Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital

Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism



Written by Michael Pröbsting

(International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency)


Published in 2013



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List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations






1. Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism


“…as precise and full a Definition of Imperialism as possible”


Trotsky’s View of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism


The Division of the World into Oppressing and Oppressed Nations


The Semi-Colonial Countries: a modified Form of Imperialist Subjugation or Independent Capitalist States?


The Role of the Superstructure and its Relationship with the Economic Basis


Imperialism and the Semi-Colonial State



2. Monopolism and the increasing Role of Monopolies in the World Economy 


Imperialism as Policy or as Monopolism based on Economic Laws?


Monopolism and Monopoly Profit


The ever-increasing Grip of Monopolies in the World Economy



3. The Decline of Capitalism since the 1970s



4. Capitalist Value Production and the Working Class Move to the South


The Marxist Classics on the Industrialization of the South


Value and Price on the World Market: The Grand Distortion of the Value Creation in the South


The increasing Importance of the Proletariat in the South and the Emerging Imperialist Countries



5. Rising Exploitation, Super-Exploitation and the Lowering the Value of Labour Force


Marx and the Depressing the Wages below the Value of the Labor Force


Impoverishment and Précarisation of the World Working Class in the past Decades


The Rise in the Rate of Exploitation



6. Marxist Theory and Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries 


Unequal Exchange


Capital Export


Migration and Super-Exploitation


Centrist Objections


The Role of the Foreign Market



7. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 1)


An Overview on the Financial Net Transfer


Importance of Raw Materials and Food


The Role of Imperialist Capital Export to the Semi-Colonial World


Excurse: Capital Export and Capital Export is not the same



8. Various Forms of Imperialist Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial Countries and their Development in the past Decades (Part 2)


i) Extra Profits via Capital Export as Productive Investment


Underestimation of surplus value and extra-profits extracted from the South


ii) Extra profits via Capital Export as Money Capital (Loans, Currency Reserves, Speculation, etc.)


Losses from Currency Exchange


Capital Flight


iii) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Unequal Exchange


iv) Value Transfer from the Semi-Colonial South to the Imperialist North: Migration


Dramatic effects for semi-colonies: Brain Drain and Remittances


Direct and Indirect Exploitation of Migrants


Attempt for Total Calculation of Imperialist Plundering


Excurse: The Role of the Plundering of the Colonies for the Formation of


Capitalism in Western Europe in the 16th to 18th Century



9. Revisionist Critiques of the Leninist Theory of Imperialism


The Essence of Centrism


Denial of Concept of Semi-Colonies


Did Lenin and Trotsky know of Semi-Colonies?


When did the Epoch of Imperialism begin?


“Sometimes the Creation of ‚Independent’ States leads to a Strengthening of Imperialism.” (Lenin)


Backward Countries without Industry and Proletariat?


The CWI and the “imperialist” Argentina


The Example of Argentina


The SWP/IST and the Debt Dependency


Is there still a National Question of the Semi-Colonial Countries?


The new Theory of “Sub-Imperialism”


The Example of Turkey


“Sub-Imperialism” or Advanced Semi-Colonies?


Rejection of Concept of Labor Aristocracy


LFI: A formal Defense of Lenin’s Theory which disembowels its revolutionary Content



10. China‘s Transformation into an Imperialist Power


What are the Criteria for an Imperialist State?


China’s race to a World Major Economy


China’s Monopolies


Exploitation and Super-Exploitation of the Working Class


Capital Export as Bond and Loan Capital


Capital Export as Foreign Direct Investment


A Note on Hong Kong’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment


Where is China investing abroad?


Super-exploitation of the semi-colonies


China’s Military Forces


The Struggle for Control over the South China (or East) Sea


Where should the Working Class stand in possible Wars involving US and Chinese Imperialism and South-East Asian Nations?


Why did China’s Rulers succeed in becoming imperialist where others failed?



11. The Theory of Permanent Revolution and its Program for the Working Class Struggle



12. The Struggle against Imperialist Aggressions and Wars:


The Programme of the early Communist International and the Fourth International


i) Reactionary Wars and Conflicts between Imperialist States


ii) Just Wars and Resistance of the Oppressed


For the Destruction of the Apartheid State Israel!


Excursus: Capitalism as a unity of economic, political and ideological Spheres


iii) The Struggle for Class Independence and the Anti-imperialist United Front Tactic


iv) Liberation Struggles, Imperialist Interference and the Dual Military Tactics


The Public Opinion in the Imperialist World must not be the Starting Point for developing a Position towards a War!


How to approach various Forms of imperialist Military Interventions?


Consequences for the Military Tactic 


The Marxist Classics on Contradictory Factors in Wars



13. Centrism’s Failure in the Struggle against Imperialist Wars


i) The Malvinas War in 1982


ii) The Gulf War in 1991


iii) The imperialist War on Terror since 2001


Social-Imperialist ex-Stalinists


The IST’s specific Form of Opportunism 


How to fight for anti-imperialist Position and how not to fight for it


IST policy: Give us some Posts and we stop fighting for our Principles


CWI and their Capitulation to Imperialism


Socialist Zionism a la CWI


Is Revolutionary Defeatism too much for the Working Class?


On the CWI’ and IMT’s Falsification of Lenin’s and Trotsky’s Method


CMR/IRMT: Rejection of Anti-Imperialism in ultra-left Clothes



14. Some final remarks on the Perspectives for Class Struggle


i) A world historic revolutionary period


ii) The present historic period and its consequences for the semi-colonial world


The Shift to the South


The shift to Asia


Increasing Migration and Internationalization of the working class in the North


Great Power Rivalry and increasing imperialist leverage and wars of aggression against semi-colonies


Tendency towards Colonialism or more room to maneuver for the semi-colonial bourgeoisie? 


Globalization, regionalization and protectionism


The Prospects of Revolution and the Crisis of Working Class Leadership



15. Summary



List of Tables

Table 1: National composition of Top 50 control-holders Shareholders


Table 2: Growth Rate of the worldwide GDP 1971-2010


Table 3: Growth Rate of Industrial Production in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010


Table 4: Growth Rate of Gross Fixed Capital Formation in USA, Japan and EU-15, 1961-2010


Table 5: Growth Rates of Fixed Capital Stock, 1960-2000


Table 6: Share of Imperialist and (Semi-)Colonial Countries in World Industrial Production 1948-1979


Table 7: Manufacturing Share by Region, 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2010 (in %)


Table 8: Share of Output by Sector in Developed and Developing Countries 1990–2005


Table 9: Share of Economic Sectors of GDP in various World Regions 2008


Table 10: Developing and Developed Countries’ Share of Global Manufacturing Value added by Industry Sector, 1995–2009


Table 11: Wage laborer as a Share of all Employed by Regions, 1996-2008


Table 12: Female Wage Laborer as a Share of all Female Employed by Regions, 2008


Table 13: Share of all Labor Force in Economic Sectors in Regions, 1950, 1977 and 2008 (in %)


Table 14: Share of all Labor Force in different Regions in the years, 1965, 1995 and 2008/09


Table 15: Growth of the Working Class in the Semi-Colonial World


Table 16: Distribution of Wage Laborers in different Regions, 1995 and 2008/09


Table 17: Distribution of Labor Force in Industry in different Regions 2008/09


Table 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment for Developing and Developed Countries, by Industry Sector, 1993–2008


Table 19: Changes of Labor’s Share of GDP in Rich and Poor countries, 1960-1993


Table 20: Wages Growth and GDP Growth, 2001-2007


Table 21: Share of Wages in Manufacturing, 1975-1992


Table 22: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Countries and former Stalinist Countries, 1995-2011


Table 23: Gross Value of Capital Invested Abroad in 1914 and 1938


Table 24: Distribution of US Private FDI, 1950-1975


Table 25: Distribution of Western German Private FDI, 1960-1975


Table 26: Geographical Distribution of Foreign Direct Investments of Western Europe, USA and Japan, 1975


Table 27: Gross Value of Foreign Capital in Developing Countries 1870-1998


Table 28: Geographical Distribution of Inward FDI Stock, 1967-1997


Table 29: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1990-2011


Table 30: FDI Stock, by Region and Economy, 1980-2011 (share of global FDI stock)


Table 31: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1980-1990


Table 32: FDI Inflows as a Percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010


Table 33: FDI Outflows as a percentage of Capital Formation, 1990-2010


Table 34: Company Acquisitions and Creation by Foreign Capital in the US, 1983-1989


Table 35: Profit rates of Direct Investment of US corporations in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1951-1970


Table 36: Extra profits of US Monopolies in Semi-Colonies, 1970 and 1975


Table 37: Profits on US Direct Investment Overseas, 2006-2009


Table 38: Annually Repatriated Profits and Annual Growth of Foreign Investment by US Monopolies, 1950-1966


Table 39: International Banking Capital in relation to World Output, Trade and Investment, 1964-1991


Table 40: Long-Term Real Interest Rates in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries


Table 41: Increase of Debts in Regions, 1980-2002


Table 42: Gross Debt, Deposits and Net Debt, 1995


Table 43: Stock of foreign-born Labor Force in OECD countries, 1999-2008


Table 44: Distribution of National Income between the North and the South, 1850 and 1960


Table 45: Per Capita GDP in North and South, 1820 and 1998


Table 46: Industrialization in Latin American countries, 1929-1957


Table 47: Per Capita GDP and Interregional Spreads, 1870-1998


Table 48: Turkey’s FDI Stock, 1990-2011


Table 49: Wage Inequality in OECD Countries, 1970-2008


Table 50: Share of low-skilled Workers, 1995


Table 51: Unskilled and Skilled Workers, 2001


Table 52: List of the Top 10 Countries of the Global 500 companies


Table 53: Rural-to-Urban Migrants as a Proportion of Total Workforce


Table 54: Annual Increase in Labor Disputes in China, 1995-2006


Table 55: FDI Outward Stock by Country, 2011


Table 56: FDI flows from selected countries, 2006-2011


Table 57: Destinations of China’s Capital Export from 2005 to mid-2012


Table 58: China’s Non-Bond Investment by Type 2005-2010


Table 59: The 10 largest Military Spender, 2011


Table 60: The 10 largest Exporter of Major Arms, 2010



List of Figures

Figure 1: Global FDI flows to GDP


Figure 2: Transnational Corporations share of world GDP, 2010


Figure 3: Internationalization Statistics of the 100 largest non-financial TNCs worldwide & from Developing and Transition Economies, 2010


Figure 4: U.S. Parent Companies Account for Employment, Output, Capital, Investment, Exports and Research and Development, 2006


Figure 5: Rate of Profit in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2010


Figure 6: Rate of Profit of US Corporations, 1947-2009


Figure 7: Average Rate of Profit and Organic Composition in the US Productive Sectors, 1948-2009


Figure 8: Manufacturing Capacity Utilization in USA


Figure 9: Financial Profits as a Percentage of Total Profits in USA


Figure 10: Share of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate in USA


Figure 11: U.S. Balance Of Payments, 1946–2008


Figure 12: Developing Economies’ Share in World Manufacturing Value Added and GDP, 1990–2010


Figure 13: Developed and Developing Countries’ Share of World Manufactured Exports, 1992–2009


Figure 14: Manufactured Exports Markets by Region, 2005 and 2009


Figure 15: Distribution of the Global Labor Force by Regions, 1965–2025


Figure 16: Developing Countries’ Share in World Manufacturing Employment, 1980–2008


Figure 17: Global Industrial Labor Force in Developed and Developing Countries, 1950–2005


Figure 18: Share of Manufacturing Employment in Developing Countries, 1998–2008


Figure 19: Employment Status in Turkey, 1988-2006 in Total Employment, 1970-2007


Figure 21: Informal Employment and Economic Development


Figure 22: Labor Share in OECD Countries, 1960-2000


Figure 23: Labor Income Shares in OECD Countries, 1980-2007


Figure 24: Share of Compensation of Employees in National Income, Selected Country Groups, 1980-2008


Figure 25: Wage Share of Value Added in Manufacturing Industry in South Korea, Mexico and Turkey, 1970-2003


Figure 26: Wage Share in Manufacturing Industry in Turkey, 1970-2005


Figure 27: Chinese Manufacturing Labour’s Share, 2002-2008


Figure 28: Trends in Wage Shares in Regions, 1983-2009


Figure 29: Rates of Surplus Value in Developed, Developing and Transition Economies, 1994-2008


Figure 30: Latin America: Net Transfer of Resources, 1950-2002


Figure 31: Net Financial Transfer from Semi-Colonies to Metropolises, 1980-1990


Figure 32: Costs of the Global Market to Developing Countries, 1990


Figure 33: Net Transfers of Financial Resources to Developing Economies and Economies in Transition, 1999-2011


Figure 34: EU Agricultural Imports by Origin, 1999-2010


Figure 35: FDI Inflows, World and Group of Economies, 1980-2010


Figure 36: Greenfield Investments by the largest 100 TNCs, 2007–2010


Figure 37: Geographical Differences between Hourly Wages in Manufacturing, 2008


Figure 38: Hourly Compensation Costs of Manufacturing Employees, selected Countries and Regions, 2005


Figure 39: Operating Profits derived from Operations in Developing and Transition Economies, selected top 100 TNCs, 2010


Figure 40: Share of Imported Inputs in Manufacturing, 1970-2000


Figure 41: Production Costs of an Apple iPhone assembled in China


Figure 42: US and oversee Employees in 1955 and in 2012


Figure 43: External Debt Service-to-Export Ratio, 2005-2010


Figure 44: Illicit Financial Flows from India, 1948-2008


Figure 45: World Imports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007


Figure 46: World Exports as Share of World GDP, 1965-2007


Figure 47: Regions Share in World Exports, 1948-2007


Figure 48: World Manufactured Exports, by Region, 1995–2009


Figure 49: Development of Terms of Trade 1880-2000


Figure 50: Development of Terms of Trade for Non-Oil Producing Developing Countries, 1957-2000


Figure 51: Migrants as a percentage of the Population, 1960-2005


Figure 52: The share of Migrants in the population, 1960 and 2005


Figure 53: Wages in Imperialist and Semi-Colonial Countries, 1988-92


Figure 54: Turkey’s Rising Dependence on Short-Term Foreign Debt


Figure 55: Real Annual Family Income Growth by Quintile, 1947-1979 and 1979-2010


Figure 56: Changes in US Male Full-Time Workers Wages according to their different Education Levels, 1963-2008


Figure 57: Increase of Wage Inequality in OECD countries, 1980-2005


Figure 58: US Male Wage Inequality, 1937-2005


Figure 59: Share of Global Economic Output, 1981-2011


Figure 60: China’s Economic Performance


Figure 61: Share of global Manufacturing Exports; USA and Britain 1906-29 and China 2000-09 (in %)


Figure 62: Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Imperialist Countries, Semi-Colonial Countries and China, 1960-2011


Figure 63: International Comparison of Ownership Structure of the Banking Sector (2005) and Financial System Structure (2009)


Figure 64: Rate of Profit in the Chinese Manufacturing, 1978-2004


Figure 65: Size of State-Owned Enterprises and Rate of Return in Private and State Enterprises in China, 1998-2010


Figure 66: Share of Informal Employment in Urban Labor Market amongst Migrant and Local Workers in China, 2001-2010


Figure 67: Government Expenditures for Education, Health, Environmental and Social Protection, 2007-2009


Figure 68: Inequality in Real Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities between top and bottom layer of Workers, 1988-2001


Figure 69: Inequality in Nominal Wages in Special Economic Zones and All Other Cities, 1988-2001


Figure 70: Workers Protests in State and Private Enterprises, 2000-2010


Figure 71: China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves and its US Securities Holdings, 2002-2011


Figure 72: China as the world second biggest Net Capital Exporter, 2011


Figure 73: China’s Outward Investment, 2005 – mid 2012


Figure 74: Composition of China’s Foreign Investments, 2009‐2011


Figure 75: Foreign Assets of China’s main non‐banking SOEs, 2010


Figure 76: China’s Trade with Africa, 1995-2010


Figure 77: China’s Trade with East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990 and 2010


Figure 78: China’s First and Second Island Chains in the Pacific Sea


Figure 79: Sovereignty Claims in the South China Sea



List of Abbreviations

Comintern: Communist International


CMR: Committee for Marxist Revival


CWI: Committee for a Workers International


ECLAC/CEPAL: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean


ELP: European Left Party


EU: European Union


FDI: Foreign Direct Investment


FLTI: Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional


GDP: Gross Domestic Product


ILO: International Labour Organization


IMF: International Monetary Fund


IMT: International Marxist Tendency


IST: International Socialist Tendency


IRMT: Iranian Revolutionary Marxists’ Tendency


LCFI: Liaison Committee for the Fourth International


LFI: League for the Fifth International


LINKE: Left Party in Germany


LRCI: League for a Revolutionary Communist International


LCW: Collected Works of Lenin


LW: Lenin Werke (Collected Works of V. I. Lenin in German language)


MECW: Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels


MEW: Marx Engels Werke (Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in German language)


NPA: Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste


OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


p.a.: per annum (per year)


PCF: Parti Communiste Français


PPP: Purchasing Power Parity


RCIT: Revolutionary Communist International Tendency


RKOB: Revolutionäre Kommunistische Organisation zur Befreiung


Schriften: Trotzki Schriften (Trotsky Writings in German language)


SWP: Socialist Workers Party


TNC: Transnational Corporation


UN: United Nations


UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development


UNDP: United Nations Development Programme


UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization


UN-DESA: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs


US: United States of America


WTO: World Trade Organization





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Elmeskov, Jørgen: The General Economic Background to the Crisis, OECD Paper for Session on “How the global economy headed into crisis” at the G20 Workshop on the Causes of the Crisis: Key Lessons Mumbai, 24-26 May, 2009


Engelin, Bruno: Linkspartei - Einstimmig mit Abweichlern. Bundestagsfraktion streitet über Antisemitismusbeschluss, 16.06.2011,


Engels, Frederick: Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staats (1884); in: Marx Engels Werke 21, In English: The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, Chippendale 2004


____ Reden über Polen (1847); in: Marx Engels Werke 4; in English: Speech on Poland (1847), Speeches at the International Meeting held in London on November 29,1847 to mark the 17th Anniversary of the Polish Uprising of 1830,


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Strategy for Turkey (2012)


European Left Party: Appell der Europäischen Linken an die Staatschefs in Europa, 1.8.2006;


____ Ceasefire now! Stop the war!, Berlin, 10.1.2009,


____ Executive Board meeting: The ELP condemns the violent escalation by the Israel government in Gaza strip and urges the EU to recognize the state of Palestine, Copenhagen, 17/18.11.2012,


European Commission: Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs of the European Commission: Labour market and wage developments in 2009; in: EUROPEAN ECONOMY Nr. 5/2010


____ Tackling the Challenges in Commodity Markets and on Raw Materials, 2.2.2011


____ Global and EU agricultural exports rebound, Monitoring Agri-trade Policy, No. 01-11, May 2011


____ European Economic Forecast Spring 2012, Statistical Annex of European Economy, EUROPEAN ECONOMY Nr. 1/2012


European Union: Raw materials, 13.3.2012,


Faulwetter, Helmut: Die Ausbeutung der Entwicklungsländer durch das international Monopolkapital; in: Autorenkollektiv (unter Leitung von Peter Stier): Handbuch Entwicklungsländer. Sozialökonomische Prozesse, Fakten und Strategien, Berlin 1987


Ferraro, Vincent and Rosser, Melissa: Global Debt and Third World Development; in: From: World Security: Challenges for a New Century, edited by Michael Klare and Daniel Thomas (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994),


Fischer, Andrew M.: Putting Aid in its Place: Insights from early Structuralists on Aid and Balance of Payments and Lessons for Contemporary Aid Debates; Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, The Netherlands; in: Journal of International Development, No. 21 (2009)


Fitoussi, Jean-Paul and Saraceno, Francesco: Inequality and Macroeconomic Performance, (2010), OFCE/Sciences Po,


Forbes: The 147 Companies That Control Everything, 22.10.2011


____ The World's Biggest Companies, The Forbes Magazine, 18.4.2012,


____ A Regional Look At The Forbes Global 2000; Forbes Magazine, 20.4.2011,


Fortune Magazine: Fortune Global 500 list in 2012,


Foster, John Bellamy and McChesney, Robert W.: The Endless Crisis (2012), in: Monthly Review, May 2012,


____ The Global Stagnation and China, in: Monthly Review, Volume 63, Issue 09 (February 2012),


____ and Jonna, R. Jamil: The Global Reserve Army of Labor and the New Imperialism, in: Monthly Review Vol. 63, Issue 6 (November 2011)


Fourth International: Resolution on the Antiwar Congress of the London Bureau (1936), in: Documents of the Fourth International, New York 1973


____ Imperialist War and the Proletarian World Revolution; Manifesto adopted by the Emergency Conference of the Fourth International in May 1940; in: in: Documents of the Fourth International. The Formative Years (1933-40), New York 1973


____ Manifesto of the Fourth International: For Defense of the Soviet Union!, August 1941, Fourth International, New York, Volume II No. 8, October 1941,


Fracción Leninista Trotskista Internacional: FLTI Majority Document on China as semi-colony of imperialism, 20.2.2010,


____ Remarks from FLTI on the RCIT’s Resolution on Mali (January 2013), respectively


Frank, André Gunder: Kapitalistische Unterentwicklung oder sozialistische Revolution (1968); in: Bolivar Echeverria, Horst Kurnitzky (Hrsg.): Lateinamerika. Entwicklung einer Unterentwicklung, Berlin 1980


Freres, Christian and Mold, Andrew: European Union Trade Policy and the Poor. Towards Improving the Poverty Impact of the GSP in Latin America, 2004


Fritz, Thomas: Globalising Hunger: Food Security and the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (2011)


Froud, Julie, Johal, Sukhdev, Leaver, Adam and Williams, Karel: Apple Business Model. Financialization across the Pacific; CRESC Working Paper Series, Working Paper No.111, April 2012


Fuchs, Christian: A Contribution to Critical Globalization Studies (2009); Centre for the Critical Study of Global Power and Politics Working Paper CSGP 09/8,


Furtado, Celso: Economic Development of Latin America. Historical Background and contemporary problems, New York 1984


Garamone, Jim: Panetta Describes U.S. Shift in Asia-Pacific; American Forces Press Service, Singapore, 1.6.2012,


Gill, Stephen: Gramsci, Modernity and Globalization; International Gramsci Society Online Article, January 2003,


Global Times: China must react to Vietnam's provocation, 21.6.2011,


Glyn, Andrew: Capitalism Unleashed. Finance, Globaliszation, and Welfare, New York 2006


Gohlke, Nicole: Palästina-Solidarität heute; in: Der Israel/Palästina-Konflikt als Thema der politischen Bildung – Beiträge einer Arbeitstagung des Kurt-Eisner-Vereins – rls in Bayern, Studienreihe Zivilgesellschaftliche Bewegungen – Institutionalisierte Politik Nr.10/2009


____ Persönliches Statement von Nicole Gohlke zur Nominierung ins LINKE Spitzenteam zur Bundestagswahl, 23.1.2013,


Goldman Sachs: BRICs and Beyond (2007),


Gmundner, Hans: Straches Handlangerdienste, KPÖ, 10.11.07,[tt_news]=105&tx_ttnews[backPid]=2&cHash=7fe484e968


Graaf, Mia de: Limiting Foreign Land Ownership: A Law in the Making, 28.9.2011.


Greenfield, Gerard and Leong, Apo: China's Communist Capitalism: The Real World of Market Socialism; in: The Socialist Register 1997


Grigat, Stephan: To know the worst: Anti-Semitism and the failure of the Left on Iran, Platypus Review 49, September 2012,


Grossmann, Henryk: Das Akkumulations- und Zusammenbruchsgesetz des kapitalistischen Systems (Zugleich eine Krisentheorie), Leipzig, 1929; in English: Law of the Accumulation and Breakdown,


Gunić, Nina: Islamismus – Was sind seine Ziele und was ist unsere Haltung?, in: BEFREIUNG Nr. 173 (February 2009)


____ Bosnia: Never forget Sebrenica - learn the lessons for today! (2012),


____ and Pröbsting, Michael: The strategic task: From the uprising to the revolution! These are not "riots" – this is an uprising of the poor in the cities of Britain!, in: RCIT: Revolutionary Communism No. 1, (September 2011),


Gysi, Gregor: Krieg ist eine Höchstform von Terror, 19.9.2006,


____ Die Haltung der deutschen Linken zum Staat Israel, Vortrag von Dr. Gregor Gysi auf einer Veranstaltung "60 Jahre Israel" der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung am 14.4.2008,


Hallas, Duncan: Socialism and war (1982), Socialist Review 82:05, May 1982;


Harman, Chris: Analysing Imperialism (Summer 2003); in: SWP (Britain), International Socialism 2:99,


____ Middle East: Beware the Cornered Tiger, Socialist Review (November 2006),


Harris, Nigel: Imperialism Today, in: Nigel Harris, John Palmer (Editors): World Crisis. Essays in Revolutionary Socialism, SWP (Britain), London 1971


Harrison, Ann: Has Globalization Eroded Labor's Share? Some Cross-Country Evidence (2005), University of California Berkeley, MPRA Paper No. 39649;


Harvey, Keith: Myth or reality: debating long waves: Review of ‘Richard Brenner and Michael Pröbsting: The Credit Crunch – a Marxist analysis’ (2008), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,


Hassel, Keith: Revolutionary Theory and Imperialism, in: Permanent Revolution (Journal of Workers Power Britain), No. 8 (1989)


Hastings, Max: Will World War III be between the U.S. and China? The Daily Mail, 26.11.2011,


Hays/Oxford Economics: Creating Jobs in a Global Economy 2011-2030: The Hays/Oxford Economics global report (2011)


Hazvina, Fanuel: EU Raw material initiative and their implications on EU’s Relations with Africa, Trade and Development Studies Centre (TRADES Centre), June 2011


Hedeler, Wladislaw and Vatlin, Alexander: Die Weltpartei aus Moskau. Der Gründungskongress der Kommunistischen Internationale 1919. Protokoll und neue Dokumente, Berlin 2008


Henwood, Doug: Clinton’s Trade Policy; in: Fred Rosen and Deidre McFadyen: Free Trade and Economic Restructuring in Latin America, New York 1995


Hill, Hal and Jongwanich, Juthathip: Outward Foreign Direct Investment and the Financial Crisis in Developing East Asia; in: Asian Development Review, vol. 26, no. 2, Asian Development Bank 2009


Hobsbawm, Eric: Lenin and the “Aristocracy of Labor” (1970), republished in Monthly Review 2012, Volume 64, Issue 07 (December),


Hoeven, Robert van der: Labour market institutions and income inequality: What are the new insights after the Washington Consensus? (2000) United Nations University - World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)


Hoeven, Rolph van der: Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries (2010), UN-DESA Working Paper No. 99


House of Lords (Britain): Report - Economic Impact of Migration in UK (2008)


Howley, Kerry: Ending Global Apartheid. Economist Lant Pritchett defends immigration, the least-popular--and most-proven--idea for helping the world's poor. Reason, February 2008,


Huang, Yiping: The changing face of Chinese investment; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012


Hurun: China’s Rich are getting poorer in new Hurun Rich List, Hurun Report, 24.9.2012,


Index Mundi: Argentina - total debt service. Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and income);


____ Turkey - total debt service. Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and income);


Initiative für den Aufbau einer Revolutionär-Kommunistischen Partei: China – ein imperialistisches Land auf dem Weg zu einer globalen Hegemonialmacht, Wien 2011


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International Crisis Group: Stirring up the South China Sea (I); Crisis Group Asia Report N°223, 23.4.2012


____ Stirring up the South China Sea (II): Regional Responses; Crisis Group Asia Report N°229, 24.7.2012


International Labour Office: Global Wage Report 2008/09. Minimum wages and collective bargaining: Towards policy coherence, Geneva 2008


____ World Social Security Report 2010/11. Providing coverage in times of crisis and beyond, Geneva 2010


____ Global Employment Trends 2011: The challenge of a jobs recovery, Geneva 2011


____ Global Employment Trends 2012. Preventing a deeper jobs crisis, Geneva 2012


____ World of Work Report 2011. Making markets work for jobs, Geneva 2011


International Monetary Fund: Global Financial Stability Report. The Quest for Lasting Stability, April 2012, Statistical Appendix, Washington DC 2012


International Organization for Migration: World Migration. Costs and benefits of international migration (2005), IOM World Migration Report Series Volume 3, Geneva 2005


____ About Migration. Facts & Figures (2010),


International Rivers: Chinese Financiers,


Izyumov, Alexei and Vahaly, John: Labor vs. Capital Incomes in Transition Economies. What Would Karl Marx Say? 2011,


Jalée, Pierre: Die Ausbeutung der Dritten Welt (1965), Frankfurt a.M. 1968


____ Das neueste Stadium des Imperialismus (1969), München 1971


Jauch, Herbert: Globalisation and Labour, Labour Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI), Prepared for the Regional Labour Symposium, Windhoek, 6.12.2005


Jefferies, Bill: Capitalism’s long upturn (2006), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,


____ Perspectives and Period - a reply to Dave S (June 2006), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,


____ The SWP ’s economics: A distorted picture of British and global capitalism (2007), Permanent Revolution Group, Britain,


Joachim, Laurent: Die Unkosten des Krieges. Billionen vom Staat für Blei, Stahl, Sprengstoff und Elektronik, 10.06.2012,


Johnson, Robert: China Announces How It Would Go To War Against The US Fleet, Business Insider, 11.6.2012,


Kaplan, Robert D.: How We Would Fight China; in: Atlantic Magazine, June 2005,


____ China's Port in Pakistan? China's dream of Indian Ocean ports – the so-called string of pearls – is heightening geopolitical tensions in a rough neighborhood; Foreign Policy, 27.5.2011,


____ The South China Sea Is the Future of Conflict. The 21st century's defining battleground is going to be on water; in: Foreign Policy September/October 2011,


Kar, Dev: The Drivers and Dynamics of Illicit Financial Flows from India: 1948-2008, Global Financial Integrity, November 2010


____ Illicit Financial Flows from the Least Developed Countries: 1990-2008, United Nations Developments Programme 2011


____ and Sarah Freitas: Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries Over the Decade Ending 2009


____ and Devon Cartwright-Smith: Illicit Financial Flows from Africa: Hidden Resource for Development, Global Financial Integrity 2009


Keeley, Brian: International Migration. The human face of globalisation (2009), OECD,


Kerr, Sari Pekkala and Kerr, William R.: Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey (2011); Harvard Business School, Working Paper 09-013


Klare, Michael: US returns in strength to the Pacific. America’s maritime power, Le Monde diplomatique, March 2012,


Klein, Wolfram: Hintergründe der kolonialen Revolution (1991); CWI, in: Die koloniale Revolution, Herausgegeben von Stuttgarter VORAN-Unterstützern, 1991


Klement, Rudolf: Principles and Tactics in War (1938); in The New International (Theoretical journal of the Socialist Workers Party, US-American section of the Fourth International), May 1938, Vol. 4, No. 5. The RCIT re-published this text in: Revolutionary Communism No. 4 (2012)


Kliman, Andrew: A Crisis of Capitalism (not neoliberalism, “financialized capitalism,” or low wages), 2010,


____ The Failure of Capitalist Production. Underlying Causes of the Great Recession, London 2011


Kristensen, Hans M. and Norris, Robert S.: British nuclear forces, 2011, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 2011,


Lantier, Alex: The CIA proxy war in Syria and the pro-imperialist “left”, WSWS 3.8.2012,


Lanz, Rainer and Miroudot, Sebastian: Intra-Firm Trade: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications”, (2011), OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 114, OECD Publishing,


Lazzeri, Thomas: EPAs and the European Raw Materials Initiative, in: AEFJN: Forum for Action No.55 (March 2011)


League for a Revolutionary Communist International: The situation in Yugoslavia and the position of proletarian revolutionaries, 30.09.1991,


____ Bosnia - which side are you on?, 05.03.1993,


____ War and Peace in Bosnia. No imperialist solutions!, 30.05.1993,


____ Stoppt die NATO-Angriffe! Unabhängigkeit für Kosovo! (1999),


____ and PTS: Der albanische Aufstand (1997),


Lee, Peter: Maybe that war with China isn't so far off, Asia Times Online 22.12.2011,


Lejour, Arjan M. and Tang, Paul J.G.: Globalisation and wage inequality (1999), CPB Netherlands Bureau of Economic policy Analysis,


Lenin, Vladimir Illich: The Economic Content of Narodism and the Criticism of it in Mr. Struve’s Book (The Reflection of Marxism in Bourgeois Literature) (1894); in: Collected Works, Volume 1


____ Certain Features of the Historical Development of Marxism (1910); in: Collected Works, Volume 17


____ The War and Russian Social-Democracy (1914); in: Collected Works, Volume 21


____ Conspectus of Hegel’s ‘Science of Logic’ (1914); in: Collected Works Vol. 38


____ The Conference of the R.S.D.L.P. Groups Abroad (1915); in Collected Works, Volume 21


____ The revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21


____ The Defeat of one’s own Government in the Imperialist War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21


____ What has been revealed by the Trial of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Duma Group (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21


____ Preface to N. Bukharin’s Pamphlet Imperialism and world economy (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 22


____ On the Question of Dialectics (1915), in: Collected Works, Volume 38


____ The Socialist Revolution and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22


____ The Junius Pamphlet (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22


____ Imperialism. The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22


____ The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 22


____ A Caricature of Marxism and Imperialist Economism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23


____ Imperialism and the split in socialism (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23


____ The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution (1916); in: Collected Works, Volume 23


____ The State and Revolution. The Marxist Theory of the State and the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 25


____ Revision of the Party Programme (1917); in: Collected Works, Volume 26


____ Letter to the Workers of Europe and America (1919); in: Collected Works, Volume 28


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____ Draft Theses on National and Colonial Questions for the Second Congress of the Communist International); in: Collected Works, Volume 31


____ Report of the Commission on the National and the Colonial Questions (at the Second Congress of the Communist International 1920); in: Collected Works, Volume 31


____ Letter to the German and the French Workers. Regarding the Discussion on the Second Congress of the Communist International (1920), in: Collected Works, Volume 31


____ Reden auf der Beratung der Mitglieder der deutschen, polnischen, tschechoslowakischen, ungarischen und italienischen Delegation, in: LW Ergänzungsband 1917-23


____ Notes on the Tasks of our Delegation at The Hague (1922); in: Collected Works, Volume 33


____ Imperialism and the Attitude towards it; in: Collected Works, Volume 39


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____ Lenin Briefe. (Lenin Letters in 10 Volumes in German-Language), Berlin 1967 – 1976


____ Lenin: Sämtliche Werke, Band XVIII, Wien-Berlin 1929


____ and Zinoviev, Grigory: Socialism and War (1915); in: Collected Works, Volume 21


Leon, Walter: Stop Israel's massacre in Gaza! IMT, 31.12.2008,


Liaison Committee for the Fourth International: Those who ‘howled along with the wolves’ and those who took a neutral position on the war in Libya, 14 September 2011, in: Socialist Fight No. 7 (2011)


____ What a strange but delightfully dialectical face ‘liberation’ has in Libya today! Reply to Michael Pröbsting (RCIT), in: Socialist Fight No. 11 (2012)


Liebert, Nicola: Schuldenkrise: Die Position der Gläubiger und das Potential für einen Schuldenerlaß; in: Probleme des Klassenkampfes (PROKLA) Nr. 71 (1988)


Lin, Li-Wen and Milhaupt, Curtis J., We are the (National) Champions: Understanding the Mechanisms of State Capitalism in China (November 1, 2011). Columbia Law and Economics Working Paper No. 409. Available at SSRN: or


Lin, Lilian: Unease Among the Moneyed Ranks, 1.8.2012,


LINKE: LINKE weist Antisemitismus-Vorwürfe zurück. Erklärung des Parteivorstandes der LINKEN, 21.5.2011:


____ Parliamentary Group of the LINKE: Entschieden gegen Antisemitismus, 8.6.2011,


Lipsey, Robert E. and Sjöholm, Fredrik: South–South FDI and Development in East Asia; in: Asian Development Review, vol. 28, no. 2, Asian Development Bank 2011


Lübker, Malte: Labour Shares (2007), ILO Policy Brief,


Ludeña, Miguel Perez: Adapting to the Latin American experience; in: EAST ASIA FORUM QUARTERLY, Vol.4 No.2 April–June 2012


Lugt, Sanne van der, Hamblin, Victoria, Burgess, Meryl and Schickerling, Elizabeth: Assessing China’s Role in Foreign Direct Investment in Southern Africa, Oxfam Hong Kong and Centre for Chinese Studies 2011


Lukacs, Georg: Lenin: A Study on the Unity of his Thought (1924),


Lunding, Andreas: Chinesische Firmen auf dem Vormarsch. Investitionen chinesischer Firmen im Ausland, Deutsche Bank Research, 7.11.2006


Luppol, Iwan K.: Lenin und die Philosophie. Zur Frage des Verhältnisses der Philosophie zur Revolution (1928)


____ Die materialistische Dialektik und die Arbeiterbewegung (1928); in: Unter dem Banner des Marxismus, II. Jahrgang (1928), Wien 1929


Luxemburg, Rosa: Was will der Spartakusbund? (1918), in: Gesammelte Werke, Band 4; in English: What Does the Spartacus League Want? (1918),


Machin, Stephen and Reenen, John Van: Inequality: Still Higher, But Labour’s Policies Kept it Down (2010),


Maddison, Angus: The World Economy, Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective, Volume 2: Historical Statistics, Development Centre Studies, Paris 2006


Main, Peter: China: ‘socialism’ with capitalist characteristics; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 11, 1993


____ China: Stalinists draw near their capitalist goal; in: LRCI: Trotskyist International No. 22, 1997


____ Restoring capitalism in China (2000), LFI,


____ China and International Perspectives (2006), LFI,


____ China: From Mao to the market; in: LFI: Fifth International, Vol. 2, No.4, 2007


Mandel, Ernest: Marxistische Wirtschaftstheorie (1962), Frankfurt a.M. 1968


____ Die Marxsche Theorie der ursprünglichen Akkumulation und die Industrialisierung der Dritten Welt; in: Folgen einer Theorie. Essays über ‚Das Kapital‘ von Karl Marx, Frankfurt a.M. 1967


____ Imperialism and National Bourgeoisie in Latin America (1971); in: International Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 1976), Theoretical Journal of the International Marxist Group (British Section of the Fourth International)


____ Der Spätkapitalismus, Frankfurt a.M. 1972


____ Late Capitalism. London 1975


____ Verschuldungskrise: Eine tickende Zeitbombe; in: Bortz/Castro/Mandel/Wolf: Schuldenkrise, Frankfurt a.M. 1987


Maoist Internationalist Movement (MIM): Coming to grips with the Labor Aristocracy, in: MIM THEORY No. 10 (1996)


____ Imperialism and Its Class Structure in 1997 (1997)


Marsh, Peter: China noses ahead as top goods producer, Financial Times, March 13, 2011,


Martin, Philip L.: Bordering on Control: Combating Irregular Migration in North America and Europe (2003), IOM Migration Research Series No. 13,


____ Migration and development: Toward sustainable solutions (2004)


Marx, Karl: Thesen über Feuerbach (1845); in: Marx Engels Werke 3; in English: Karl Marx: Theses on Feuerbach


____ Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, in: Marx Engels Werke 42; in English: Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (English)


____ Vorwort zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (1859); in: Marx Engels Werke 13; in English: Karl Marx: A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Preface (1859)


____ Ökonomisches Manuskript 1861-1863. Teil 1, in: Marx Engels Werke 43; in English: Karl Marx: Economic Manuscript of 1861-63


____ Economic Manuscripts of 1861-63. Capital and Profit; in: MECW Volume 33;


____ Lohn, Preis und Profit (1865); in: Marx Engels Werke 16; in English: Karl Marx: Value, Price and Profit


____ Das Kapital Band I, in: Marx Engels Werke 23; in English: Capital, Volume I


____ Das Kapital Band II, in: Marx Engels Werke 24; in English: Capital, Volume II


____ Das Kapital, Band III; in Marx Engels Werke 25; In English: Karl Marx: Capital, Volume III


____ Brief an Sigrid Meyer und August Vogt (94.1870); in: Marx Engels Werke 32; in English. Karl Marx: Letter to Sigfrid Meyer and August Vogt (9.4.1870)


____ Theorien über den Mehrwert, III. Teil, Marx Engels Werke 26.3; in English: Karl Marx: Theories of Surplus-Value, Vol. III


Matgamna, Sean: What if Israel bombs Iran? in: Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, Vol. 3, No. 136, 24.7.2008,


McKinsey Global Institute: The World at Work: Jobs, Pay, and Skills for 3.5 Billion People (2012)


____ Debt and deleveraging: Uneven progress on the path to growth (2012)


Mihalakas, Nasos: Chinese ‘Trojan Horse’ – Investing in Greece, or Invading Europe? (Part I), 15.1.2011,


Miller, Morris: Where Is Global Interdependence Taking Us? Why We Need A "New (Improved) Bretton Woods"; From "Social Tensions & Armed Conflict: Ethnic & Other Aspects", Panel: Global interdependence in economic & financial matters", Pugwash, Nova Scotia, July 28-31, 1994


Moneta, Jakob: Die Kolonialpolitik der französischen KP, Schriftenreihe des Forschungsinstituts der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Hannover 1968


Morini, Daryl: Paradigm Shift: China’s Rise and the Limits of Realism; in: Security Challenges, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Autumn 2011);


Morris, Paul: The Left and the War: The acid test; in: Workers Power No. 139 (February 1991)


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Movement for a Revolutionary Communist International: The anti-imperialist united front (1986); in: Permanent Revolution No. 5


____ Theses on Zionism, Israel, Palestine and Arab nationalism (1989), in: Trotskyist International No. 2,


____ China: Revolution and Repression (June 1989); in: Trotskyist International No. 3, Summer 1989


____ MRCI Statement on China; in: Trotskyist International No. 3, Summer 1989


Mozur, Paul: Review of William Hurst’s ‘The Chinese Worker After Socialism’, in: THE FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW, May 2009,


Münz, Rainer and Fassmann, Heinz: Migrants in Europe and their Economic Position: Evidence from the European Labour Force Survey and from Other Sources (2004)


Murse, Tom: How Much U.S. Debt Does China Really Own?


Nakatani, Paulo and Herera, Rémy: The South Has Already Repaid it External Debt to the North. But the North Denies its Debt to the South, Monthly Review, Volume 59, Issue 02 (June 2007),


National Intelligence Council: Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds (2012),


Norfield, Tony: What the ‘China Price’ really means, 3.6.2011,


Nouveau Parti Anticapitaliste: Statement: NO! to the French military intervention in Mali, 141.2013,


Ocampo, José Antonio and Palma, José Gabriel: The Role of Preventative Capital Account Regulations; in: José Antonio Ocampo and Joseph E. Stiglitz (eds.): Capital Market Liberalization and Development, New York 2008;


O’Connell, Arturo: The Return of “Vulnerability” and Raúl Prebisch’s Early Thinking on the “Argentine Business Cycle”; in: CEPAL REVIEW 75 (December 2001)


Office of the Secretary of Defense (USA): Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012, May 2012


Olende, Ken: French attack on Mali is an imperialist venture, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013,


____ Rulers' racism masks imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain) in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2336, 19.1.2013,


____ Cameron joins France's imperialist war in Mali, SWP (Britain), in: Socialist Worker Issue: 2338, 2 February 2013,


Onaran, Özlem: Capital Flows, Turbulences, and Distribution: The Case of Turkey (2007), Istanbul Technical University


____ Labor’s Share in Developing Countries in the Era of Globalization (2008), Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien & Istanbul Technical University


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Globalisation, Jobs and Wages (2007), OECD Observer policy Brief


____ Employment Outlook (2007),


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____ International Migration Outlook 2010, SOPEMI 2010


Orlik, Tom and Davis, Bob: Beijing Diversifies Away From U.S. Dollar, Wall Street Journal, 2.3.2012,


Parti Communiste Français: C'est le Mali qu'il faut reconstruire, (11.1.2013),


____ L' intervention militaire française comporte de grands risques de guerre (12.1.2013),


Pei, Haide: What Two Case Studies Tell Us about the Situation of State Owned Enterprise Workers Today, China Left Review, Isue#4, Summer 2011,


Pemberton, Chris Papua New Guinea: Resource colonialism bleeding people and nature, Green Left Weekly No. 949, 9.12.2012


People’s Daily: China's State-owned Enterprise Lay-offs Finding New jobs: Minister, 27.10.2002,


Pew Research Center: The Future Global Muslim Population. Projections for 2010-2030 (2011),


Preobrazenskij, Evgenij: Die Neue Ökonomik (1926); Berlin 1971


____ The Decline of Capitalism (1931); Translation by Richard Day, London 1981


James Petras: Following the Profits and Escaping the Debts. International Immigration and Imperial-Centered Accumulation, 8.8.2006,


____ and Veltmeyer, Henry: Globalization Unmasked. Imperialism in the 21st Century, London 2001


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