & Other Aspects", Panel: Global interdependence in economic & financial matters", Pugwash, Nova Scotia, July 28-31, 1994 http://www.ncrb.unac.org/unreform/archive/globalization.html

 

Moneta, Jakob: Die Kolonialpolitik der französischen KP, Schriftenreihe des Forschungsinstituts der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Hannover 1968

 

Morini, Daryl: Paradigm Shift: China’s Rise and the Limits of Realism; in: Security Challenges, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Autumn 2011); http://www.securitychallenges.org.au/ArticlePages/vol7no1Morini.html

 

Morris, Paul: The Left and the War: The acid test; in: Workers Power No. 139 (February 1991)

 

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Movement for a Revolutionary Communist International: The anti-imperialist united front (1986); in: Permanent Revolution No. 5

 

____ Theses on Zionism, Israel, Palestine and Arab nationalism (1989), in: Trotskyist International No. 2, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/theses-zionism-israel-palestine-and-arab-nationalism

 

____ China: Revolution and Repression (June 1989); in: Trotskyist International No. 3, Summer 1989

 

____ MRCI Statement on China; in: Trotskyist International No. 3, Summer 1989

 

Mozur, Paul: Review of William Hurst’s ‘The Chinese Worker After Socialism’, in: THE FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW, May 2009, http://www.viet-studies.info/kinhte/chinese_worker_after_socialism.htm

 

Münz, Rainer and Fassmann, Heinz: Migrants in Europe and their Economic Position: Evidence from the European Labour Force Survey and from Other Sources (2004)

 

Murse, Tom: How Much U.S. Debt Does China Really Own? http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/moneymatters/ss/How-Much-US-Debt-Does-China-Own.htm

 

Nakatani, Paulo and Herera, Rémy: The South Has Already Repaid it External Debt to the North. But the North Denies its Debt to the South, Monthly Review, Volume 59, Issue 02 (June 2007), http://monthlyreview.org/2007/06/01/the-south-has-already-repaid-its-external-debt-to-the-north-but-the-north-denies-its-debt-to-the-south

 

National Intelligence Council: Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds (2012), www.dni.gov/nic/globaltrends

 

Norfield, Tony: What the ‘China Price’ really means, 3.6.2011, http://economicsofimperialism.blogspot.co.at/2011/06/what-china-price-really-means.html

 

Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste: Statement: NO! to the French military intervention in Mali, 141.2013, http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article2862

 

Ocampo, José Antonio and Palma, José Gabriel: The Role of Preventative Capital Account Regulations; in: José Antonio Ocampo and Joseph E. Stiglitz (eds.): Capital Market Liberalization and Development, New York 2008; http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2011/res/pdf/jao.pdf

 

O’Connell, Arturo: The Return of “Vulnerability” and Raúl Prebisch’s Early Thinking on the “Argentine Business Cycle”; in: CEPAL REVIEW 75 (December 2001)

 

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Olende, Ken: French attack on Mali is an imperialist venture, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013, http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=30307

 

____ Rulers' racism masks imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain) in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013, http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=30351

 

____ Cameron joins France's imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2338, 2 February 2013, http://socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=30455

 

Onaran, Özlem: Capital Flows, Turbulences, and Distribution: The Case of Turkey (2007), Istanbul Technical University

 

____ Labor’s Share in Developing Countries in the Era of Globalization (2008), Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien & Istanbul Technical University

 

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____ The Future of International Migration to OECD Countries (2009), Paris 2009

 

____ International Migration Outlook 2010, SOPEMI 2010

 

Orlik, Tom and Davis, Bob: Beijing Diversifies Away From U.S. Dollar, Wall Street Journal, 2.3.2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203753704577254794068655760.html

 

Parti Communiste Français: C'est le Mali qu'il faut reconstruire, (11.1.2013), http://www.pcf.fr/33940

 

____ L' intervention militaire française comporte de grands risques de guerre (12.1.2013), http://www.pcf.fr/33977

 

Pei, Haide: What Two Case Studies Tell Us about the Situation of State Owned Enterprise Workers Today, China Left Review, Isue#4, Summer 2011, http://chinaleftreview.org/?p=483

 

Pemberton, Chris Papua New Guinea: Resource colonialism bleeding people and nature, Green Left Weekly No. 949, 9.12.2012 http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/53020

 

People’s Daily: China's State-owned Enterprise Lay-offs Finding New jobs: Minister, 27.10.2002, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200210/27/eng20021027_105729.shtml

 

Pew Research Center: The Future Global Muslim Population. Projections for 2010-2030 (2011), http://features.pewforum.org/FutureGlobalMuslimPopulation-WebPDF.pdf

 

Preobrazenskij, Evgenij: Die Neue Ökonomik (1926); Berlin 1971

 

____ The Decline of Capitalism (1931); Translation by Richard Day, London 1981

 

James Petras: Following the Profits and Escaping the Debts. International Immigration and Imperial-Centered Accumulation, 8.8.2006, http://dissidentvoice.org/Aug06/Petras08.htm

 

____ and Veltmeyer, Henry: Globalization Unmasked. Imperialism in the 21st Century, London 2001

 

Pritchett, Lant: Let Their People Come: Breaking the Gridlock on Global Labor Mobility, Center for Global Development, 2006

 

Pröbsting, Michael: Am Beispiel des Iraks: Anti-Imperialistische Strategie und Taktik, ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt (October 1990)

 

____ Kampf dem Imperialismus! Verteidigt den Irak!, in: ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 32 (January 1991)

 

____ Stoppt den imperialistischen Massenmord!, in: ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 33 (February 1991)

 

____ Are the Bosnian Muslims a Nation?, in: Trotskyist International No. 13/14 (1994) http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/are-bosnian-muslims-nation

 

____ Arbeitersolidarität mit den Moslems, aber UNO: Raus aus dem Balkan! (1993), http://www.rkob.net/geschichte/bosnienkrieg-und-linke

 

____ Aufstand in Albanien: Das Volk wehrt sich! (1997), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/ast82albanien.html

 

____ Für das nationale Selbstbestimmungsrecht der AlbanerInnen im Kosovo! Einem Aufstand entgegen! ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 88 (1997), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/ast88kosovo.html)

 

____ Diskussion über die Frage der Balkanföderation und der internationalen ArbeiterInnensolidarität: Welche Perspektive für den Balkan? ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 90 (1998), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/ast90kosovo.html)

 

____ Freiheit für Kosova! Ein revolutionäres Aktionsprogramm (1998)

 

____ Marxismus, Imperialismus und der Balkankrieg, ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 98 (1999), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/alt/ast98kosovo5.html

 

____ Der kapitalistische Aufholprozeß in Südkorea und Taiwan; in: Revolutionärer Marxismus Nr. 20 (1996). A shortened version of this article appeared as “Capitalist Development on South Korea and Taiwan” in: Trotskyist International No. 21 (1997), http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/capitalist-development-south-korea-and-taiwan.

 

____ East Asia: Crisis spurs Revolution; in: Trotskyist International No. 25 (1999)

 

____ Die Lehren aus dem imperialistischen Sieg im Afghanistan-Krieg, in: ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 118 (January 2002)

 

____ Krieg den Kriegstreibern!, in: ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 126 (March 2003)

 

____ Americanise or bust. The challenges facing Europe, in: Fifth International No. 2 (2004)

 

____ Amerikanisierung oder Niedergang. Widersprüche und Herausforderungen für das imperialistische Projekt der europäischen Vereinigung; http://www.arbeitermacht.de/rm/rm35/amerikanisierung.htm

 

____ Zur Geschichte des Zionismus: Von Anfang an reaktionär, in: Israel, Zionismus und Antisemitismus. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Mythen und Legenden der Antinationalen (2006)

 

____ Über den politischen Charakter der Antinationalen, den Holocaust, den Zionismus, in: Israel, Zionismus und Antisemitismus (2006), http://www.rkob.net/marxistische-theorie/politischer-charakter-antinationale

 

____ Austria: Vienna was anti-Bush city!, 24.06.2006, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/austria-vienna-was-anti-bush-city

 

____ Der israelische Terrorkrieg gegen das libanesische und palästinensische Volk, in: ArbeiterInnenstandpunkt Nr. 144 (August 2006)

 

____ Der Libanon-Krieg und die Linke: Pazifistische Linke als verkleidete Diener des Imperialismus, in: Revolutionärer Marxismus Nr. 36 (2006), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/libanon-krieg-und-linke

 

____ Imperialismus, Globalisierung und die Ausbeutung der Halbkolonien (2007), in: BEFREIUNG Nr. 154; http://www.trend.infopartisan.net/trd1207/t261207.html

 

____ KPÖ-Baier unterstützt neokonservative Anti-Iran-Kampagne. Wie tief kann man sinken? Kommentar zur Unterstützung des KPÖ-Funktionärs Walter Baier für die neokonservative „STOP THE BOMB“-Kampagne gegen den Iran (2007), http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/phpwcms/index.php?id=25,348,0,0,1,0

 

____ Atomkriegstreiber hetzen auf der Wiener Universität: Es ist höchste Zeit, den antinationalen Kriegshetzern Einhalt zu gebieten! 30.10.2008, http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/phpwcms/index.php?id=25,436,0,0,1,0

 

____ Die Frage der Vereinigung Europas im Lichte der marxistischen Theorie. Zur Frage eines supranationalen Staatsapparates des EU-Imperialismus und der marxistischen Staatstheorie. Die Diskussion zur Losung der Vereinigten Sozialistischen Staaten von Europa bei Lenin und Trotzki und ihre Anwendung unter den heutigen Bedingungen des Klassenkampfes; in: Unter der Fahne der Revolution Nr. 2-3 (2008)

 

____ Der Tschad-Konflikt und die Linke: Schein-Antiimperialismus mit marxistischen Phrasen getarnt“, in „Unter der Fahne der Revolution“ Nr. 2/3 (April 2008), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/tschad-intervention-und-linke

 

____ Imperialism and the Decline of Capitalism (2008), in: Richard Brenner, Michael Pröbsting, Keith Spencer: The Credit Crunch - A Marxist Analysis (2008), http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/imperialism-and-decline-capitalism

 

____ Solidarität mit dem palästinensischen Widerstand, in: BEFREIUNG Nr. 172 (January 2009)

 

____ Der Verrat der ‘Linken’ im Gaza-Krieg. Warum ist Neutralität im Kampf zwischen Unterdrückten und Unterdrückern Verrat und warum scheitern die meisten „marxistischen“ Linken an der Solidarität mit dem palästinensischen Volk, in: Unter der Fahne der Revolution Nr. 4 (2009), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/gaza-krieg-und-linke

 

____ Imperialismus, Globalisierung und der Niedergang des Kapitalismus; in: Revolutionärer Marxismus 39, 2009, http://www.arbeitermacht.de/rm/rm39/rm39imperialismus.htm

 

____ Einleitung der Liga der Sozialistischen Revolution zur Stellungnahme Britannien: Nein zu den nationalistischen Streiks!, 5.2.2009, http://arbeiterinnenstandpunkt.net/phpwcms/index.php?id=25,579,0,0,1,0

 

____ Umwandlung des imperialistischen Krieges in den Bürgerkrieg. Die Strategie Lenins und der Bolschewiki; in: Revolutionärer Marxismus Nr. 40 (2009), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/lenin-und-der-imperialistische-krieg

 

____ World economy – heading to a new upswing? (2009), in: Fifth International Vol. 3, No. 3, http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/world-economy-%E2%80%93-heading-new-upswing

 

____ Vor einem neuen Wirtschaftsaufschwung? Thesen zum marxistischen Konzept des Zyklus, dem Verhältnis des gegenwärtigen Zyklus zur Periode der Globalisierung sowie den Aussichten und Widersprüchen der künftigen Entwicklung der Weltwirtschaft (2010), in: Revolutionärer Marxismus 41, Februar 2010, http://www.arbeitermacht.de/rm/rm41/wirtschaftsaufschwung.htm

 

____ Palästina: Solidarität und Widerstand, in: BEFREIUNG Nr. 188 (June 2010)

 

____ Marxismus, Migration und revolutionäre Integration (2010); in: Der Weg des Revolutionären Kommunismus, Nr. 7, http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/werk-7. A summary of this study in English-language: Michael Pröbsting: Marxism, Migration and revolutionary Integration, in: Revolutionary Communism, No. 1 (English-language Journal of the RCIT), http://www.thecommunists.net/oppressed/revolutionary-integration/

 

____ Die halbe Revolution. Lehren und Perspektiven des arabischen Aufstandes (The Half Revolution. Lessons and perspectives of the Arab Uprising; in: Der Weg des Revolutionären Kommunismus, Theoretisches Journal der Revolutionär-Kommunistischen Organisation zur Befreiung, RKOB), Nr. 8 (2011), http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/werk-8

 

____ What would a revolutionary organisation have done? August uprising of the poor, the nationally and racially oppressed in Britain; in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 1, (September 2011), http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/britain-august-uprising/

 

____ Five days that shook Britain but didn’t wake up the left. The bankruptcy of the left during the August uprising of the oppressed in Britain: Its features, its roots and the way forward; in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 1, (September 2011), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/britain-left-and-the-uprising/

 

____ China‘s transformation into an imperialist power. A study of the economic, political and military aspects of China as a Great Power (2012); In: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 4, http://www.thecommunists.net/publications/revcom-number-4

 

____ Liberation struggles and imperialist interference. The failure of sectarian “anti-imperialism” in the West: Some general considerations from the Marxist point of view and the example of the democratic revolution in Libya in 2011”, in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism, No. 5; http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/liberation-struggle-and-imperialism

 

____ and Suchanek, Martin: EU in der Krise. Soziales oder sozialistisches Europa?; http://www.arbeitermacht.de/rm/rm35/europa.htm; in: Revolutionärer Marxismus Nr. 35 (2005)

 

Qi, Dongtao: Chinese Working Class in Predicament, in: East Asian Policy Volume 2, Number 2, Apr/Jun 2010

 

____ Chinese Working Class in Predicament (2010), EAI Background Brief No. 528

 

____ Chinese Chinese Working Class and Trade Unions in the Post-Mao Era: Progress and Predicament, in: International Journal of China Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, October 2010

 

Qiao, Jian: Between the State and Market: Multiple Roles of the Chinese Trade Union during Market Transition. A Survey of 1811 Enterprise Union Chairpersons, China Institute of Industrial Relations, http://www.ilera-directory.org/15thworldcongress/files/papers/Track_2/Poster/CT2_59_Qiao.pdf

 

Razi, Maziar and Shirin, Morad: Where should we stand if US-Israel attack Iran? 25 January 2012, Iranian Revolutionary Marxists' Tendency, in: Marxist Revival No. 12, December 2011/January 2012, http://marxist.cloudaccess.net/mideast/233-where-should-we-stand-if-us-israel-attack-iran.html. The French translation appeared on L’Etincelle’s website http://etincellenantes.org/?p=2213

 

____ Modern imperialist domination and Islamic fundamentalism (2008); Iranian Revolutionary Marxists' Tendency, http://marxist.cloudaccess.net/impire/115-modern-imperialist-domination-and-islamic-fundamentalism.html

 

Reenen, John Van: Wage Inequality, Technology and Trade: 21st Century Evidence (2011), Centre for Economic Performance

 

Rees, John: Imperialism: globalisation, the state and war; in: SWP (Britain), International Socialism Journal, Issue No. 93 (2001); http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj93/rees.htm

 

Research on Chinese Workers Editorial Collective: The Current and Future Condition of China’s Working Class; in: China Left Review, Isue#4, Summer 2011, http://chinaleftreview.org/?p=471

 

Revolutionäre Kommunistische Organisation zur Befreiung (RKOB): The August Uprising in Britain - A Report of the RKOB delegation on its visit in London in August 2011, in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 1, (September 2011), http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/britain-report-from-uprising

 

____ After the storming of the Israeli embassy in Cairo: The struggle against the Israeli Apartheid State is an integral part of the Arab Revolution (2011), http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/israel-and-arab-revolution

 

____ Austria: Pro-Israeli War-Mongers try to throw 20-year old Palestine Solidarity Activist into Prison. RKOB spokesperson Johannes Wiener is accused of „sedition” because of a Pro-Palestine speech during the Gaza War, Statement of the RKOB, 13.12.2012, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/no-to-criminalization-of-rcit-activist

 

____ Austria: Israelite Cultus Community attempts to criminalize partisanship for the Palestinian Resistance! Charge of “Sedition” against RKOB Spokesperson and Palestine Solidarity Activist Johannes Wiener is a Pretext for Attack on Freedom of Expression, Statement of the RKOB, 20.12.2012, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/no-criminalization-of-solidarity-with-palestine

 

____ Victory! The Charge against RKOB Spokesperson and Palestine Solidarity Activist Johannes Wiener has been dropped! Austria: Israelite Cultus Community suffers defeat in its attack on Free Speech and Palestine Solidarity, Statement of the RKOB, 10.1.2013, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/solidarity-with-wiener-won

 

____ Statements in Solidarity with RCIT Activist Johannes Wiener, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/solidarity-with-johannes-wiener

 

Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT): The Revolutionary Communist Manifesto (2012), www.thecommunists.net/rcit-manifesto

 

____ New Wave of Israeli Terror against Gaza: Support the Palestinian Resistance! Defeat the Zionist killing machine! Statement from 15.11.2012, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/defend-gaza

 

____ Down with France’s Colonial War in Mali! Solidarity with the Resistance! Let’s transform Mali into another Afghanistan for imperialism! Fight for a Workers Government based on the Peasants and Poor! For Socialist Revolution in North Africa and the Middle East! Resolution from 19.1.2013, http://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa/no-to-france-s-war-in-mali

 

Richards, Chris Made in China, in: New Internationalist No. 423 (June 2009), http://www.newint.org/features/2009/06/01/keynote-china

 

Ries, Tomas: The globalising security environment and the EU, in: European Union Institute for Security Studies: What ambitions for European defence in 2020? Paris 2009

 

La Riposte: Imperialist intervention in Mali, IMT France, 24.1.2013, http://www.marxist.com/imperialist-intervention-in-mali.htm

 

Roberts, Michael: The Great Recession. Profit cycles, economic crisis. A Marxist view (2009), http://archive.org/details/TheGreatRecession.ProfitCyclesEconomicCrisisAMarxistView

 

____ A world rate of profit. Globalisation and the world economy (2012), http://thenextrecession.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/roberts_michael-a_world_rate_of_profit.pdf

 

____ The US rate of the profit – the latest” (2012), http://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2012/11/25/the-us-rate-of-the-profit-the-latest

 

____ The rate of profit is key” (2012), http://thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2012/07/26/the-rate-of-profit-is-key

 

Robertson, James: The future of money. If we want a better game of economic life we‘ll have to change the scoring system; in: Soundings, issue 31 (December 2005), http://www.jamesrobertson.com/article/soundings31.pdf

 

Rosdolsky, Roman: Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Marxschen ‘Kapitals’. Der Rohentwurf des Kapitals 1857-58, Band II, Frankfurt a. M. 1968; in English: The Making of Marx’s Capital

 

Rothstein, Theodore: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung in England, Wien 1929

 

Rubin, Isaak I.: Studien zur Marxschen Werttheorie (1928); in English: I. I. Rubin: Essays on Marx's Theory of Value, Montreal 1990, online at http://www.marxists.org/archive/rubin/value/index.htm

 

Samson, Anna: The Grand Weiqi Board: Reconsidering China’s Role in Africa; in: Security Challenges, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Autumn 2011)

 

Sarti, Roberto: Mali: The dangerous adventures of Hollande, IMT, 25.1.2013 http://www.marxist.com/mali-the-dangerous-adventures-of-hollande.htm

 

Sauvant, Karl P.: New kid on the block learning the rules; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

 

Schoeller, Wolfgang: Wertransfer und Unterentwicklung. Bemerkungen zu Aspekten der neueren Diskussion um Weltmarkt, Unterentwicklung und Akkumulation des Kapitals in unterentwickelten Ländern (anhand von E. Mandel, Der Spätkapitalismus), in: Probleme des Klassenkampfes (PROKLA) Nr.6 (März 1973)

 

Schor, Juliet: Economic fallacies: is it time to work more, or less? In: Guardian, 10.1.2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/economy-employee-working-hours

 

Scissors, Derek: Derek Scissors: Where China Invests, And Why It Matters, 17.8.2010, http://www.forbes.com/2010/08/17/china-spending-investment-overseas-markets-economy-china-tracker.html

 

____ China’s Investment Overseas in 2010, Web Memo No. 3133, 3.2.2011, Published by The Heritage Foundation

 

____ Chinese Outward Investment: Acceleration Features the U.S., Issue Brief No. 3656, 9.7.2012, Published by The Heritage Foundation

 

Seelos, Martin: Globale Verlagerung von konstantem Kapital, in: wirtschafts_krise Nr. 5, 2012, http://wirtschaftskrise.blogworld.at/2012/11/24/globale-verlagerung-von-akkumulation/

 

Shalabi, Yasser: Palestinian Population, Movement and Statistics. Birzeit University Working Paper 2011/6, Position Papers Module (2011)

 

Shambaugh, David: Are China’s multinational Corporations really multinational?; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012

 

Shlyapnikov, Alexander: On the Eve of 1917 (1923), http://www.marxists.org/archive/shliapnikov/1923/eve1917/index.html

 

Shrives, Roger: Falklands/Malvinas 1982 - Thatcher's War Of Saving Face, in: The Socialist (CWI) 3.5.2002, http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/html_article/2002-252-index#article4

 

Silva, Carlos Vargas: Global International Migrant Stock: The UK in International Comparison (2011), www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk

 

Silver, Beverly J.: Arbeiterbewegungen und Globalisierung seit 1870, Berlin 2005. In English: Forces of Labor: Worker’s Movements and Globalization since 1870, Cambridge 2003

 

Sincavage, Jessica R., Haub, Carl and Sharma, O.P.: Labor costs in India’s organized manufacturing sector, in: Monthly Labor Review, May 2010, U.S. Department of Labor and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/05/mlr201005.pdf

 

Slaughter, Matthew J.: How U.S. Multinational Companies Strengthen the U.S. Economy (2009), Published by Business Roundtable and The United States Council Foundation, http://www.uscib.org/docs/foundation_multinationals.pdf

 

Slavin, David H.: The French Left and the Rif War, 1924-25: Racism and the Limits of Internationalism, in: Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 1991

 

Smith, John: What’s new about “New Imperialism” (2007), http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/disciplines/politics/research/hmrg/activities/documents/Smithimperialism_000.pdf

 

____ Offshoring, Outsourcing & the ‘Global Labour Arbitrage’ (2008), Paper to IIPPE 2008 – Procida, Italy 9-11 September 2008, http://www.ragingwave.com/index_files/Offshoring,%20Outsourcing%20and%20the%20%27Global%20Labour%20Arbitrage%27.pdf

 

____ Imperialism and the Globalisation of Production, Sheffield 2010, http://www.mediafire.com/?5r339mnn4zmubq7

 

____ Imperialism and the Law of Value (2011), in: Global Discourse [Online], 2: I, available from: http://global-discourse.com/contents

 

Socialist Appeal: Stop Israel’s massacre in Gaza! January 2009, IMT, http://www.marxist.com/pdf/gaza_leaflet_sa_jan09.pdf

 

Socialist Party (Britain): Falklands war: what lessons for the labour movement? CWI, in: Socialism Today, No 108, April 2007, http://www.socialismtoday.org/108/falklands.html

 

Socialist Workers Party (Britain): Thousands of French troops in ‘total reconquest’ of Mali, Socialist Worker Issue: 2337, 26 January 2013, http://socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=30390

 

Socialist Workers Party (USA): Introduction to “Lenin on Imperialism”; in: Fourth International, Vol. III, No. 1 (January 1942)

 

Spengler: The horizon collapses in the Middle East, Asia Times Online, 10.10.2012, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/NJ10Ak02.html

 

Stares, Paul: Overview; in: Paul B. Stares, Scott A. Snyder, Joshua Kurlantzick, Daniel Markey, and Evan A. Feigenbaum: Managing Instability on China’s Periphery Council on Foreign Relations, Council on Foreign Relations 2011

 

Sternberg, Fritz: Der Imperialismus (1926), Reprint Frankfurt a.M. 1971

 

Stelsel, David W.: U.S. Share of Global Economic Output Shrinking, 28.6.2012, http://www.valeofinancial.com/2012/06/u-s-share-of-global-economic-output-shrinking/

 

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, 2012, Summary

 

Stockton, Dave: The People’s Assembly – a missed opportunity; Workers Power (Britain), in: Workers Power No. 274, April 2003

 

Stop the Bomb: http://stopthebomb.net and http://www.stopthebomb.net/img/anzeige_falter.pdf

 

Suchanek, Martin: Berliner Linkspartei unterstützt zionistische Kriegshetzer, http://www.arbeitermacht.de/infomail/403/berlinerlinkespartei.htm

 

Szamosszegi, Andrew and Kyle, Cole: An Analysis of State‐owned Enterprises and State Capitalism in China, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 26.10.2011

 

Szigetvari, András: Kriegsdrohungen aus dem Hörsaal, DER STANDARD, 5.5.2008, http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=3325059

 

Taaffe, Peter: The Rise of Militant, London 1995, http://socialistalternative.org/literature/militant/

 

____ Afghanistan, Islam and the Revolutionary Left (2002), CWI, http://www.socialistworld.net/pubs/afghanistan/afghanchp1.html

 

____ A socialist World is possible - the history of the CWI, 31.8.2004 http://www.socialistworld.net/doc/4779

 

____ Marxismus heute. Antworten auf Krieg, Kapitalismus und Umweltzerstörung (2006), in English-language: Marxism in today’s World

 

Tammer, Hans (Editor): Anschauungsmaterial. Politische Ökonomie, Kapitalismus, Berlin 1984

 

Tax Justice Network for Africa: Looting Africa: Some Facts and Figures, http://www.liberationafrique.org/IMG/pdf/TJN4Africa.pdf

 

Teitelbaum, Alejandro and Özden, Melik: Transnational Corporations. Major Players in Human Rights Violations (2011); CETIM: Critical Report n° 10. Issue: Business and Human Rights, http://cetim.ch/en/publications_cahiers.php

 

The Economist: Everybody’s favourite monsters. A Survey of Multinationals, 27.3.1993

 

____ Economics focus: An old Chinese myth. Contrary to popular wisdom, China's rapid growth is not hugely dependent on exports, 3.1.2008, http://www.economist.com/node/10429271

 

____ Migration. Not crossing continents, 14.7.2010, http://www.economist.com/blogs/newsbook/2010/07/migration&fsrc=nwl

 

____ The Chinese in Africa: Trying to pull together. Africans are asking whether China is making their lunch or eating it; 20.4.2011, http://www.economist.com/node/18586448?story_id=18586448

 

____ China’s economy: Pedalling prosperity, 26.5.2012, http://www.economist.com/node/21555762

 

The People’s Bank of China: Foreign Exchange Reserves in March 2012, http://www.pbc.gov.cn/publish/html/2012s09.htm

 

The Yomiuri Shimbun: U.S. to expand marine bases in W. Pacific, 22.3.2012, http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T120321005812.htm

 

Thompson, Derek: The 11 Figures That Allegedly Prove That the West Is Doomed, 7.8.2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/08/the-11-Figures-that-allegedly-prove-that-the-west-is-doomed/260750

 

Tibi, Bassam: Die Rohstoffe der Peripherie-Länder und der Reproduktionsprozeß der Metropolen: Das Beispiel Erdöl; in: Volker Brandes (Hrsg.): Perspektiven des Kapitalismus. Handbuch 1, Frankfurt a.M. 1974

 

Toussaint, Éric: Your Money or your Life. The Tyranny of the Global Finance; Brussels 1999

 

____ Transfers from the Periphery to the Centre, from Labour to Capital (2004)

 

____ The International Situation and the Debt: The new challenges facing CADTM; 27.8.2007

 

____ and Denise Comanne: Globalization and Debt; in: Éric Toussaint & Peter Drucker (editors): IMF/World Bank/WTO: The Free Market Fiasco, IIRE: Notebook for Study and Research No. 24/25, Amsterdam 1995

 

Trade Union Congress (Britain): The Economics of Migration. Managing the Impacts (2007)

 

Trotsky, Leon: The Work of the Zimmerwald Conference (1915); in: Lenin’s Struggle for a Revolutionary International, New York 1986

 

____ Report on the World Economic Crisis and the New Tasks of the Communist International (1921), in: The First Five Years of the Communist International Vol. 1, London 1973

 

____ Auszug aus einer Rede zur französischen Frage auf dem IV. Weltkongreß der Kommunistischen Internationale (1922); reprinted in: Jakob Moneta: Die Kolonialpolitik der französischen KP, Hannover 1968

 

____ The New Course (1923), in: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1923-25), Pathfinder 1975

 

____ The capitalist curve of development (1923), in: Leon Trotsky: Problems of Everyday Life, New York 1994

 

____ Aussichten und Aufgaben im Osten (1924); in: Leo Trotzki: Europa und Amerika (Zwei Reden), Berlin 1926; see also Leo Trotzki: Aussichten und Aufgaben im Osten (1924); in: Trotzki Schriften 2.1, Hamburg 1990; in English: Leon Trotsky: Perspectives and Tasks in the East. Speech on the third anniversary of the Communist University for Toilers of the East (1924), in: Leon Trotsky Speaks, Pathfinder 1972

 

____ Die Kommunistische Partei Chinas und die Guomindang (1926); in: Schriften 2.1; in English: Leon Trotsky on China, New York, 1976

 

____ The Third International After Lenin (1928), New York 1970

 

____ Philosophical Tendencies of Bureaucratism (1928); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1928-29), Pathfinder 1981

 

____ Crisis in the Right-Center Bloc (1928); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1928-29), Pathfinder 1981

 

____ The Opposition’s Errors – Real and Alleged (1928); in: Leon Trotsky: The Challenge of the Left Opposition (1928-29), Pathfinder 1981

 

____ The Defense of the Soviet Union and the Opposition (1929); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1929, Pathfinder 1975

 

____ Die permanente Revolution (1930), Frankfurt a. M. 1971, in English: Leon Trotsky: The Permanent Revolution

 

____ Was nun? Schicksalsfragen des deutschen Proletariats (1932) in: Schriften über Deutschland, Band 1, Frankfurt a.M. 1971; in English: Leon Trotsky: What Next? Vital Questions for the German Proletariat

 

____ Declaration to the Antiwar Congress at Amsterdam (1932), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1932, Pathfinder 1973

 

____ War and the Fourth International (1934); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1933-34, Pathfinder 1972

 

____ Against False Passport in Politics (1935); in: The Crisis in the French Section (1935-36), New York 1977

 

____ Ninety Years of the Communist Manifesto (1937); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ Not a Workers’ and Not a Bourgeois State? (1937); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ The Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International. The Transitional Program (1938); in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973

 

____ Ninety Years of the Communist Manifesto (1937); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ An Excellent Article on Defeatism (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ Mexico and British Imperialism (1938), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ Learn to Think: A Friendly Suggestion to Certain Ultra-Leftists (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1937-38, Pathfinder 1976

 

____ Weitere Diskussionen über das Übergangsprgramm (1938) in: Der Todeskampf des Kapitalismus und die Aufgaben der IV. Internationale. Schriften zum Programm; in English: Leon Trotsky: Discussions with Trotsky on the Transitional Program (June 1938)

 

____ Brief an Harold Isaac (1.11.1937); in: Schriften 2.2, Hamburg 1990

 

____ Über den chinesisch-japanischen Krieg (1937), in: Schriften 2.2, Hamburg 1990; in Englisch: Leon Trotsky: On the Sino-Japanese War

 

____ Lenin and Imperialist War (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1938-39, Pathfinder 1974

 

____ Anti-Imperialist Struggle is Key to Liberation. An Interview with Mateo Fossa (1938); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1938-39, Pathfinder 1974

 

____ Petty-Bourgeois Democrats and Moralizers (1938-39); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky Supplement 1934-40, Pathfinder 1979

 

____ Latin American Problems: a Transcript (1938), in Writings of Leon Trotsky Supplement (1934-40), Pathfinder 1979

 

____ Revolution und Krieg in China (Vorwort zu Harold Isaacs’ ‘The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution’) (1938); in: Schriften 2.2, Hamburg 1990, in English: Leon Trotsky: The Chinese Revolution (Introduction to Harold R. Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution, London 1938)

 

____ Marximus in unserer Zeit (1939), Wien 1987; in English: Leon Trotsky: Marxism In Our Time

 

____ Centrism and the Fourth International (1939), in: Leon Trotsky: On France, New York 1979

 

____ A Petty-Bourgeois Opposition in the Socialist Workers Party (1939); in: Leon Trotsky: In Defense of Marxism, New York 1990

 

____ Independence of the Ukraine and Sectarian Muddleheads (1939); in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1939-40, Pathfinder 1973

 

____ Stalin – Eine Biographie (1940), München 1952; in English: Leon: Trotsky: Stalin – An Appraisal of the Man and his Influence (1940)

 

United Nations: Towards the New International Economic Order. Analytical Report on Developments in the Field of International Economic Co-operation since the Sixth Special Session of the General Assembly, A/5-11,5, New York, 1982

 

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____ World Economic Situation and Prospects 2009, New York, 2009

 

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____ World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012, New York, 2012

 

United Nations Commission on Human Rights: Effects of structural adjustment policies on the full enjoyment of human rights. Fifty-fifth session, Item 10 of the provisional agenda ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. Report by the Independent Expert, Mr. Fantu Cheru, submitted in accordance with Commission decisions 1998/102 and 1997/103; http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/f991c6c62457a2858025675100348aef

 

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD): Economic Development in Africa: Debt Sustainability: Oasis or Mirage?; New York, 2004

 

____ Asian Foreign Direct Investment in Africa. Towards a New Era of Cooperation among Developing Countries, New York and Geneva, 2007

 

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____ Trade and Development Report 2010, New York and Geneva, 2010

 

____ World Investment Report 1991: The Triad in Foreign Direct Investment, New York 1991

 

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____ World Investment Report 1995. Transnational Corporations and Competitiveness, New York and Geneva, 1995

 

____ World Investment Report 2000. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions and Development, New York and Geneva, 2000

 

____ World Investment Report 2003. FDI Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives, New York and Geneva, 2003

 

____ World Investment Report 2006. FDI from Developing and Transition Economies: Implications for Development, New York and Geneva, 2006

 

____ World Investment Report 2011. Non-Equity Modes of International Production and Development, New York and Geneva, 2011

 

____ World Investment Report 2012: Towards a New Generation of Investment Policies, New York and Geneva, 2012

 

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: World Economic and Social Survey 2004. International Migration, New York, 2004

 

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2008 Revision, New York, 2009

 

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): Industry in a Changing World, New York 1983

 

____ Industrial Development Report 2002/2003. Competing through Innovation and Learning, New York 2002

 

____ Industrial Development Report 2011. Industrial energy efficiency for sustainable wealth creation. Capturing environmental, economic and social dividends, New York 2011

 

United N