Turkey’s allies Nour al-Din al-Zenki and Ahrar al-Sham continue their aggression against Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham. This represents a mortal danger for the Syrian Revolution!
By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 05.03.2018, www.thecommunists.net
The furious civil war in Idlib between different rebel factions continues without interruption. On 20 February Nour al-Din al-Zenki and Ahrar al-Sham – two rebel factions which are financed by and closely allied with the Turkish state – started a sudden and massive attack against Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS). In this, they demonstrate their indifference for the tragic fate of the 400,000 Syrian brothers and sisters in Al-Ghouta which are besieged and terrorized by the Assad regime and whose situation worsens day by day. (1)
A few days before they launched their aggression against HTS, Zenki and Ahrar formally merged into the an alliance called Jabhat Tahrir Suriya. As numerous sources have confirmed, the Turkish Erdoğan regime supports these anti-HTS forces as it wants to pacify Idlib and implement its deal with Russia and Iran. (2) In order to achieve this, the resistance of the anti-Astana factions has to be smashed and this is why Ankara supports and coordinates all those treacherous factions which aim to destroy HTS.
This is why, as we already stated in the past, this aggression represents a mortal danger for the Syrian Revolution. From this follows our characterization of this civil war and our consequence for revolutionary tactics, that is to say to give critical support for the military struggle of HTS and allies against the pro-Astana factions: “The character of the current civil war in Idlib is that Zenki/Ahrar act as allies of Turkey, as foot soldiers to implement Ankara’s plan to pacify the region and to smash HTS as the most important obstacle for this goal. They are executors of the counter-revolutionary Astana conspiracy which aims to liquidate the Syrian Revolution. HTS on the other side currently represents those forces which oppose the Astana deal and which stand for the continuation of the liberation struggle against the Assad tyranny and the imperialist occupation of the country, despite all its petty-bourgeois Islamist limitations. (…) In such a conflict revolutionaries can not remain neutral. All those who reject the reactionary Astana conspiracy and who favor the continuation of the liberation struggle must defend HTS and its allies. Of course this does not include any political support for the program of HTS.” (3)
The Development of the Civil War until now
With the backing of the Turkish army, Zenki and Ahrar – also called “Ahrar al-Dollar” “Zenki gang” and “servants of the Dollar” by their opponents – succeeded in the first week to surprise and overpower HTS. They managed to conquer about 60 cities, towns and villages in the north of Syria including Maarrat al-Nu'man, Darat Izza, Khan Shaykhun, Saraqib, Morek, Ariha,and Maarrat Misrin.
As Zenki and Ahrar have refrained from participating in the recent battles against Assad’s army and Daesh/ISIS in the north of Syria and kept their heavy armaments stored, they have been able now to strike against HTS with full force. HTS, on the other hand, has been militarily exhausted because it suffered serious losses in the past months as they bore the brunt of the fighting against the Assad’s army and Daesh/ISIS.
However, since the 28 February, HTS and its allies – most importantly the Turkestan Islamic Party – have launched an impressive counter-offensive. Since then they have succeeded to recapture about 50 towns and villages in particular in North Idlib and Western Aleppo (e.g. Maarrat Misrin, al-Dana, Turmanin, Atme, Zardana, Hizano, Ram Hamdan, Kafr Yahmul, etc.). (See also the Map at the end of this article.) As we are writing these lines, it looks like that HTS forces have also started to regain lost ground in south Idlib and opened a front at Maarrat al-Nu'man. (4)
The main reasons for the successful counter-attack are, on one hand, smart military maneuvers including strategic retreats from areas which were difficult to defend. On the other hand, HTS has clearly built a popular base and its advance has been welcomed by the people in many towns and villages. (5)
Background: The Struggle about of the Russian-Turkish Astana Deal
The political background of the coup by the “servants of the Dollar” is the fact that HTS represents the most significant faction which continues to oppose the Astana deal. The Astana deal, as the RCIT has stated many time, is a counterrevolutionary agreement between imperialist Russia, Iran and Turkey – with the blessing of the US and European imperialists – to liquidate the Syrian Revolution. (6)
The Astana deal includes the cessation of the struggle against the Assad regime and the isolation of the rebels in a few pockets called “de-escalation zones” which are controlled and occupied by Russia, Iran respectively Turkey.
The leaderships of Ahrar al-Sham, Jaish al-Islam and various FSA factions have participated in the Astana negotiations and support its goals. A leader of the delegation of these factions in Astana, Major Yasser Abdul Rahim, defended their support for this treacherous deal in an interview with the following arguments: “What characterized the "Astana 6" conference was that each representation and coordination were extensive. All the major factions, including Ahrar al-Sham, Jaish al-Islam, representatives of the Southern Front, and more than 80% of the northern Syrian factions attended. (...) We have to ask ourselves what would have been achieved if we did not attend Astana? In the past nine months, the Syrian people have a well period of peace, no ground attacks by the Syrian regime and its Iranian and Russian allies. The bombing has been stopped, we became an internationally recognized party and we are not terrorist groups, as the regime always tries to promote. Thousands of Syrian refugees have returned to their homes as a result of stability. (…) The conference in Astana is not a substitute for the Geneva process, it is complementary. The conference is a gateway to a political solution that will bring down Bashar al-Assad and his gang. The Turkish side was and still is supportive of the Syrian people, and its position with us during the conference was great, and continues to support our position, and its position contributed to the achievement of many gains in favor of the revolution.” (7)
The reality has proven that these arguments have all been a smokescreen to justify the sell-out of the revolution. Neither Russia, Iran not Turkey has any serious intention to remove the Assad regime. Quite the opposite, Assad is stronger than ever. Instead of offering “peace” and “stability”, the result of the Astana deal has been the ongoing catastrophes in Idlib and East Ghouta. In the past two months alone thousands were killed and hundreds of thousands displaced.
In the same interview, Rahim also stated: “Neither we nor our Turkish allies have any intention of fighting Hayat Tahrir al-Sham Organization. All that the media is reporting about imminent military action against it aims of sedition and the creation of new factional strife to make it easier for our enemy to take us one by one.”
The reality of the past weeks has shown what a scandalous lie this statement has been and how correct all those, including the RCIT, have been who warned from the beginning that the Astana conspirators will try to forcefully annihilate the resistance.
On the other hand, the petty-bourgeois Islamist HTS and others have always unconditionally rejected this reactionary conspiracy against the Syrian Revolution. In a recent speech, HTS central leader Abu Muhammad al-Jolani warned: “We are facing a critical phase, due to the peace conferences in which some opposition factions are participating. We constantly repeated, warning against attempts of hijack the Syrian revolution, from the beginning. The most dangerous of those [conferences] is the so-called Astana [process], that we rejected in its entirety. While a lot of people blamed us for that [stance at the time], many are now supporting what we said about it and have done during the Astana talks.
The so-called Astana talks succeeded in conferring legitimacy on the Russia occupation and its place as part of a political solution and even a “peace guarantor” for stopping the criminal Asad regime’s atrocities. Russia, along with Iran, succeeded in forcing many opposition factions to cease fighting against Asad regime on the fronts, even making some of the brothers in the opposition start media campaigns against Tahrir al-Sham when they started offensives. (...)
There were even cases where the opposition sent intelligence details about our battles to the enemies. All of this happened while the Asad regime continued with its non-stop military operations. Then, the de-escalation zones were formed via an agreement to divide the North [of Syria] into Turkish and Russian spheres of influence. The so-called “agreement” included a complete surrender of the areas east of the railway, which were placed outside the de-escalation zones, as we saw in the leaked agreement maps.
The Astana talks agreement just gave the Asad regime and its allies the right attack and recapture territory. We rejected it all. We rejected the agreement, and we communicated our position to Turkey, as well as to the opposition groups. Some in the opposition tried to make the mujahideen withdraw from those areas [that Astana proposed to give to the regime] in peace. We rejected the deal, which unfortunately other armed groups agreed to. (...) Astana also included [an agreement] setting up Turkish checkpoints across the [Idlib] region. We rejected it because it had no guarantees that those areas would not be given to Asad regime easily via [subsequent] deals. We also rejected it because it would make the jihad and fighting spirit weak, perhaps even making it more difficult to defend the fronts.” (8)
Splits from HTS
The recent developments have also provoked several splits from HTS. Already a few months ago, several groups inside HTS criticized the Jolani leadership for its compromise with Turkey’s project of setting up so-called “checkpoints” as well as for its break with Al-Qaeda. (9)
In October 2017, a group emerged which called itself “Jama'at Ansar al-Furqan in Bilad al Sham” and named as its leaders Ayad Tubasi (Abu Julibib) and Bilal Kharisat. It strongly denounced the Turkish invasion in Idlib and the FSA factions supporting it. (10)
Since the beginning of the Zenki/Ahrar aggression two weeks ago, two additional new formations emerged, often consisting of smaller groups which have been part of HTS respectively al-Nusra before. Similarly to Ansar al-Furqan they support a harder line against Turkey’s intervention. Furthermore they oppose Jolani’s efforts to build a regional administration– the Syrian Salvation Government – and advocate a more classic al-Qaeda line of guerilla warfare.
One of them is called “Tanzim Horas al-Din” (Guardians of the Religion Organization). It unites seven al-Qaeda-affiliated groups – Jaysh al-Malahem, Jaysh al-Badiyah, Jaysh al-Sahel, Saraya al-Sahel, Saryat Kabul Jun al- Sharia and cells of Jund al-Aqsa – and will be led by Abu Humam al-Shami, a former general commander of HTS. It also includes a number of other former HTS commanders (e.g. Abu Jalibib Tubas, Abu Khadiga al-Ordini, Sami al-Aridi, Abu Qassam, Abu Adulrahman al-Maki) (11)
Another new formation is called Kataib Ansar Allah. It is a merger of different factions like Katibat Taftanaz, Katibat Saraqib, Katibat Khan al-Sabil, Katibat al-Maera, Katibat Reef al-Maarat al-Sharqi, Katibat Ansar al-Sharia, and Al-Katibat al-Khudara. (12)
While these formations are hard-core opponents of any compromise with Turkey and the Astana deal, they are adherents of a petty-bourgeois, elitist al-Qaeda strategy which is not only a dead-end but which also lacks the element of “mass orientation” which Jolani’s HTS has pursued in the past years. (13)
However, one must have a realistic view of the petty-bourgeois Islamist nature of HTS and the cul-de-sac of its strategy. True, to its credit it calls the Syrian people to continue fighting against the Assad tyranny, against the Astana treachery, against Russian as well as US imperialism, against Daesh/ISIS as well as against the “corrupt” pro-Astana factions. (See e.g. the recent speech of Abu Al-Yaqazan Al-Masri, a leader of HTS. (14))
But it is thoroughly petty-bourgeois formation, hostile to any orientation which puts the working class and the poor peasants in the center of its policy and which focuses on class organs of the oppressed (i.e. workers and poor peasants council and militias). Furthermore it follows a sectarian, Sunni-centered line which is incapable of integrating Syria’s minorities. It also lacks any serious internationalist orientation which would appeal to the workers and poor peasants in other countries of the Middle East.
The Immediate Dangers
As we said, the goal of the Zenki/Ahrar coup is to smash HTS and other factions which reject Astana and which are determined to continue the liberation struggle against the Assad tyranny and its Russian and Iranian masters. While HTS was able to repel the first offensive, the war is not over. Given the fact that Russia’s and Turkey’s plan for implementation of the Astana deal is in danger, it is guaranteed that Ankara will do everything in power to defeat Tahrir al-Sham respectively to force its leadership to capitulate. Hence, the Turkish state – through its lackeys Nour al-Din al-Zenki and Ahrar al-Sham – will continue trying to smash the resistance of the factions opposed to the Astana deal.
Furthermore, even if the Zenki/Ahrar offensive ends up in failure, other dangers remain. There exist serious rumors from pro-Zenki/Ahrar sources which report about a meeting of “Syrian tribes and clans” with Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan at the end of February in Urfa. This meeting is supposed to have made the decision about the formation of “a council” and an “army” of the Syrian tribes and clans’ members. According to these sources, this “army will soon be heading to Idlib” in order “annihilate Tahrir al-Sham”. (15)
In any case, once Turkey has succeeded to conquer Afrin, it will have more resources to send to Idlib and to attack HTS. (16)
As we have explained before, this attack represents a mortal danger for the Syrian Revolution. If Turkey’s agents would succeed in defeating the anti-Astana factions in Idlib – the last significant bastion of the liberation struggle against the Assad tyranny and its Russian and Iranian masters – it would represent most likely the end of the Syrian Revolution.
For a United Front against the Astana Conspirators!
As we stated at the beginning of this civil war in Idlib, in such a conflict revolutionaries can not remain neutral. All those who reject the reactionary Astana conspiracy and who favor the continuation of the liberation struggle must defend HTS and its allies without lending any political support for their program.
We re-emphasize the RCIT’s call for a united front of all anti-capitulationist liberation forces. The basis for such a united front is very simple but summarizes the immediate tasks of the hour:
* No to the counter-revolutionary Astana deal!
* Continue the struggle against the Assad tyranny and its Russian and Iranian masters!
* No to the Turkish invasion in Idlib!
* All foreign powers – Russia, US, Iran, Turkey – out of Syria!
Naturally, such a platform is very limited. It is certainly no replacement for a positive revolutionary program. (17) But such a platform could represent a starting point to push back the reactionary offensive aimed at the liquidation of the Syrian Revolution.
(1) Our take on the current tragedy in East Ghouta: Michael Pröbsting: Syria: Assad’s Massacre in East Ghouta and the Western Hypercritics, 23.02.2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/assad-s-massacre-in-east-ghouta-and-the-western-hypercritics/; RKOB: Hundreds Demonstrate in Vienna in Solidarity with East Ghouta, 23.2.2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/rally-in-solidarity-with-east-ghouta-23-2-2018/; Michael Pröbsting: Stop the Slaughter of the Syrian People in Al-Ghouta! (Video Statement), on 23 February 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/multimedia-1/stop-the-slaughter-of-the-syrian-people-in-al-ghouta/
(2) On Turkey’s support for Nour al-Din al-Zenki, Ahrar al-Sham and other anti-HTS factions see e.g. STRATFOR: Three Flashpoints in the Syrian Civil War, 23.2.2018, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/syria-civil-war-turkey-afrin-idlib-damascus-rebel-ypg; Charles Lister: Syrian upheaval on two fronts, http://www.mei.edu/content/flash/2018-02-26, Charles Lister : https://twitter.com/Charles_Lister/status/961279302846369793; Mariya Petkova: Where is al-Qaeda in Syria? Al-Jazeera,, 2018-03-01 https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/03/al-qaeda-syria-180301152110387.html; Alexander Clarkson: No Exit: Turkey’s unexpected empire in Syria, March 05 2018, https://ahvalnews6.com/turkey-syria/no-exit-turkeys-unexpected-empire-syria; see as a background study from a pro-Western point of view: Charles Lister: Turkey’s Idlib Incursion and the HTS Question: Understanding the Long Game in Syria, October 31, 2017, https://warontherocks.com/2017/10/turkeys-idlib-incursion-and-the-hts-question-understanding-the-long-game-in-syria/
(3) Michael Pröbsting: Syria: Turkey's hidden war against HTS in Idlib. On the character of the military offensive of Nour al-Din al-Zenki and Ahrar al-Sham against Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham, 25.02.2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/turkey-s-hidden-war-against-hts-in-idlib/
(4) There are various English-language sources which cover the regular developments of the civil war in Idlib. Among the useful and serious sources are the Syrian War Daily (www.syrianwardaily.com) and the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (http://www.syriahr.com)
(5) Many videos of people welcoming the advancing liberation forces are circulating on social media. Several of them can be viewed here: https://twitter.com/twitter/statuses/969336700597088257, https://twitter.com/twitter/statuses/969327168261115904, https://twitter.com/syrian_revoo/status/969296969637167105, https://twitter.com/twitter/statuses/969292836960178176, https://twitter.com/twitter/statuses/970041747849007104, https://orbisnjus.com/2018/03/04/video-hayat-tahrir-al-sham-paradiert-nach-sieg-ueber-die-befreiungsfront-syriens-auf-den-strassen-von-hazanu-in-idlib/
(6) On the RCIT’s assessment of the Astana deal see e.g.: Michael Pröbsting: Syrian Revolution: The Moment of Truth is Approaching! Rally to defend the Syrian Revolution against the Imperialist conspiracy called the "Astana Deal"! 20.09.2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/syria-moment-of-truth-approaching/; RCIT: Syria: Defend Idlib against the Great Powers! Down with the reactionary Astana Deal! Defend the Revolution against the butcher Assad, against Russian and US Imperialism and the local Allies! Victory to the Struggle of the Workers and Oppressed! 04.08.2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/defend-idlib-against-great-powers/; Michael Pröbsting: Syria: The Astana-Deal Struggle Intensifies. Some Notes on Recent Developments in the Syrian Civil War and the Dangers for the Liberation Struggle, 28 July 2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/syrian-revolution-28-7-2017/; RCIT: Syria: Condemn the Reactionary Astana Deal! The so-called "De-Escalation Zones" are a First Step towards the Partition of Syria and a Conspiracy by the Great Powers to Defeat the Revolution, 7 May 2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/astana-deal/
(7) Yasser Abdel Rahim illustrates the latest developments of "Astana 6" ... What he said about "HTS"? 15 September 2017, http://www.aldorars.com/en/reports/35
(8) Abu Muhammad al-Jolani: Their Plot Will Not Harm You At All. The speech is reproduced in English language here: Kyle Orton: Former Al-Qaeda Group Continues Its Efforts To Annex The Syrian Revolution, 17 January 2018, https://kyleorton1991.wordpress.com/2018/01/17/jolani-speech-hts-trying-annex-rebels/#more-4664.
In the same speech, Jolani also justified the enforced modus operandi he reached with the Turkish army when it started to enter Idlib in October 2017: “We looked to minimize the costs and prevent a war that would damage all of us. We reached a compromise with Turkey, which infuriated the Asad regime and its allies, who was counting on us to start a war against Turkey in Idlib. The enemies saw that this plan didn’t work, so after that, they came up with a worse plan. In October, they used the Daesh khawarij members and weapons in the countryside of eastern Hama. The move by Daesh cost us several mujahideen, plus material losses.“
While it is true that a fighting party can be forced to accept compromises and retreats in order to spare forces and to regain strength for another fight in the future (we remind readers of the Bolsheviks who signed the humiliating Brest-Litowsk treaty with German imperialism in March 1918), one has also to point out that the Jolani leadership did refrain from a political offensive against the Erdoğan regime and its political plans at that time. Worse, due to its petty-bourgeois Islamist and Arab nationalist program, it is unwilling and unable to oppose openly Turkey’s war against the Kurdish people (albeit it is not participating in the Afrin operation nor has it joined the Euphrates Shield operation in 2017.)
On the HTS opposition against the Turkish occupation of north Syria see also Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham: The attack carried out by the factions on Idlib is a treason, 9 October 2017 http://www.awdnews.com/index/hayat-tahrir-al-sham-attack-carried-factions-idlib-treason/
(9) The HTS break with Al-Qaeda has been well documented, irrespective of the fact that the Assadist fools as well as the pro-Western friends of the Syrian deny it until now. See on this e.g. A comprehensive history – How Jabhat Nusra broke its ties with Al-Qaedah. A witness report by Shaykh Abu Abdullah Shaami – Abdul Raheem Attun (Senior Shura member of Hay’at Tahrir Shaam), https://al-maqalaat.com/2017/12/01/7/; Kyle Orton: Former Al-Qaeda in Syria Branch Arrests Members of Al-Qaeda in Syria, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/2017/11/28/former-al-qaeda-in-syria-branch-arrests-members-of-al-qaeda-in-syria/; Charles Lister: Profiling Jabhat al-Nusra, The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World, Analysis Paper, No. 24, July 2016; Aymenn al-Tamimi: The Formation of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham and Wider Tensions in the Syrian Insurgency, in: CTC Sentinel, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2017), pp. 16-20; Charles Lister: Al-Qaida’s Complex Balancing Act in Syria, in: Perspectives on Terrorism, Special Issue on Al-Qaida, Volume XI, Issue 6 (December 2017), pp. 122-129; Aymenn al-Tamimi: Success for al-Qaida in Syria? In: ibid, pp. 130-138; Sam Heller: The Strategic Logic of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, in: ibid, pp. 139-152; Charles Lister: How al-Qa`ida Lost Control of its Syrian Affiliate: The Inside Story, in: CTC Sentinel, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2018), pp. 1-9; Murtaza Hussain: Militant Leader Talks About Break With Al Qaeda and Possible Syrian Rebel Merger, Aug. 23 2016, https://theintercept.com/2016/08/23/militant-leader-talks-about-break-with-al-qaeda-and-possible-syrian-rebel-merger/; Kyle Orton: Whither Al-Qaeda in Syria?, http://henryjacksonsociety.org/2017/08/15/whither-al-qaeda-in-syria/; STRATFOR: For Al Qaeda in Syria, Success Has Its Downside, March 9, 2017, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/al-qaeda-syria-success-has-its-downside; Charles Lister: Al-Qaeda’s Turning Against its Syrian Affiliate, May 18, 2017, http://www.mei.edu/content/article/al-qaeda-s-turning-against-its-syrian-affiliate
(10) See e.g. Paul Antonopoulos: New Al-Qaeda linked group established in Syria, declares multiple parties as enemies, October 9, 2017, Fort Russ News, http://www.fort-russ.com/2017/10/new-al-qaeda-linked-group-established.html; Jama'at Ansar al-Furqan in Bilad al Sham (JAFBS), https://www.trackingterrorism.org/group/jamaat-ansar-al-furqan-bilad-al-sham-jafbs
(11) Thomas Joscelyn: Jihadists form ‘Guardians of the Religion’ organization in Syria, March 4, 2018 https://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2018/03/jihadists-form-guardians-of-the-religion-organization-in-syria.php; South Front: Seven Al-Qaeda-Affiliated Groups Form New Force In Northern Syria, 28.2.2018, https://southfront.org/seven-al-qaeda-affiliated-groups-form-new-force-in-northern-syria/
(12) Joško Barić: Syrian War Daily – 4th of March 2018, March 4, 2018, https://syrianwardaily.com/2018/03/04/syrian-war-daily-4th-of-march-2018/
(13) See on this our discussion of this issue in our recently published book by Michael Pröbsting: World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries, Chapter V. Middle East and North Africa: Reactionary Offensive, Wars and Popular Uprisings, 10 February 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2018/chapter-v/
(14) In this speech, Abu Al-Yaqazan Al-Masri said: “O, People of Al-Sham, Allah has honored you to witness the fighting against the Americans, the Russians, the apostates of Bashar Army, those who spread corruption in the lands, the Khawarij [this is the HTS designation for Daesh/ISIS, Ed.], and the corrupts [by this HTS means the pro-Astana rebel factions, Ed.].” (Syrian Observatory for Human Rights: The fighting rages in Maarrat Al-Nu’man countryside within the abolition war and 16 fighters at least of Tahrir Al-Sham captured in the clash areas, 05/03/2018 http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=86172)
(15) Enab Baladi: Idlib’s Confrontations Continue Amidst Talks about Tribes’ Participation, 05/03/2018, https://english.enabbaladi.net/archives/2018/03/idlibs-confrontations-continue-amidst-talks-tribes-participation/
(16) Our assessment of the Turkish invasion is summarized in RCIT: Syria: No to Turkey’s Attack on Afrin! Defend the Syrian Revolution against Annihilation! The Syrian Revolution must reject sectarianism and strive to create multinational unity among Arabs, Turks and Kurds! Rally all forces against the Assadist-Iranian-Russian Aggression in Idlib! 22.01.2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/no-to-turkey-s-attack-on-afrin/
(17) The RCIT’ analysis of the Syrian Revolution and our political strategy can be read in numerous documents and articles which are collected in a special section of our website https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/collection-of-articles-on-the-syrian-revolution/. Our latest comprehensive analysis can be read in the recently published book by Michael Pröbsting: World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries, Chapter V. Middle East and North Africa: Reactionary Offensive, Wars and Popular Uprisings, 10 February 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2018/chapter-v/; see also Michael Pröbsting: Is the Syrian Revolution at its End? Is Third Camp Abstentionism Justified? An essay on the organs of popular power in the liberated area of Syria, on the character of the different sectors of the Syrian rebels, and on the failure of those leftists who deserted the Syrian Revolution, 5 April 2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/syrian-revolution-not-dead/
(18) Source: Peter Bucci: Idlib Rebel Civil War, March 4, 2018, https://syrianwardaily.wordpress.com/2018/03/04/idlib-rebel-civil-war-4-3-18/
* * * * *
For the RCIT’s analysis, reportage and perspectives of the Syrian Revolution, we refer readers to our numerous articles and documents which can be accessed at a special section of our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/collection-of-articles-on-the-syrian-revolution/
Furthermore we refer readers to the following documents:
Michael Pröbsting: Syria: Turkey's hidden war against HTS in Idlib. On the character of the military offensive of Nour al-Din al-Zenki and Ahrar al-Sham against Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham, 25.02.2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/turkey-s-hidden-war-against-hts-in-idlib/
Michael Pröbsting: World Perspectives 2018: A World Pregnant with Wars and Popular Uprisings. Theses on the World Situation, the Perspectives for Class Struggle and the Tasks of Revolutionaries, Chapter V. Middle East and North Africa: Reactionary Offensive, Wars and Popular Uprisings, 10 February 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2018/chapter-v/
Michael Pröbsting: Is the Syrian Revolution at its End? Is Third Camp Abstentionism Justified? An essay on the organs of popular power in the liberated area of Syria, on the character of the different sectors of the Syrian rebels, and on the failure of those leftists who deserted the Syrian Revolution, 5 April 2017, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/syrian-revolution-not-dead/
RCIT: Revolution and Counterrevolution in the Arab World: An Acid Test for Revolutionaries, 31 May 2015, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/theses-arab-revolution/
Map: Areas of Control in North Syria, 4 March 2018