The Zionist Wars

A History of the Zionist Movement and Imperialist Wars


Book by Yossi Schwartz, Revolutionary-Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 1 February 2021,

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Part I: The Rise of Zionism

Part II: On the Eve of the Nakba

Part III: The Decline

Part IV: Marxism and Anti-Zionism


List of Maps (Maps can only be viewed in the PDF Version)


Map 1: The Peel Commission Plan 1937


Map 2: The Partition of the UN Plan in 1947


Map 3: Israel in 1949









The Jewish Zionist movement that appeared at the last part of the 19th century was shaped by two processes. The first one was the growing of the new form of anti-Semitism among the European bourgeoisie and the petit bourgeoisie. The other one was the Scramble for Africa by the European imperialists.


The new form of anti-Semitism was based on the pseudo-science of social Darwinism that saw the Jews as an inferior parasitic and dangerous race. It was a different form than the Christian Anti-Semitism that saw the Jews as the killers of the son of god. The Jews could redeem themselves by converting to Christianity according to Christian theology. In contrary, racist, pseudo-scientific, social Darwinism does not offer similar solutions of (forced) assimilation but concludes that Jews must be excluded and in consequence killed.


The Scramble for Africa offered the Jews a seemingly better solution, acting as settler colonialists in one of the colonies, both in a military and political role. This was clear already in 1903 when British imperialism offered the Zionist movement an autonomous territory in Kenya to guard the railways (The Uganda plan).


The Zionist ideology emphasized the new role of the Jews as Muscular Judaism, a term coined by Max Nordau at the turn of the twentieth century. The concept of the ‘muscle Jew’ represented a dominant current of Jewish Zionists identity reformulation.


“At the Second Zionist Congress in 1898, Herzl’s chief lieutenant, the Parisian physician, Max Nordau, made a speech in which he called for the need to develop what he called “muscle Judaism”. It was a subject to which he returned in subsequent years, and in so doing he contributed greatly to the idea of the development of the New Jew as a total transformation of the frightened Jew of the ghetto”[1].


The Zionist movement founded by Herzl was a petit-bourgeois, Jewish-nationalist movement that adopted the anti-Semitic tenet that the Jews are a foreign body in the European countries they lived in. During WWI, the Zionists offered their military role to the British imperialists by organizing the Jewish Legion established by Zabotinsky and Trumpeldor: “Maxwell, commander of the British force in Egypt, told a delegation of the volunteers that an offensive on the Palestine front was doubtful and that regulations prohibited the admission of foreign nationals into the British army. He suggested that the volunteers serve as a detachment for mule transport on some other sector of the Turkish front. His proposal was rejected by most members of the Legion Committee, including Jabotinsky, but Trumpeldor's position was that any anti-Turkish front would "lead to Zion."…”Together with Lieutenant Colonel John Henry Patterson, delegated by the British military authorities, Trumpeldor succeeded in forming the 650-strong Zion Mule Corps. 562 of its members were sent to the Gallipoli front under Patterson, with Trumpeldor as second in command.”[2]


Thus, the Zionists were able to demonstrate to the British imperialists that the Zionists can function as a military force for the empire.


The Zionists love to speak of Balfour Declaration letter to Lord Rothschild, dated November 2nd 1917, which states: “His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."


For the Zionists, this letter is a proof that Palestine belongs to them. There are many things to say about the value of this letter, one of it being: what kind of right did British imperialism had over Palestine anyway? As the Palestinian-American academic Edward Wadie Saïd, wrote “it was an obvious example of the blueprint of imperialism, (a) by a European power, (b) about a non-European territory, (c) in flat disregard of both the presence and the wishes of the native majority resident in the territory, and (d) it took the form of a promise about this same territory to another foreign group, so that this foreign group might, quite literally, make this territory a national home for the Jewish people.”[3]


British imperialism promised a national home for the Zionists to guard the Suez Canal which led to India, the most important British colony.


“The Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the final confirmation of Britain's Palestine Mandate in 1923 within the context of national imperial concerns: in particular, anxieties over the security of the Suez Canal and the country's sea-route to its economic and military power-base in India. In 1917 strategic issues were paramount in the progressive annexation of Palestine by the Lloyd George coalition, this the essential territorial precondition for the pursuit of the Zionist project. In 1923 these global considerations were again to the fore when the new Conservative administration, less Zionist than its predecessor, decided finally to accept and implement the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine and the obligation therein to advance the cause of a Jewish national home. And throughout this period there was a widespread sense in official circles that Zionist settlers might perform as direct agents of Empire, acting as grateful, loyal, and developmental servants of the British imperial interest”.[4]


In addition, the British imperialists did not want to open the gates of Britain to Russian Jews and preferred to settle them down in a colony. They also hoped to use the influence of the Jews in the USA to keep it in the war and intervene against the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.


Thus, the Zionists backed by British imperialism set the stage for the Zionist military role against the native Palestinians and the Arab-national, anti-imperialist movement.


A major theme of the Zionist propaganda is that Israel has been forced to fight because its Arab enemies want to destroy Israel and kill the Jews of Israel. Today, in the Zionist propaganda, Iran and its allies have nearly replaced the Arab states.


Yet, in most wars of the Zionists, Israeli leaders bragg that Israel is rolling back or will roll back its enemies to the Stone Age. For example, Benny Gantz, who was the chief of the army, bragged in 2019 that he bombed Gaza to the Stone Age[5]. Yisrael Katz announced that Lebanon will be blown back to the ‘Stone Age’[6]. These statements are not empty words. In each war the Zionist army destroyed the infrastructure of the other side. To maintain its position as the major power in the service of other imperialists, Israel will do whatever it can to prevent the development of the Arab countries and Iran socially, economically, and militarily.


This is the connection between the Balfour Declaration letter and the fact that Israel has been able to build the fourth strongest army in the world with the aid first of Russian Stalinism, and later British, French, American and German imperialism.


That does not mean that Israel is an enclave of imperialism. Israel has become a junior imperialist due to the aid it received, and it relies on stronger imperialism for its own expansionist interests. It goes to wars not only for the interests of the other imperialist states but for its own reactionary dreams of greater Israel.


No other than Vladimir Ze’ev Jabotinsky wrote in “The Iron Wall”:


“There can be no voluntary agreement between ourselves and the Palestine Arabs. Not now, nor in the prospective future. I say this with such conviction, not because I want to hurt the moderate Zionists. I do not believe that they will be hurt. Except for those who were born blind, they realized long ago that it is utterly impossible to obtain the voluntary consent of the Palestine Arabs for converting "Palestine" from an Arab country into a country with a Jewish majority.”[7]


“But an agreement with Arabs outside the Land of Israel is also a delusion. For nationalists in Baghdad, Mecca and Damascus to agree to such an expensive contribution (agreeing to forego preservation of the Arab character of a country located in the center of their future “federation”) we would have to offer them something just as valuable. We can offer only two things: either money or political assistance or both. But we can offer neither. Concerning money, it is ludicrous to think we could finance the development of Iraq or Saudi Arabia, when we do not have enough for the Land of Israel. Ten times more illusionary is political assistance for Arab political aspirations. Arab nationalism sets itself the same aims as those set by Italian nationalism before 1870 and Polish nationalism before 1918: unity and independence. These aspirations mean the eradication of every trace of British influence in Egypt and Iraq, the expulsion of the Italians from Libya, the removal of French domination from Syria, Tunis, Algiers and Morocco. For us to support such a movement would be suicide and treachery. If we disregard the fact that the Balfour Declaration was signed by Britain, we cannot forget that France and Italy also signed it. We cannot intrigue about removing Britain from the Suez Canal and the Persian Gulf and the elimination of French and Italian colonial rule over Arab territory. Such a double game cannot be considered on any account. Thus we conclude that we cannot promise anything to the Arabs of the Land of Israel or the Arab countries. Their voluntary agreement is out of the question. Hence those who hold that an agreement with the natives is an essential condition for Zionism can now say “no” and depart from Zionism. Zionist colonization, even the most restricted, must either be terminated or carried out in defiance of the will of the native population. This colonization can, therefore, continue and develop only under the protection of a force independent of the local population – an iron wall which the native population cannot break through. This is, in toto, our policy towards the Arabs. To formulate it any other way would only be hypocrisy.”[8]


In this book we trace the different stages of the development of the Zionist military force and its reactionary role. The first stage was the formation of the Hashomer (watchman) under the Ottoman Empire. In this stage the Zionists formed a force to guards the lands (colonies or Moshavots in Hebrew) they established by removing Arab peasants and turning Arab villages to Zionist settlements. This was followed by forming the Hagana (defense) in 1920. The next stage was acting as a military junior partner of the British to crash the Arab rebellion of 1936-39. This was followed by the removing of 900,000 Palestinians in the war of 1947-49.


In 1956, the Zionists acted as a partner to the French and British imperialism in the Suez war. In 1967, the Zionist army reached its peak in the war aimed at the defeat of the Arab revolution and at the same time occupied the Sinai, the West Bank and Gaza. In 1973, the Zionist military power began its decline. In the wars against Lebanon and Gaza, the Zionists were unable to win the wars. Even though it is still an imperialist state with the fourth strongest army in the world, acting as the spearhead of the imperialist control of the region, those last wars were the beginning of the decline of Israel as a military force.


“Hanit is the Hebrew word meaning spearhead. That word explains why Israel is a vital strategic asset not just to Great Britain, but to the West as a whole.[9]


 Israel is the largest cumulative recipient of U.S. foreign assistance since World War II. To date, the United States has provided Israel $142.3 billion (current, or noninflation-adjusted, dollars) in bilateral assistance and missile defense funding. Almost all U.S. bilateral aid to Israel is in the form of military assistance, although from 1971 to 2007 Israel also received significant economic assistance. In 2016, the U.S. and Israeli governments signed a new 10-year Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on military aid, covering FY2019 to FY2028. Under the terms of the MOU, the United States pledges to provide $38 billion in military aid ($33 billion in Foreign Military Financing grants plus $5 billion in missile defense appropriations) to Israel. This MOU replaced a previous $30 billion 10-year agreement, which ran through FY2018. Israel is the first international operator of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Department of Defense’s fifth-generation stealth aircraft, considered to be the most technologically advanced fighter jet ever made. To date, Israel has purchased 50 F-35s in three separate contracts.”[10]


However, the USA that stands behind Israel is also in decline and so is the European Union. It is unlikely that Israel will be able to offer the new Eastern imperialists, Russia and China, the same service. Ironically, the sale of the F35 to the UAE (already the new ally of Israel), is an indicator of the awareness of US imperialists that Israel alone can’t provide the military service it used to perform.


The reactionary local rulers in the Arab countries are weak, and the Arab revolutions are not only challenging them but will end them sooner or later. Furthermore, the future Arab revolution will also end the Zionist settler state, this racist, colonialist project that is rotting from within. The protest movement in Israel sees Netanyahu as the malice, while he only reflects the crisis and decline of the Israeli state as such.

Chapter 1: Marxism and Wars




The 20th century marked the beginning of capitalism's epoch of decay. Capitalism, just like any other socio-economic system which preceded it, has reached a stage in which it is no longer a system that develops the forces of production further, but the very system that stands in the way of their development. The wars of this epoch reflect this characteristic in a terrifying manner.


Marxists do not believe that the capitalist system marks "the end of history" nor do we believe that capitalism has not yet outstretched its full potential. We support its overthrow and its replacement by the revolutionary workers’ states, leading the transition to a higher socio-economic system which would enable humanity to elevate its forces of production and standard of living into levels which as yet, are unimaginable: Communism – the highest stage of socialist society.


Like other socio-economic systems before it, capitalism had to fight itself into existence and must be fought out of existence. The revolutionary violence of its birth will be the major tool for its overthrow, unfortunate as it may be.


Marxists strongly oppose all pacifist, idealist notions, which fundamentally reject all forms of violence and make no distinction between oppressors and oppressed – a distinction, which is key in Marxist thought. We hold those pacifist, reformist ideas as historical non-possibilities that serve as a mask for those who serve imperialism. Or to those who are merely spreading illusions about the capability of capitalism to conduct itself rationally and without contradictions or antagonisms resulting in acts of violence.


It must be said, however, that capitalism did not invent wars. Armed bodies of people fought each other and within themselves for control over resources ever since humanity can remember itself. The difference between ancient wars and capitalist wars is the essential motive behind them – scarcity. Prior to this period, there simply were not enough resources to allow humanity to prosper and develop its means of production farther.


Capitalism, however, has allowed the development of the means to abolish scarcity and has thus given humanity the potential to live in "world peace". However, the capitalist relations of production themselves stand in its way.


The highest and final stage of capitalism is characterized by imperialism – an epoch in which the boundaries of the old-fashioned, nation-states are too small to contain the forces of production. As in the period of the primitive accumulation of capital, today the capitalists force themselves on underdeveloped nations for the purpose of extracting more surplus value by super-exploitation of "Third World" workers.


With the creation of a world economy, each imperialist state and bloc struggles to become the only power which super-exploits, and thus they turn against one another with brute force resulting in what history calls a World War, but which is, in reality, an inter-imperialist war, with the "world" as its victim.


The 20th century witnessed two such major inter-imperialist wars that resulted in a holocaust unimaginable even by the most ruthless and bloodthirsty of medieval barbarians, causing the death of close to 90 million human beings!


It is possible that the imperialists did not want a World War to happen; they all spoke of diplomacy, reasoning, and most of all, of peace. But in such an epoch of decay, the enchanted broom does not act any more upon the sorcerer's commands. Instead of peace, diplomacy, and reason, we got weapons of mass destruction, capable of ending human existence as we know it.


Instead of progress and development, we got devastation, hunger, and epidemics with entire major cities and industrial complexes reduced to rubble and dust, artifacts of technology and knowledge lost to be dug out, as if they were archeological relics.


In 1914, it was clear that capitalism had outgrown itself and changed from a mechanism of building into a mechanism of destruction, eating away at itself in a vicious cycle of destroying and rebuilding without any regard to the costs, humanity must pay as a result of this senseless psychopathic behavior.


In this epoch, humanity stands at the crossroads, having to choose between the overthrow of the social-economic system which no longer serves its needs, and facing its own extinction. A well-known phrase was coined by Rosa Luxemburg: “Socialism or Barbarism”, or as Lenin said: “In order for humanity to survive, imperialism must die.” So, for anyone who wants humanity to survive, the question at hand is: Who, how and what will kill imperialism?


Theorists like Karl Kautsky have envisioned that, in a world in which the tendency of value is to centralize into the hands of fewer and fewer capitalists, eventually a global society will be created and ruled by a tiny elite of capitalists. He envisioned “a holy alliance of imperialists”, joined together by their fear of global war. Those who observe reality through the glasses of idealism and formal logic will find it hard not to agree with this, and why not? On a primitive basis, it seems perfectly logical.


But dialectical materialists know that reason and human consciousness can change reality only if material conditions allow it. The first and second world wars have taught us, at a terrible cost, another lesson in the seemingly irrational workings of history. As Lenin had predicted, the very conditions laid out by the capitalist system did not allow the imperialists themselves to put an end to war; the opposite – the enhancement of wars – would prove to be true.


However, capitalism itself contains the means for its abolition. Along with the bourgeoisie as a ruling class, it has created the working class, whose interests are inherently antagonistic to it. All other classes – like peasants, professionals, or artisans – are constant factors of any class society since the start of agriculture. They are not a unique phenomenon of the capitalist system. Therefore, if bourgeois ruling classes of some nations have managed to climb up and become imperialists, the only class which has the interest and the ability to stop them from tearing this world apart is the working class. Imperialists with their destruction of the environment and epidemics, with their inter-imperialist wars can only be overthrown by the working class, by their revolution against the bourgeoisie, by the smashing of the capitalist state apparatus, and by replacing it with a working-class state. All this are necessary steps in leading humanity on its way to a classless, stateless society with no basis for wars.




The Correct Working-Class Policy Regarding an Inter-Imperialist War




So, what should the working class do in the event of an impending world war, knowing that the power to stop it lies exclusively in its own hands? The leaders of the international working-class party, the Second International, on the eve of the First World War, advised their supporters to defend their own bourgeoisie, claiming that the bourgeoisie on the other side of the border were much worse. This is the classic “lesser evil” argument which continues to be the flagship of reformist arguments to this very day. It occurs often in history that following ‘lesser evil’ logic leads to much greater evil.


From a Marxist point of view, knowing that the interests of the bourgeoisie (as a whole) are antagonistic to those of the working class, supporting either side in an inter-imperialist war seems senseless and is indeed senseless. In case of an inter-imperialist war, the working class must act internationally, not only by not supporting either side, but rather by actively opposing all sides. Marxists call this policy “Revolutionary Defeatism”, named after the phrase, coined by Lenin regarding imperialist Russia's involvement in World War I: “Defeat is the lesser evil”. While this phrase has been open to much interpretation and misinterpretation, we agree with Trotsky's understanding of the defeatist policy: "In those cases where it is a question of conflict between capitalist countries, the proletariat of any one of them refuses categorically to sacrifice its historic interests, which in the final analysis coincide with the interests of the nation and humanity, for the sake of the military victory of the bourgeoisie. Lenin’s formula, “defeat is the lesser evil,” means not defeat of one’s country is the lesser evil as compared with the defeat of the enemy country but that a military defeat resulting from the growth of the revolutionary movement is infinitely more beneficial to the proletariat and to the whole people than military victory assured by “civil peace.”


Karl Liebknecht gave an unsurpassed formula of proletarian policy in time of war: “The chief enemy of the people is in its own country.” The victorious proletarian revolution not only will rectify the evils caused by defeat but also will create the final guarantee against future wars and defeats. This dialectical attitude toward war is the most important element of revolutionary training and therefore also of the struggle against war." [11]


The ultimate goal of the proletariat, should it fail in preventing the war to begin with, is to turn the world war into a worldwide civil war aimed to overthrow the bourgeoisie and capitalism. This policy is called by Marxists “the transformation of the imperialist war into a civil war”. As in any war under capitalism, the bourgeoisie rely heavily on the cooperation and support of the working class – it must work much more and much harder in order to feed the wasteful bourgeois war machine, and more importantly, it must outperform the workers of the “enemy nation”. A working class internationally conscious of its historical role in bringing down capitalism would then have the perfect opportunity to do so, since without the cooperation of the workers, not even a single bullet would fly, let alone an H-Bomb. The workers' revolutionary opposition can result in a civil war that would bring about the end of bourgeois rule, and thus the capitalist phase of human history.




Revolutionary War




Revolutionary wars are wars waged between a progressive side, whose interest is in the overthrowing of an oppressive rule respectively an outdated mode of production, and a reactionary side, whose interests are in preserving it. Socialist revolutionaries would give their support to victory of the progressive side.


This position could be easily learned from Marx’s own position on the civil war in the United States between the free labor North and the slaveholding South:


The present struggle between the South and North is, therefore, nothing but a struggle between two social systems, the system of slavery and the system of free labour. The struggle has broken out because the two systems can no longer live peacefully side by side on the North American continent. It can only be ended by the victory of one system or the other." [12]


And further, Marx stated: “He [Lincoln] errs only if he imagines that the “loyal” slaveholders are to be moved by benevolent speeches and rational arguments. They will yield only to force. So far, we have only witnessed the first act of the Civil War — the constitutional waging of war. The second act, the revolutionary waging of war, is at hand."[13]


Once all outdated modes of production have been smashed out of existence by capitalism, it has concluded its revolutionary role. Today, when free competition has long ago given way to monopoly, and the struggle to create a global market of commodities has long ago given way to imperialist super-exploitation; Marxist revolutionaries' support should lie with those elements which would hasten the fall of capitalist imperialism.


As we have established before, the working class should rise to become the leader and spearhead of the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist resistance. Should the working class of any nation succeed in overthrowing its own bourgeoisie and form a workers’ state, Marxists will defend it from any attack from the outside or inside of the given country and support its victory in any war against any class enemy – imperialist or not. The workers’ interests lie in battling the laws laid down by the current reactionary social production system, capitalism, and creating a new social mode of production which would operate without the need for states or classes - socialism. Therefore, the working class, in any armed conflict, is the progressive side, and therefore should be receiving our unconditional support.


The only country in history that, through revolution, managed to become a workers’ state was the Soviet Union in 1917. It managed to stay a workers’ state up until 1939 when the Stalinist counterrevolution finally completed the process of turning it into a completely degenerated form that cannot be reformed but needs another revolution. The young workers’ state of 1917 was instantly attacked by several bourgeois imperialist armies, namely the Russian bourgeoisie (the White Army), Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, the far-reaching armed tentacles of imperialist countries like the U.S., the UK, France and Italy, and non-imperialist reactionary bourgeois army and petty-bourgeois forces. Marxist revolutionaries have supported the workers’ state despite any bureaucratic deformations which plagued it at that time, and which were eventually the cause of its internal demise.




World War II and the Rise of Fascism




World War II was marked by the rise of a new enemy to the working class, a political enemy whose main target is the working class. By use of brute force, it would try to deny it its most basic democratic rights, attempting to seal off any possibility of a working-class revolution. This enemy, so fierce it would strike fear even in the hearts of the bourgeois ruling class, would receive the notorious name ‘fascism’, after the Italian Fascist movement – the first of its kind to rise to power.


Naturally, fascism has terrified the workers throughout the world; millions of them were willing to take arms in hands and smash the fascist serpent. The bourgeoisie of the other imperialist countries, in turn, would naturally pounce on this opportunity, when the eyes of the workers are focused elsewhere, and cynically demand “civil peace” from the working class – which means far-reaching capitulations. The worst results were those misled workers who followed the Hitler-Stalin agreement of collaborating with the fascist enemy respectively those who willingly subordinated themselves under the war mobilization of the Western powers.


Marxist revolutionaries know that fascism is nothing but the uglier side of the same capitalist face, and that its rise to power is just a symptom of a bourgeois ruling class so intimidated by the strong working class and its impending revolution that it is willing to give the keys to the country to right-wing militants rather than give its place away to a more advanced mode of production of which it will no longer be the master.


Once again, as in any other imperialist war, regardless of the political character of the rulers of the different imperialist countries, our position would be both defeatism and the transformation of imperialist war into civil war. If anyone should make capitulations to save its skin from the fascists, it should be the bourgeoisie and not the working class. After all, it was they who gave it control. Overall, the imperialist characteristic of a country is overwhelmingly more significant to us than the character of its state form. It is obvious that Marxists have to defend any attack against (bourgeois-) democratic rights, but class independence is crucial.


Trotsky writes aptly about the possibility of an inter-imperialist war and the correct proletarian attitude towards it:


"If the proletariat should find it beyond its power to prevent war by means of revolution – and this is the only means of preventing war – the workers, together with the whole people, will be forced to participate in the army and in war. Individualistic and anarchistic slogans of refusal to undergo military service, passive resistance, desertion, sabotage are in basic contradiction to the methods of the proletarian revolution. But just as in the factory the advanced worker feels himself a slave of capital, preparing for his liberation, so in the capitalist army too he feels himself a slave of imperialism. Compelled today to give his muscles and even his life, he does not surrender his revolutionary consciousness. He remains a fighter, learns how to use arms, explains even in the trenches the class meaning of war, groups around himself the discontented, connects them into cells, transmits the ideas and slogans of the party, watches closely the changes in the mood of the masses, the subsiding of the patriotic wave, the growth of indignation, and summons the soldiers to the aid of the workers at the critical moment.” [14]


For a working class which would live in a country plagued by fascism, here is a summary of the correct tactics to counter fascism without forfeiting the class struggle:


1. The working class can trust no one to defend it from its political or class enemies. Therefore, in case of an armed onslaught upon it, revolutionaries would call the workers to arm themselves for the purpose of self-defense against the fascists. Furthermore, while Marxists defend democratic rights by any means, to fulfill this task is only possible if the working-class independence is preserved.


2. A workers' revolutionary party must send an infiltration force of propagandists into the army in order to win the support of as many soldiers as possible (many of them come from the ranks of the poor peasantry and the crisis-battered petty-bourgeoisie) to the proletarian revolution.


3. A united front of military action, temporary and tactical only, should be formed with all anti-fascist elements without political subordination. The working class should strive to rise to the leadership of any united front, win as many anti-fascists as possible to its side in the class war, and steer this movement towards the socialist revolution. Under no circumstances should the working class make any capitulations of its class interests to alien class elements, nor fall under their control. Keeping the working class an independent, self-emancipating fighting force is key to eliminating both the fascist threat and the capitalist ruling class responsible for its very emergence.




The Lessons of the Spanish Revolution




An example of a civil war involving fascism is the Spanish Revolution of 1936-1939. In this war a fascist army backed by Nazi Germany attempted to take over Spain. Unlike in Germany, the working class in Spain was not yet weakened by its traitorous leadership to the point where it had lost all will to fight fascism. A “popular front” consisting of many different and contradictory political and class elements was formed to fight fascism.


Trotsky wrote on this “popular front”:


A bloc of divergent political groups of the working class is sometimes completely indispensable for the solution of common practical problems. In certain historical circumstances, such a bloc is capable of attracting the oppressed petty-bourgeois masses whose interests are close to the interests of the proletariat. The joint force of such a bloc can prove far stronger than the sum of the forces of each of its component parts. On the contrary, the political alliance between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, whose interests on basic questions in the present epoch diverge at an angle of 180 degrees, as a general rule is capable only of paralyzing the revolutionary force of the proletariat.


Civil war, in which the force of naked coercion is hardly effective, demands of its participants the spirit of supreme self-abnegation. The workers and peasants can assure victory only if they wage a struggle for their own emancipation. Under these conditions, to subordinate the proletariat to the leadership of the bourgeoisie means beforehand to assure defeat in the civil war.” [15]


Trotsky was right, and the popular front tactic proved to be disastrous to the working class and its revolution. Understanding that bourgeois “democracy” and totalitarian fascism stem from the same class interest in prolonging the death agony of capitalism helps Marxist revolutionaries to see right through all sorts of class enemy propaganda, be it bourgeois-liberal, reformist or centrist, and exposes its role in blocking the revolutionary power of the working class. The only way to win an anti-fascist campaign is to free the proletariat from the leadership of the bourgeoisie.




Wars and the "Third World"




Not all bourgeois countries have succeeded in becoming imperialist.


The bourgeois classes of these exploited nations possess the same class interests as their imperialist counterparts and wish they could increase their own value beyond all bounds. Not having the military power and resources to exploit weaker countries, these bourgeois ruling classes would face very unfavorable options for achieving their interests of expansion.


One of those options would be to try and increase the exploitation rate of their own already super-exploited workers – a hard task, since super-exploited workers already receive just enough wages for mere survival, and to push them harder might result in a working-class united fight for survival, or even a revolution. The correct position to take by Marxist revolutionaries is obviously to support the workers against the bourgeoisie.


A second option, which will be discussed in this pamphlet, is made possible by the fact that many of those exploited nations live within territories whose borders were hand-drawn by the imperialists themselves, creating significant national minorities. These minorities are either castes who act as a ruling elite or are, as in most cases, an oppressed respectively discriminated national minority, perhaps refugees from neighboring war-torn “Third World" countries, and generally politically weaker than the ruling majority. The ruling bourgeoisie would have to exploit every opportunity to eat away at the remaining rights of these minorities, who happen in many cases to sit upon some valuable natural resources.


In such cases Marxists would take the side of the oppressed minority against the oppressors even if the class nature of its leadership is not proletarian. This position means joint tactical actions against a common enemy. However, and most importantly, Marxists would give no political support to any leadership whose interests are antagonistic to the working class, and under no circumstances should the working class surrender its own interests or capitulates any achievements to the bourgeoisie, nor give up on its military or organizational independence from it once achieved.


Marxists would also call for the working class of the oppressor nation to turn its arms against its own bourgeoisie and protect the rights of the oppressed nation, turning the national civil war into a revolutionary civil war.


A third option which the ruling class of an exploited nation has is to try to get a bigger piece of their own nation's exploitation pie from their imperialist overlords. A refusal by the imperialists sometimes results in an armed conflict, or an 'anti-imperialist war'. This turn of the bourgeoisie against imperialism may also be a result of inner pressures created by the dissatisfied super-exploited working class and peasantry. The ruling classes would then hope to succeed in diverting the anger of the masses from themselves to the imperialist nations. Any resulting capitulations by the imperialists would then be used to pacify the angry masses.


A non-imperialist nation engaged in a war against imperialism would be regarded by Marxists in the same manner mentioned above concerning an oppressed national minority, i.e., support for the victory of the oppressed, regardless of the class nature of their leadership, and without supporting any bourgeois, petty-bourgeois respectively reactionary policies. Once again, the workers who live in the imperialist nation would be called to support the revolutionary defeat of their own bourgeoisie and the victory of the "Third World" nation against it.


Such support would be given even to the most hated ruling characters and regimes. For example, Trotsky had supported the Kuomintang, led by the butcher Chiang Kai-Shek, against the attacks of imperialist Japan:


"In order to arrive at a real national liberation it is necessary to overthrow the Kuomintang. But this does not mean that we postpone the struggle until the time when the Kuomintang is overthrown. The more the struggle against foreign oppression spreads the more difficulties the Kuomintang will have. The more we line up the masses against the Kuomintang the more the struggle against imperialism will develop.


"At the acute moment of Japanese intervention the workers and the students called for arms. From whom? Again from the Kuomintang. It would be a sectarian absurdity to abandon this demand under the pretext that we wish to overthrow the Kuomintang. We wish to overthrow it but we have not yet reached that point. The more energetically we demand the arming of the workers the sooner we shall reach it.”[16]


While our anti-fascist strategies and tactics would apply regardless of the imperialist or non-imperialist character of any given country, we would support a non-imperialist country against an imperialist country, even if the former is ruled by fascists – as long as the semi-colonial country is not operating as a puppet for another imperialist power.


Trotsky has explicitly expressed this position in an interview with Mateo Fossa in 1938:


"In Brazil there now reigns a semifascist regime that every revolutionary can only view with hatred. Let us assume, however, that on the morrow England enters into a military conflict with Brazil. I ask you on whose side of the conflict will the working class be? I will answer for myself personally—in this case I will be on the side of “fascist” Brazil against “democratic” Great Britain. Why? Because in the conflict between them it will not be a question of democracy or fascism. If England should be victorious, she will put another fascist in Rio de Janeiro and will place double chains on Brazil. If Brazil on the contrary should be victorious, it will give a mighty impulse to national and democratic consciousness of the country and will lead to the overthrow of the Vargas dictatorship. The defeat of England will at the same time deliver a blow to British imperialism and will give an impulse to the revolutionary movement of the British proletariat. Truly, one must have an empty head to reduce world antagonisms and military conflicts to the struggle between fascism and democracy. Under all masks one must know how to distinguish exploiters, slave-owners, and robbers!" [17]




Imperialist Involvement in Third World Warfare




All of the above may seem like a well-worked scheme. However, in many cases the situation at hand is far from clean cut. The imperialists are well aware of the antagonism felt towards them in exploited countries. They would use a wide range of tactics to keep these nations fighting within and amongst themselves for scraps falling off their table.


In many situations where "Third World" countries are engaged in warfare with each other, there is one imperialist country or more involved in a direct or indirect manner, attempting to capitalize on the war and turn it to their own interests in the given region.


When no imperialist is involved, a war between two “Third World” countries will be regarded by us in the same manner mentioned above regarding an inter-imperialist war. We would call the working classes of both countries to unite against their own bourgeoisie and fight for the establishment of a workers' state federation in the region, which would grant every oppressed nation the right to self-determination. However, we would take side for one semi-colonial country against another if it is nationally oppressed respectively discriminated. This includes to defend the right of becoming completely independent as it was the case with several countries during the Balkan Wars in the 1990s. We supported the right of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and all other countries to become independent after the fall of Yugoslavia. All countries who opposed staying in a forced nation with Serbia have been attacked by the latter and we took the side of defending the right for independence and for the defeat of Serbia. This did not stop us from defending Serbia against the imperialist NATO bombings on Beograd. As Marxists we have to take a very close look on the situation at hand and always follow the rule: Side with the oppressed.


However, a non-imperialist nation that turns against an imperialist one often gives neighboring non-imperialist ruling classes an excellent opportunity to show their loyalty to imperialism and offer to do imperialism’s 'dirty work' for it by engaging in direct warfare against the rebellious country, hoping to expand its influence in the region and get a more favorable treatment from the imperialist bourgeoisie. The imperialists may get involved either directly by sending their own forces to aid their “Third World” allies, or indirectly by supplying arms and/or military consultation. A rival imperialist may like to get involved and aid the other side to further its own interests and/or weaken the former.


A war in which rival countries use other countries as an indirect way to fight each other is referred to as a 'proxy war'. In such cases the magnitude and depth of imperialist involvement would determine which side, if any, would gain our support. A proxy war is meant to benefit one imperialist or the other, and so under no circumstances would Marxists prefer the interests of one imperialist to the other – we support none and oppose all. Therefore, any ruling class which ties its interests directly to the interests of imperialists would obviously get no support from Marxists who would rather see it defeated.


The key question regarding imperialist involvement is to what extent the imperialist country directly controls the “Third World” army, and to what extent does the latter act on its own will. Furthermore, it is the nature of imperialists to try to interfere in the political developments of any semi-colony. This doesn’t mean that their interference automatically gains enough influence and impact to change the progressive character of a cause. Trotsky gave a rather extreme hypothetical example to demonstrate his position, with which we completely agree:


If Hitler tomorrow were forced to send arms to the insurrectionary Indians, must the revolutionary German workers oppose this concrete action by strikes or sabotage? On the contrary they must make sure that the insurrectionists receive the arms as soon as possible.”[18]


In this hypothetical scenario, Hitler does not directly control the armed force to which he sends his military aid.




The 2008 South Ossetia Conflict




An excellent case study which would help demonstrate the ISL's position on this matter is the 2008 South Ossetia conflict. Georgia, which is a non-imperialist country politically supported by the imperialist U.S., has invaded the territories of the Ossetian and Abkhazian national minorities, which are politically backed by imperialist Russia. As retaliation, the Russians invaded Georgian territory.


Our position, in short, was to support the Ossetians and Abkhazians against the Georgian attack, but once the Russians invaded Georgia, we supported the defeat of imperialist Russia, without withdrawing our support from the right of the Ossetians and Abkhazians to self-determination and separation from either Georgia or Russia. We called for the working class of the region to unite and fight for a socialist federation of the entire Caucasus.


Most leftist groups around the world regarded this war as a proxy war between the U.S. and Russia, and opposed both, taking a pacifist position condemning all sides. These wrong positions resulted from the confusion over standing with the oppressed and giving political support to its leadership, and the confusion over direct and indirect military involvement; they also resulted from an inability or unwillingness to even tell the oppressor from the oppressed.


In our opinion, the political and indirect military support Georgia got from NATO and also from Israel, in the form of selling arms and military consultation, was not enough to label Georgia as a country acting in the interests of its imperialist supporters. Rather, our impression was that this war was an act of defiance by the Georgian ruling class against its imperialist neighbor, Russia. Of course, we did not think this act should be conducted on the expense of the rights of national minorities, hence the consistent support we gave the oppressed nations.




Our Position on Guerilla Warfare, Guerilla-ism, and Terrorism




As Marxist revolutionaries, we do not oppose guerilla warfare as a tactic in the service of proletarian revolutionary warfare, and as a section of the 'regular' workers' army consisting of armed workers' militias. We do, however, strongly oppose guerrilla-ism, which is the idealist belief that guerilla warfare could or should replace the proletarian army and achieve victory on its own.


The working class, especially under monopoly capitalism, is organized, in masses, more than ever before, with single factories employing hundreds and even thousands of workers. Breaking them all down into small semi-independent units makes no sense. Calls of guerrillas’ warfare nature usually arise in countries where the working class constitutes a minority of the general population (i.e., less developed “Third World” countries), and are usually propagated by elements outside the working class, such as peasants and the urban petit bourgeoisie.


Should elements from these classes express an interest in overthrowing the bourgeoisie, they must be led by the only revolutionary class under capitalism – the working class, no matter how small. The very core of Marxist thought stresses the centrality of the self-emancipating working class (with its own strategies and tactics) in overthrowing capitalism. Revolutions led by any other class just lead back to capitalism from the back door.


Regarding terrorism, the general definition of which is politically and emotionally charged and therefore disputed, Marxists define it as an aspect of psychological warfare whose aim is to instill fear and intimidation among both civilians and the military/police through the use of limited but concentrated violence.[19]


Terrorism is roughly divided into two kinds – state terrorism and individual terrorism. State terrorism is practiced by the ruling class against political and military rivals. State terrorism, like any other kind, does not distinguish between armed combatants and unarmed civilians, its goal being to create a smokescreen of illusions in the invincibility of the given state, its ‘all knowing, all seeing’ abilities through secret police and army intelligence, and its zero tolerance of any verbal or physical attack against it.


The use of state terrorism by a given state signifies its relative weakness and its own fears for its survival, since both guerilla warfare and terrorism are the tactics of those who feel that their backs are against the wall. Our opposition to capitalist and imperialist states is regardless of the tactics they use against their enemies. In the same manner, when a workers’ state is forced to use state-terrorist tactics, we will not withdraw our support from it.


However, we categorically oppose the tactic of individual terrorism. Trotsky aptly explains this position:


In our eyes, individual terror is inadmissible precisely because it belittles the role of the masses in their own consciousness, reconciles them to their powerlessness, and turns their eyes and hopes towards a great avenger and liberator who some day will come and accomplish his mission. The anarchist prophets of the 'propaganda of the deed' can argue all they want about the elevating and stimulating influence of terrorist acts on the masses. Theoretical considerations and political experience prove otherwise. The more 'effective' the terrorist acts, the greater their impact, the more they reduce the interest of the masses in self-organisation and self-education. But the smoke from the confusion clears away, the panic disappears, the successor of the murdered minister makes his appearance, life again settles into the old rut, the wheel of capitalist exploitation turns as before; only the police repression grows more savage and brazen. And as a result, in place of the kindled hopes and artificially aroused excitement comes disillusionment and apathy.”[20]


Having said that, we must also clarify that the support we give to oppressed nations includes desperate or delusional individuals who decide to take part in such an activity, and regardless of the damage they cause for their own nation’s struggle. Let us take for example the episode of Herschel Grynszpan, a German Jew who assassinated the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath as an act of revenge against the German government, which at that time deported German Jews of Polish origin from Germany, among them Grynszpan's family.


This attack, which could be labeled as individual terrorism, was later used as a pretext for the German government to issue the famous pogrom called “Kristallnacht” against the German Jews in 1938. Grynszpan was then attacked by both the bourgeois and Stalinist press as a collaborator with Hitler, having served to him on a silver platter the pretext for the pogrom.


Trotsky however, though condemning individual terrorism, chose to defend Grynszpan:


We Marxists consider the tactic of individual terror inexpedient in the tasks of the liberating struggle of the proletariat as well as oppressed nationalities. A single isolated hero cannot replace the masses. But we understand only too clearly the inevitability of such convulsive acts of despair and vengeance. All our emotions, all our sympathies are with the self-sacrificing avengers even though they have been unable to discover the correct road. Our sympathy becomes intensified because Grynszpan is not a political militant but an inexperienced youth, almost a boy, whose only counselor was a feeling of indignation. To tear Grynszpan out of the hands of capitalist justice, which is capable of chopping off his head to further serve capitalist diplomacy, is the elementary, immediate task of the international working class!” [21]


Trotsky ends his article with the following paragraph, which would be the best expression of our message to guerrillas and individual terrorists who act upon the burning desire to fight oppression, capitalism and imperialism:


In the moral sense, although not for his mode of action, Grynszpan may serve as an example for every young revolutionist. Our open moral solidarity with Grynszpan gives us an added right to say to all the other would-be Grynszpans, to all those capable of self-sacrifice in the struggle against despotism and bestiality: Seek another road! Not the lone avenger but only a great revolutionary mass movement can free the oppressed, a movement that will leave no remnant of the entire structure of class exploitation, national oppression, and racial persecution. The unprecedented crimes of fascism create a yearning for vengeance that is wholly justifiable. But so monstrous is the scope of their crimes, that this yearning cannot be satisfied by the assassination of isolated fascist bureaucrats. For that it is necessary to set in motion millions, tens and hundreds of millions of the oppressed throughout the whole world and lead them in the assault upon the strongholds of the old society. Only the overthrow of all forms of slavery, only the complete destruction of fascism, only the people sitting in merciless judgment over the contemporary bandits and gangsters can provide real satisfaction to the indignation of the people. This is precisely the task that the Fourth International has set itself. It will cleanse the labor movement of the plague of Stalinism. It will rally in its ranks the heroic generation of the youth. It will cut a path to a worthier and a more humane future.”[22]



Part I: The Rise of Zionism




Chapter 2: The First Wave of Zionist Settlers




Armed with this presentation, we will deal with the Zionists wars against the Palestinians and the Arab states. Unlike various reformists and centrists who attack or ignore Islamists who fight the imperialists like in Syria (against Assad, the butcher) or Hezbollah in Lebanon against Israel, we stand in the military front on the side of the freedom-fighting Islamists without giving them political support.


We stand in the tradition of the Communist International, at the time when it was a revolutionary International supporting the Riff Islamic republic against Spanish and French imperialism, as well as the Syrian revolt in 1925 led by the Druze al-Atrash.


“On September 11th 1924, l’humanité (the newspaper of the French Communist party) published a telegram sent the day previous by Pierre Sémard, General Secretary of the Parti communiste français (PCF) and Jacques Doriot, leader of the Federation des jeunesses communistes, to the leader of the Republic, Muhammad bin ‘abd al-Karim al-Khattabi a salafi Islamist.”


It read: ‘We hope that after the definitive victory over Spanish imperialism, it [the Republic] will continue, with the French and European proletariat, the struggle against all imperialists, including the French [français y compris], until the complete liberation of Morocco’s soil” on the 2nd December 1922, days before the end the fourth World Congress, Trotsky wrote that:


Congress invites the French party and its Central Committee to pay far more attention and allot far greater forces and resources than it has up till now to the colonial question and to propaganda in the colonies.[23]


Working with the Confédération générale du Travail unitaire (CGTU), the PCF organized a 15,000-strong protest against the war on May 16th in Paris, and over the spring and early summer of 1925 encouraged the crews of half a dozen cruisers to mutiny (100 sailors were court martialled in late July). Between May and October there were over 250 meetings against the war across France, all building towards the 12th October 24-hour strike, involving 500,000 workers.”[24]


This is only a reminder from history that proves the importance of avoiding sectarianism towards forces who lead anti-imperialist struggles without giving any political concession.




The Zionist Colonization of Palestine




There is no doubt that Jews suffered in different periods in history from Anti-Semitism. However, this does not justify the conquest of Palestine and the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians.


The Zionist like to argue that the Arabs opposed the Jewish settlers even before the war of 1948 and the Nakba as a proof that the Palestinians are genuine Anti-Semites. Zionists argue that the Palestinians are responsible for the wars of Israel, which is only acting in self-defense. What a nonsense!


 "In the Beginning There Was the No." The pro-Israel camp often traces the history of the conflict to 1947, when the Arabs said No to the UN partition plan, or to 1948, when the Arab countries said No by launching a war against the recently declared Jewish state. The underlying assumption is that the Arabs had no good reason to reject Zionism or the idea of Jewish self-determination in Palestine: rather, their rejection is interpreted as a consequence of their inherent anti-Semitism, natural tendency toward violence, or self-destructive intransigence. Recently this credo was succinctly articulated by Prime Minister Netanyahu: "The Palestinians' lack of will to recognise the state of Israel as the national state of the Jewish people is the root of the conflict." [25]


Another manipulative Zionist argument is that the Zionists are the people in exile who return to their homeland and the Palestinians are the settler colonialists.


The concept of “settler colonialism” has been applied with almost unique vehemence against Israel. But the fact that Jews are the indigenous population of the Southern Levant can be proved with ease. In contrast, historical and genealogical evidence shows Palestinians descend primarily from three primary groups: Muslim invaders, Arab immigrants, and local converts to Islam. The Muslim conquest of Byzantine Palestine in the 7th century CE is a textbook example of settler-colonialism, as is subsequent immigration, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries under the Ottoman and British Empires. The application of the concept to Jews and Zionism by Palestinians is both ironic and unhelpful.”[26]


Before dealing with the first argument, we will deal with the second argument.


The Zionists were Europeans who settled in Palestine from the end of the 19th century. The Moslems have lived in Palestine since the 7th century, for 1,300 years. With the arrival of the Moslems, the majority of the local Jewish population that remained in the country after the Romans exiled the Jewish upper classes, converted to Islam.


Even the founders of modern Israel, David Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, insisted that Palestinian peasants - then most of the Palestinian population - were the descendants of ancient Hebrews. They wrote that most people at the time of the Arab conquest of the country were mainly Christian, but of Jewish origins, and that during the Crusaders’ conquest they were mainly Muslim. Thus, the Muslim fellaheen in Palestine in modern times are descendants of those Christians who were the descendants of the Jews and had turned to Islam prior to the Crusaders’ conquest.[27]


The sane argument of Ben Gurion can be found in Hebrew under the title “The origin of the Fellahin.”[28]


In comparison, the Boers (white settlers in South Africa) claimed that they are the Chosen People, that South Africa is the Promised Land, and that the British are the Pharos. The Protestants who settled in North America claimed that this is the Promised Land.


Unlike the Zionists of today, who deny that Israel is a society of settler colonialists, the founders of the Zionist movement did not try to hide this fact.


Herzl the founder of Jewish Zionism wrote in 1896, in his elaboration “Der Judenstaat”:
If His Majesty the Sultan were to give us Palestine, we could offer to resolve Turkey’s finances. For Europe, we would form part of a bulwark against Asia there, we would serve as the advance post of civilization against barbarism”.[29]


In other words, Herzl said that for the imperialists to support the Zionist colonial endeavor, the Zionists will serve their interests.


He also wrote:  We want to carry culture to the East. And once again, Europe will in turn profit from this work of ours. We will create new trade routes − and none will be more interested in this than England with its Asiatic possessions. The shortest route to India lies through Palestine.”[30]


That Herzl looked to Rhodes as a colonial mentor is clear from a letter, recorded in his diaries, that Herzl intended to send to Rhodes:


“You are being invited to help make history. […] It doesn’t involve Africa, but a piece of Asia Minor, not Englishmen, but Jews. How, then, do I happen to turn to you, since this is an out-of-the-way matter for you? How indeed? Because it is something colonial, and because it presupposes understanding of a development which will take place over twenty or thirty years.”[31]


Herzl also wrote:


When we occupy the land, we shall bring immediate benefits to the state that receives us. We must expropriate gently, the private property on the estates assigned to us “[32]For the remainder of the population, he wrote in his diary on the same day: “… ”We shall try to spirit the penniless population across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries whilst denying it any employment in our own country.”[33]


Ruppin, a leading Zionist who was involved with buying lands in Palestine reflected in his book The Building of the Land of Israel a clear understanding that the Zionist project is of settler colonialism.


the uniqueness of the Zionist project in terms of its distinctly national character: […] the Jewish colonisation is also a matter “of a very special kind”, because, unlike other colonisations, it does not pursue economic but national aims, and because it does not want to use and exploit the already resident population as a “working mass”, but it wants to realise the entire colonisation from the basis to the top with new Jewish immigrants”.[34]


History of Zionism proves today’s Zionist claims to be wrong. As to the first Zionist argument it is an even cheaper and more stupid argument. We already referred to Zabotinsky in the iron wall, who explained that no native people will accept the colonization of their country.


“It is utterly impossible to obtain the voluntary consent of the Palestine Arabs for converting "Palestine" from an Arab country into a country with a Jewish majority.”[35]


The conflict between the settler colonialist Zionists and the native Palestinians did not begin with the war of 1948 nor during the Arab revolt of 1936-9. It began with the emigration of Zionist colonialists at the end of the 19th century. It was the result of the Zionists’ policy of conquering lands where Arab villages existed for many generations. It was further the result of the removal of the peasants from the lands they cultivated for centuries. To protect the Zionist settlements (colonies) from these peasants, the Zionists organized a paramilitary force that evicted the peasants. Not so different from the role of the American cavalry that protected the white settler who stole the Indian’s lands. The Kibuttzim that were characterized by the imperialist mass media as an example of socialism were the forts of the Zionist colonization, similar to the American forts.


“During the presidential election in the USA in 2016,”as mainstream media outlets struggled to define Bernie Sanders’s avowed socialism, many latched onto his time volunteering on a Jewish kibbutz in Israel. “Bernie Sanders’s Kibbutz Found. Surprise: It’s Socialist,” read headline in the New York Times.[36]
“Kibbutzim served as leaders in national undertakings, even prior to the establishment of the State, including areas such as: youth instruction and guidance, assisting in the absorption of new immigrants, and most notable, service in the different branches of the armed forces – from the time of the British Mandate, as defense fighters in the "Hagana" and serving as "hosts" for "Palmach" bases, to full enlistment in the Israel Defense Forces, since the establishment of the State, with a high percentage volunteering to serve in prestigious units. Kibbutzim have also excelled in creative, cultural innovation, combining Jewish tradition with a new, original perspective enhanced by the unique traits and "aroma" of the Land of Israel.”[37]


Before the 16th century few Jews lived in Palestine. Following the expulsion of the Jews and the Moslems from Andalusia with the victory of Spanish Christian kingdoms in 1492, more Jews began to settle in Palestine. Palestine was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. This wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine stopped when Egypt freed itself from the Ottomans and was ruled by Muhammad Ali’s dynasty from 1805 to 1840. From 1840 on, the Jewish communities in Palestine began to grow again. At the end of 1880, approximately 25,000 Jews lived in the country, mainly in four cities: Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias.[38] The Arab population in Palestine did not have any problem with these Jews as these Jews in general (except what is now Petah Tikva) did not buy lands and did not expel the villagers living on these lands. They had no aspiration to form a Jewish state and remove the Arabs from Palestine. In short, they didn’t have a Zionist agenda.


This began to change with the first Zionist immigration to Palestine in 1882. The Zionist settlers established agricultural colonies in historical Palestine, and their representatives in 1897, attended the first Zionist conference, in Basel, Switzerland. They established the colonies. The first stage of this wave lasted from 1882 to about 1884 and established seven agricultural colonies by Hibbat Zion ("Love of Zion"). In contrast to the myth of working on no-man's lands, these lands were purchased from the rich Arabs living outside the country, removing the Arab Fellahin (peasants) and settling them with European colonialists. These settlements reached a crisis point and turned for help to wealthy individuals, such as Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris. The stage of the baron lasted from about 1885 to 1900. The Zionist settlers established more colonies and were the administrators for the baron super exploiting the Arab workers – the former villagers.


To understand how the Zionists were able to buy lands it is important to grasp the changes that took place in the Ottoman Empire. Until the 19th century Turkey’s mode of production was what Marx called the Asiatic mode of production where all the lands belonged to the Sultan. Until the Turkish Land Registry Law in 1858, there were no official deeds. Families worked the lands according to their capacity. The situation of the peasants became worse with the land registry. The peasants were exploited by the local sheikh and strong men with close relation to the administration, by the Government tax-collector and the moneylenders. They become tenant-farmers on lands owned by the absentee landlords. New debts incurred to pay off the old. Most of the lands which the Zionists bought, belonged to absentee owners. For example, the western part of Jezreel Valley belonged to the richest banker in Syria, Sursuk "the Greek".



Chapter 3: The Second Wave of Zionist Immigration to Palestine


This wave began in 1904 and continued until 1918. This wave was the result of the pogroms and the failure of the 1905 revolution in Russia. These colonialist setters saw themselves as socialist Zionists i.e., social colonialists. They fought to remove the Arab workers employed by the settlements of the first Zionist immigration. They used the nationalist slogans:” Hebrew labor”, “redeeming' the land” and “Hebrew products.” They established the first armed forces to protect the colonies from the Arab peasants that were removed from their lands. Yisrael Shochat, Yitzhak Ben Zvi and Alexander Zeid, met in Jaffa in 1907 and founded a secret society called Bar-Giora (named after Simeon Bar Giora, the Jewish military leader in the war against Rome, (66-70 C.E.), with the aim of getting the role of guarding the settlements as well as developing Jewish colonies in new areas. In 1909, Bar Giora merged with a new armed body, Hashomer (“The Watchman"). Members of Ha-Shomer were prominent in the life of the new Zionist settlers (yishuv) and instrumental in settling new colonies (settlements) on lands of the Arab peasants.


During the first world imperialist war, this organization joined the Zion Mule Corps established by Yosef Trumpeldor in support of British imperialism. They believed that by serving the British imperialists, the British Empire will realize that it can rely on the Zionists against the anti-imperialists in the region and this will open the gate of Palestine for further Zionist immigration.


Hashmer and the Jewish Mule Corps were replaced in 1920 by a larger underground paramilitary forces Hagana (defense) subordinated to the Histadruth (the trade union for the Hebrew workers) that would become in the 1948 war the official Zionist army (IDF). While it called itself an organization of self-defense, it was an arm of defending land theft. While it called the military formations of the Zionist right wingers Lehi and Etzel terrorist organizations, it used the method of terrorism many times itself.


In 1920 members of the Hagana were sent to Vienna to organize the consignment of arms (revolvers and ammunition) to Palestine by various means (in beehives, refrigerators, steamrollers, etc.). The first course for Haganah instructors was given by an ex-Legionnaire, Elimelekh Zelikovich ("Avner").


During the events of August 1929, that we will deal with later on, the Hagana clashed with the Palestinians together with the British army.


During the Arab uprising 1936–39, the Jewish Agency declared that the yishuv's response to Arab acts of terror would be "restraint" (havlagah). The British cooperated with the Jewish Agency by establishing a large body of Jewish auxiliary police (ghafirs) dressed in special police uniforms and provided with arms (rifles, and, after a time, light machine guns). This force served as a cover for the activities and training of members of the Haganah. In 1937 field squads (Peluggot Sadeh) were established under the command of Yitzhak Sadeh and Elijah Ben-Hur that were engaged together with the Special Night Squads (SNS) under the command of Orde Wingate, a British captain in terrorist acts against the Palestinian civilians. Beside them, the revisionists carried out terrorist acts against Arab civilians on the roads and in markets.


In 1937 an agreement was reached between the emissary of the Haganah, Yehudah Arazi, and the Polish government whereby the Poles would supply the Haganah with arms (rifles, ammunition, and machine guns) that would be transported to Palestine in steamrollers and various types of machinery.


The Hagana did not hesitate to use bombs against Jews as part of their actions against the White Paper of 1938. This was a paper that restricted Zionist immigration to Palestine and promised independence within 10 years that meant a Palestinian state. For example, in the case of the ship “Patria”:


“The Patria Affair” started with the arrival of three passenger ships: The Pacific, The Milos and The Atlantic, loaded with illegal immigrants, unto the Haifa shore. The British implemented the White Paper policy, that is, harsh limitations on the immigration of Jewish refugees into Israel. The British gathered all passengers unto one large old ship called “Patria” (homeland in Latin) in order to deport them all to a detention camp in Mauritius in the Indian ocean. Commanders of the Haganah, whose motto was “fight the White Paper like there is no World War, and help the British like there is no White Paper”, wished to prevent the deportation, and their idea was to slightly damage the ship’s side in a small blow, in order to earn some time during the repairs, and thus to cancel the trip to Mauritius.


However, amateurism, negligence and perhaps even an inherent subconscious disrespect for the refugees, blinded their eyes. The Haganah commanders acted against experts’ advice and placed the bomb in the rickety side of the old ship, rather than under the machines area, where there would be no passengers. The Patria disaster was largest catastrophe in which Jews caused the death of other Jews”.[39]


On March 8, 1948, the correspondent of the New York Times cited an example of what the Hagana and the Jewish Agency are doing. The correspondent, Dana Adams Schmidt, said: "The Hagana claims the right to mobilize even United States citizens if they are of military age and reside in Palestine, a spokesman of the Jewish Agency declared today. Jews holding [United States] passports complained recently that they had been threatened with violence if they attempted to return to the United States. When 200 Jewish Americans were about to sail for the United States in the Russian ship Rossiya from Haifa at the end of February, a party of Hagana men invaded the pier and threw some of the passports into the harbor before being removed by British marines....יי


How Many Land?


“By the end of the Ottoman State in 1918, the Jews had acquired about 420 thousand dunams (or 1.5%) of the land of Palestine, which they bought mainly from Lebanese feudal landlords, most notably the families of Sursock, Tayyan, Tueni and Medawar, or from the Ottoman administration through public auction in which the lands of Palestinian peasants who are unable to pay their taxes are sold, or from some Palestinian landlords who belong to feudal families like the Ruk and Kassar families. These purchases covered 93% of the land the Jews acquired.” [40]


In line with the Zionist myth of an empty land, the German Zionist author Cheskel Zvi Klötzel described the way the Zionists conquered Palestinian lands as follows: “In reconstructing the Jewish National Home in the land of their ancestors, the Jews “collected” deserts, marshes, rocky mountains, places that nobody wanted or inhabited, and they turned them into fields, gardens, vineyards, and orchards, thus creating “living space” for thousands of their brothers. This was in line with the Zionist slogan of Zangwill’s a “land without a people for a people without a land.” [41]


The late left Zionist Dan Leon was more honest and he wrote: “’redeeming' the land before the establishment of the State of Israel was often at the expense of Arab fellahin. The British Hope Simpson report in 1930 said that 'the Arabs gradually were being driven off the soil by Jewish land purchases and by the JNF not allowing Arab employment on Jewish tracts.” [42]


The sale of lands of the village of al-Fula to the Jewish National Fund was a turning point in the Palestinian resistance before First World War. The lands of al-Fula were owned by Ily Sursuq, the banker, and landowner from Beirut, who in 1910 made a deal on their sale with the Zionists. However, this transaction led peasants petitioned to Turkish Sultan in May 1910 to stop the sale. The peasants refused to leave their village.


Force was used in order to occupy the lands of the village before the settlers-colonialists would move in. This was the first time that the Zionist paramilitary organization Hashomer was used to evict the peasants from their lands.


In a June 1911 report, Albert Antébi, a prominent representative of the Sephardic Jewish Community wrote that Arab peasants were familiar with the content of the addresses delivered by the Arab deputies in parliament and that these speeches had negatively influenced their attitude toward Jews. “In all eyes the Jew is becoming the anti-patriot, the traitor prepared to plunder his neighbor to take possession of his goods. The Christian excels in these accusations, but the Muslim follows on his heels.” [43]


According to Dan Leon, “the JNF's land acquisition before the establishment of Israel were  22,363 dunams by 1920, 516,000 dunams by 1940, 936,000 by May 1948…altogether the Zionists held 7% of the lands by 1947[44]. The Jewish National Fund was founded more by the fifth Zionist Congress at Basle in 1901 for the purpose of land purchase. The JNF (Hebrew: Keren Kayemeth Leyisrael, KKL)”


As of April 1st, 1943 the Zionists held:


Category of land                                        Palestinians & others                 Jews                   Total


(Fiscal categories)


                                                                                                   Dunums (1000 sq. meters)


Urban                                                           76,662                                             70,111                 146,773


Citrus                                                           145,572                                           141,188               286,760


Bananas                                                       2,300                                               1,430                   3,730


Rural built-on area                                     36,851                                             42,330                 79,181


Plantation                                                    1,079,788                                        95,514                 1,175,302


Cereal land (taxable)                                  5,503,183                                        814,102               6,317,285


Cereal land (not taxable)                           900,294                                           51,049                 951,343


Uncultivable                                               16,925,805                                      298,523               17,224.328


Total area:                                                    24,670,455                                      1,514,247            26,184,702


Percentage                                                   94.22%                                            5.8%                    100%


Roads, railways, rivers, and lakes                                                                                                135,803


Total Area including roads, railways, etc.                                                                                  26,320,505


Source: A Survey of Palestine[45] prepared by the British Mandate for the UN, p. 566.




By the end of the Mandate: Land Area according to ownership, by Acres is as follows:


Arab individually-owned          Jewish-owned                Others               State Domain


3,143,693                                        372,925                             35,512                 3,028,625


47.79 %                                           5.67%                                0.54%                  46.00%


Source: Sami Hadawi land ownership in Palestine




According to the Palestinian Academic society-PASSIA, “In December 1947, Jewish landholdings totaled 1,734 km2, or 6.6% of the total territory.” [46]


According to Zionist sources by 1930, “PICA (Palestine Jewish Colonization Association) had amassed 5,200 hectares (one hectare is 4 dunums) in various parts of the country, on which it established 50 settlements. The JNF, through the PLDC, purchased more than 70,000 hectares during the Mandate period, chiefly in the valleys -Jezreel, Zebulun, Jordan, Beit Shean, Huleh and Hefer- in the Haifa bay area and in the northern Negev. By May 1948, when the Mandate expired and Israel was about to proclaim its statehood, land redemption had placed nearly one-tenth.” [47]


Whether less than 6% to 7% as the Palestinians say or even close to 10% as the Zionists claim, in fact in 1948 more than 90% of the land in Palestine was owned by the Palestinians.



Chapter 4: The Uprisings in 1920 -21


The resistance of the Palestinians to the Zionist colonization was manifested already in 1920. The Zionists narrative, told from colonialist outlook is that the resistance and the uprising of the Palestinians in 1920 and 1921 against colonialism were riots and a pogrom incited by the Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin Al Husseini and other leaders. According to the Zionists:


Palestinian-Arab leaders openly declared that they incited riots with the sole purpose of killing Jews in British Mandate Palestine. This violence took place before the state of Israel was established. Therefore, the argument that the Palestinian-Arabs are violent solely because of Israel is false, seeing as the violence started long before the establishment of Israel. Hatred of Jews has always been one of the roots of the conflict, even since before Israel became a state.[48]


“There was no occupation when the 1921 intifada erupted on May 1. On that hot day the British police permitted a group of Labor-Zionists to hold a May Day parade in then-tiny Tel Aviv, but denied the same privilege to Jewish communists, who rallied anyway in Neveh Shalom, the second-earliest Jewish neighborhood adjacent to Jaffa. The two groups of leftist Jews collided and exchanged a few blows. But while the Brits energetically chased several communists through Neveh Shalom's winding narrow lanes, they doggedly turned a blind eye to the thousands of Arabs massing in Jaffa, all brandishing clubs, knives, hatchets and metal pipes and hysterically chanting "itbach el-Yahud (slaughter the Jews)." With no British presence to cool their ardor, rioters began attacking Jewish passersby. The only representatives of the law were members of Jaffa's Arab constabulary. But rather than quell the rampage, they helped turn it into "a full-scale pogrom." [49]


In the real world the Palestinian rebelled against their oppression and the Zionist plan to turn Palestine into a Zionist state and to ethnic cleansing of the native people. This is clear even from imperialist sources.


On 28 August 1919 a United States commission, the King-Crane Commission, appointed by President Woodrow Wilson, published its report criticizing Zionist ambitions and recommending ‘serious modification of the extremist Zionist of making Palestine distinctly a Jewish State. (…) Winston Churchill, then Secretary of State for War, and with ministerial responsibility for Palestine, took a more cynical view of Zionist ambitions. On October 25, in a memorandum for the Cabinet, he wrote of ‘the Jews, whom we are pledged to introduce into Palestine and who take it for granted that the local population will be cleared out to suit their convenience.” [50]


“Palestinians, who were already resentful because of the increasing number of immigrant Jewish settlers, demonstrated in Jerusalem in February 1920. Approximately 1,500 people came on to the streets after the British general, Louis Bols, declared the enforcement of the Balfour Declaration”. A month later a second demonstration was followed by bloody outbursts, with Arabs attacking Jewish interests. Bols banned all demonstrations…But in May 1921 an anti-Zionist riot broke out in Jaffa. Dozens of Arabs and Jews were killed in the confrontations. [51]


They [Palestinian Arabs, Ed.] were met with shooting by the armed British security forces and Jewish militias. Overall, 47 Jews and 48 Arabs were killed during the riots. The Haycraft Commission was established in order to investigate the riots, with its conclusions leading to the publication of the 1922 White Paper.” [52]


According to the White Paper, British stood by the terms mentioned in the Balfour Declaration and that this declaration, which was approved at the San Remo Conference and in the Treaty of Sevres, would not change. The White Paper recognized the progress that the Zionist community was making but made it clear that they do not support the idea of a Jewish national home and would like to see it as only a community within Palestine. Moreover, in July 1922, the British made a partition in the Palestine mandate by separating the territory lying east of the Jordan River from the Jewish populated area and renaming it Transjordan, giving it to Emir Abdullah to rule.” [53]


The Zionist account is false for various reasons. First of all, to call the resistance of the Palestinian a pogrom as the Zionist do is to deny the nature of the real pogroms in Russia. The pogroms in Russia against the Jews were organized by the Tsar using the “Black hundreds”, a racist force to divert the anger of the masses against a scapegoat. In the case of the Palestinians, it was resistance against the colonization of their country and land thefts. The Palestinian resistance was similar to rebellions of black slaves against white slave masters. The white slave masters called the rebellions riots by blood thirsty fanatics not uprisings.


Secondly, the British army with Zionists armed militia killed 48 Arabs and thus it was more of a small civil war between colonialist armed settlers assisted by the British army and native colonized people than a riot and pogrom.


Thirdly, as we already said the oppression and the removal of the Palestinians from their lands did not begin in 1948 but from the arrival of the Zionist to Palestine. Thus, the events of 1920-21 took place almost 40 years after the beginning of the oppression of the Palestinians by the white European settlers.

Chapter 5: The Events of 1929


Similar distortion of the Zionist account is of the events of 1929. According to the Zionists: “The first of the hostilities began in mid-August 1929, with an assault by an Arab mob on the Western Wall plaza following incitement by the Supreme Muslim Council. Jewish worshippers were expelled from the site and their Torah scrolls were set on fire. In the days that followed the floodgates of hatred and violence were opened. By the end of the week of riots, 67 Jews lay dead in Hebron and dozens of others had been killed in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Safed, Hulda and Be’er Tuvia.” [54]


The Western Wall is a holy place for the Moslems and the Orthodox Jews. In September 1928, Zionist Jews decided to change the status quo and for their Yom Kippur prayers at the Western Wall, they placed chairs and erected (screens) between the men and women present. The Muslims saw it, and rightly so, as a provocation and a move by the Zionists to control the Wall and turn it into a synagogue. The Mufti of Jerusalem turned to the British and demanded that the government keep its obligation, according to Balfour’s declaration, to protect the religious rights of the Moslems. The Zionists indeed violated the status quo that had existed during the Ottoman rule that forbade Jews from making any construction in the Western Wall area. The Commissioner demanded the removal of the screen and the chairs. When the Zionists refused, police officers were sent in, and a scuffle took place between the Zionist and the police.


Haj Amin al Husseini, the Mufti of Jerusalem who was elected to this position by the First High Commissioner, and the Zionist Herbert Samuel believed, and for good reason, that the Zionist Jews were planning to take over the Western wall as a step towards taking over al Aqsa Mosque. On 15 August 1929, during the Jewish fast of Tisha B’Av, several hundred members of the right-wing Revisionist Joseph Klausner 's movement and of the Betar youth organization, modeled after Mussolini Blackshirts, assembled at the Wall shouting "the Wall is ours.” They raised the Zionist flag and sang Hatikvah, the Zionist anthem. The British authorities had been informed by the Mufti of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in an attempt to prevent any incidents. Rumours spread that the youths had attacked local residents. On Friday, August 16, a demonstration organized by militant Muslims ignored the Mufti attempts to pacify the Muslims, marched to the Wall and beat Jewish worshippers and returned to attack the next day. The next day a young Jew named Abraham Mizrachi kicked his ball into an Arab peasant woman’s home and without permission entered the garden to get the ball. He was stabbed by an Arab man, and died the evening of the following day. His funeral was turned into a political demonstration demanding the Western wall, and was suppressed by the police.


On August 20, Hagana organized 600 armed Jews. The next day thousands of Arab villagers armed with sticks and knives streamed into Jerusalem from the surrounding countryside to pray on the many. Harry Luke, the local Commissioner, telephoned the Mufti to come and calm a mob that had gathered under his window. The Mufti attempt to pacify the crowd failed. Inflamed by rumors that two Arabs had been killed by Jews, Arabs started an attack on Jews in Jerusalem’s Old City. The violence quickly spread to other parts of Palestine. British authorities had fewer than 100 soldiers, six armored cars, and five or six aircraft in the country. The British police had 1,500 men, the majority of whom were Arabs. Militant Muslims killed unarmed Non-Zionist Jews in Hebron and Safed while many other Jews were saved by their Muslim neighbors. In the clashes 133 Jews and 116 Arabs were killed.


Show Commission


A commission of inquiry headed by Sir Walter Shaw published its findings on these events in 1930. The British politically supported the establishing of a Zionist national in Palestine but they had to calm the Arab masses and the report reflected these two aims.


It stated: “The outbreak in Jerusalem on the 23rd of August was from the beginning an attack by Arabs on Jews for which no excuse in the form of earlier murders by Jews has been established.


The outbreak was not premeditated. A general massacre of the Jewish community at Hebron was narrowly averted. In a few instances, Jews attacked Arabs and destroyed Arab property. These attacks, though inexcusable, were in most cases in retaliation for wrongs already committed by Arabs in the neighborhoods in which the Jewish attacks occurred.


In his activities (connected to the dispute over the Holy Places) the Mufti was influenced by the twofold desire to confront the Jews and to mobilize Moslem opinion on the issue of the Wailing Wall. He had no intention of utilizing this religious campaign as the means of inciting to disorder.


In the matter of innovations of practice (at the Wailing Wall) little blame can be attached to the Mufti in which some Jewish religious authorities also would not have to connection has been established between the Mufti and the work of those who either are known or are thought to have engaged in agitation or incitement.... After the disturbances had broken out the Mufti co-operated with the Government in their efforts both to restore peace and to prevent the extension of disorder.


The fundamental cause... is the Arab feeling of animosity and hostility towards the Jews consequent upon the disappointment of their political and national aspirations and fear for their economic future.... The feeling as it exists today is based on the twofold fear of the Arabs that by Jewish immigration and land purchases they may be deprived of their livelihood and in time pass under the political domination of the Jews.


In our opinion the immediate causes of the outbreak were:


The long series of incidents connected with the Wailing Wall... These must be regarded as a whole, but the incident among them which in our view contributed most to the outbreak was the Jewish demonstration at the Wailing Wall on the 15th of August, 1929. Next in importance we put the activities of the Society for the Protection of the Moslem Holy Places and, in a lesser degree, of the Pro-Wailing Wall Committee.” [55]


Trotsky, when asked on his views about the events of 1929, said the following in an interveiw: “Question: The official Communist Party characterized, without question, the Jewish-Arab events in 1929 in Palestine as the revolutionary uprising of the oppressed Arabian masses. What is your opinion of this policy?


Answer: Unfortunately, I am not thoroughly familiar with the facts to venture a definite opinion. I am now studying the question. Then it will be easier to see in what proportion and in what degree there were present those elements such as National Liberationists (Anti-imperialists) and reactionary Mohammedans and Anti-Semitic Pogromists. On the surface, it seems to me that all these elements were there.” [56]


Trotsky was right as the attacks on the Jews of Hebron who were not Zionists were unjustified. Yet essentially it was an anti-imperialist uprising even when the masses that attacked the Zionists were Islamists. [57]


Chapter 6: The Uprising of 1936-39


According to the Zionist narrative on April 19, 1936: Nine Jews are killed in an attack by Arabs from Jaffa. This constitutes the beginning of the bloody riots that come to be called the 1936-39 riots or the Arab Rebellion, during which some 400 Jews are killed and thousands injured.[58]


This narrative reflects the outlook of the settler colonialists. A very different narrative is held by the Palestinians who fight for their liberation. Ghassan Kanafani– a leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who was assassinated by the Mossad – provided a clear understanding of the uprising in his in his book on the revolt. He wrote:


Between 1936 and 1939, the Palestinian revolutionary movement suffered a severe setback at the hands of three separate enemies that were to constitute together the principal threat to the nationalist movement in Palestine in all subsequent stages of its struggle: the local reactionary leadership; the regimes in the Arab states surrounding Palestine; and the imperialist-Zionist enemy”…. This was due primarily to two related factors:


1. The existence and effectiveness of the Zionist movement, which gave the national challenge relative predominance over the social contradictions. The impact of this challenge was being systematically felt by the masses of Palestinian Arabs, who were the primary victims of the Zionist invasion supported by British imperialism.


2. The existence of a significant conflict of interests between the local feudal-religious leadership and British imperialism: It was consistently in the interest of the ruling class to promote and support a certain degree of revolutionary struggle, instead of being more or less completely allied with the imperialist power as would otherwise be the case. The British imperialists had found in the Zionists "a more suitable ally.” [59]


He continued:” The change from a semi-feudal society to a capitalist society was accompanied by an increased concentration of economic power in the hands of the Zionist machine and consequently, within the Jewish society in Palestine. It is significant that Palestinian Arab advocates of conciliation, who became outspoken during the thirties, were not landlords or rich peasants, but rather elements of the urban upper bourgeoisie whose interests gradually coincided with the expanding interests of the Jewish bourgeoisie. The latter, by controlling the process of industrialization, was creating its own agents.


In the meantime, the Arab countries surrounding Palestine were playing two conflicting roles. On the one hand, the Pan-Arab mass movement was serving as a catalyst for the revolutionary spirit of the Palestinian masses, since a dialectical relation between the Palestinian and overall Arab struggles existed, on the other hand, the established regimes in these Arab countries were doing everything in their power to help curb and undermine the Palestinian mass movement. The sharpening conflict in Palestine threatened to contribute to the development of the struggle in these countries in the direction of greater violence, creating a revolutionary potential that their respective ruling classes could not afford to overlook.


The Arab ruling classes were forced to support British imperialism against their counterpart in Palestine, which was in effect leading the Palestinian nationalist movement.


Meanwhile, the Zionist-Imperialist alliance continued to grow; the period between 1936 and 1939 witnessed not only the crystallization of the militaristic and aggressive character of the colonial society that Zionism had firmly implanted in Palestine but also the relative containment and defeat of the Palestinian working class; this was subsequently to have a radical effect on the course of the struggle. During that period, Zionism, in collaboration with the mandatory power, successfully undermined the development of a progressive Jewish labor movement and of Jewish-Arab Proletarian brotherhood. The Palestine Communist Party was effectively isolated among both Arab and Jewish workers, and the reactionary Histadrut completely dominated the Jewish labour movement. The influence of Arab progressive forces within Arab labour federations in Haifa and Jaffa diminished, leaving the ground open for their control by reactionary leaderships that monopolized political action.


The issue of Jewish immigration to Palestine was not merely a moral or national issue; it had direct implication on the economic status of the Arab people of Palestine, affecting primarily the small and middle-income farmers, workers and certain sectors of the petty and middle bourgeoisies. The national and religious character of Jewish immigration further aggravated the economic repercussions.


Between 1933 and 1935, 150,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine, bringing the country's Jewish population to 443,000 -or 29.6% of the total -from 1926 to 1932 the average number of immigrants per year was 7,201. It rose to 42,985 between 1933 and 1936, as direct result of Nazi persecution in Germany. In 1932, 9,000 German Jews entered Palestine, 30,000 in 1933, 40,000 in 1934 and 61,000 in 1935, nearly three quarters of the new immigrants settling in cities. If Nazism was responsible for terrorizing the Jews and forcing them out of Germany; it was "democratic" capitalism, in collaboration with the Zionist movement, that was responsible for directing comparatively large numbers of Jewish migrants to Palestine, as illustrated by the following: of 2,562,000 Jews that fled Nazi persecution, the U.S.A. accepted only 170,000 (6.6%), Britain 50,000 (1.9%), while Palestine received 8.5% and 1,930,000 (75.2%) found refuge in the U.S.S.R. The severe economic impact of the immigration into Palestine can be realized when it is considered that a comparatively large percentage of Jewish settlers were basically capitalists: In 1933, 3,250 of the latter (11%) were considered as capitalists, in 1934, 5,124 or 12%, and in 1935, 6,309 or 10%.


According to official statistics, of the Jewish immigrants who entered Palestine between 1932 and 1936, 1,370 (with 17,119 dependents) possessed PL 1,000 or more: and 130,000 were officially registered as seeking employment, or dependents of previous immigrants. In other words, the immigration was not only designed to ensure a concentration of European Jewish capital in Palestine, that was to dominate the process of industrialization, but also to provide this effort with a Jewish proletariat: The policy that raised the slogan of "Jewish labor only" was to have grave consequences, as it led to the rapid emergence of fascist patterns in the society of Jewish settlers.


Another result was the development of a competitive struggle between the Palestinian Arab and Jewish proletariats and between Palestinian Arab peasants, farmers and agricultural laborers and their Jewish counterparts. This conflict also extended to higher classes, in as much as the Palestinian Arab small landowners and urban middle bourgeoisie realized that their interests were being threatened by growing Jewish capital.


In 1935, for example, Jews controlled 872 of a total of 1,212 industrial firms in Palestine, employing 13,678 workers, while the rest were Palestinian Arab-controlled and employed about 4,000 workers: Jewish investment totaled PL 4,391,000 compared to PL 704,000 Palestinian Arab industrial investment; Jewish production reached PL 6,000,000 compared to PL 1,545,000 by Palestinian Arab firms: In addition, Jewish capital controlled 90% of the concessions granted by the British Mandate, which accounted for a total investment of PL 5,789,000 and provided labor for 2,619 workers.


An official census in 1937 indicated that an average Jewish worker received 145% more in wages than his Palestinian Arab counterpart: (As high as 433% more in textile factories employing Jewish and Arab women, and 233% in tobacco factories. "By July 1937, the real wages of the average Palestinian Arab worker decreased 10% while those of a Jewish worker rose 10%.


The situation resulted in an almost total collapse of the Arab economy in Palestine, primarily affecting Palestinian Arab workers. In his report to the Peel Royal Commission, George Mansour, the Secretary of the Federation of Palestinian Arab Workers in Jaffa, indicated that 98% of Palestinian Arab workers had a "well below average" standard of living. Based on a census covering 1,000 workers in Jaffa in 1936, the Federation had found that the income of 57% of Arab workers was less than PL 2.750 (the average minimum income required to support a family being PL 11); 12% less than PL 4.250, 12% less than PL 6, 4% less than PL 10, 1.5% less than PL 12 and 0.5% less than PL 15.9


When the Mandatory Government refused to allow nearly 1,000 unemployed Jaffa workers to hold a demonstration on June 6, 1935, the Federation of Workers issued a statement warning the Government that unless their problems were solved, "the government would soon have to give the workers either bread or bullets." With the conditions of workers continuing to deteriorate, an uprising seemed imminent.


George Mansour (who had been previously a Communist Party member) came out with striking illustrations in his report to the Peel Commission: by the end of 1935, 2,270 men and women workers were unemployed in the city of Jaffa alone, with a population of 71,000. Mansour pointed out five reasons for the high unemployment rate, four of which were directly connected with Jewish immigration: 1) the settling of new immigrants; 2) urban migration 3) dismissal of Arab workers from their jobs; 4) the deteriorating economic situation; 5) the discriminatory policy of the Mandatory Government in favor of Jewish workers.


In a period of nine months, the number of Histadrut workers increased by 41,000. According to an Article published in the issue No. 3460 of the newspaper Davar, Histadrut workers numbered 115,000 at the end of July 1936; the official 1936 government report (p. 117) had showed their number at the end of 1935 to be 74,000.


The policy of dismissal of Palestinian Arab workers from firms and projects controlled by Jewish capital initiated violent clashes. In the four Jewish settlements of Malbis, Dairan, Wadi Hunain and Khadira, there were 6,214 Palestinian Arab workers in February 1935. After six months, this figure went down to 2,276, and in a year's time, went down to 617 Palestinian Arab workers only. Attacks against Palestinian Arab workers also took place. On one occasion, for instance, the Jewish community forced a Palestinian Arab contractor and his workers to leave their work in the Brodski building in Haifa. Among those who were systematically losing their jobs were workers in orchards, cigarette factories, mason's yards, construction, etc.


Between 1930 and 1935, Palestinian Arab pearl industry exports fell from PL 11,532 to PL 3,777 a year. The number of Palestinian Arab soap factories in Haifa alone fell from 12 in 1929 to 4 in 1935. Their export value fell from PL 206,659 in 1930 to PL 79,311 in 1935.It was clear that the Arab proletariat had fallen ‘victim to British colonialism and Jewish capital, the former bearing the primary responsibility.’" [60]


The anti-imperialist movement was brutally suppressed by the British and Zionists military forces.


A total of 415 Jewish deaths were recorded during the whole 1936-1939 Arab Revolt period. The toll on the Arabs was estimated to be roughly 5,000 dead, 15,000 wounded, and 5,600 imprisoned.[61]


During the Palestinian uprising the SNS (Special Night Squads) composed of British and Zionists was formed by the British to assault Palestinian villages on hit-and-run raids. The commander was Capitan Orde Wingate, a Christian Zionist and an eccentrically ruthless British officer who tried his murdering tactics on the Palestinians. Moshe Dayan and other Israeli generals in 1948 like Yegal Alon were trained by Wingate in the SNS. Thus, the British built the Zionists military force. By early 1939 the JSP (Jewish Settlement Police), led by the British, totaled about 14,000. The SNS was trained in counterinsurgency methods that targeted civilians and villages. This terrorist organization fought a ‘dirty war', a method used by the Zionist soldiers serving under British command.


Tom Segev, an Israeli historian, said in “March 1999, in reviewing Yigal Eyal’s The First Intifada, a study of the Arab Revolt, Segev described Wingate as “quite mad, and perhaps a sadist, too,” and reproved Eyal for “turn[ing] a blind eye to the war crimes committed by Orde Wingate and his men.” In his own book published a few months later, Days of the Anemones: Palestine During the Mandatory Period, Segev portrays Wingate as delusional and homicidal, “a madman” who “employed terror against terror.” Though he does cite praise for Wingate from David Ben-Gurion, Chaim Weizmann and Moshe Sharett, Segev refuses to grant him any redeeming qualities, even as a military commander.”[62]


The Peel Commission


As a result of the Arab revolutionary uprising the British government appointed a commission of inquiry headed by Lord Peel to investigate the cause of the Arab. In July 1937, the Peel Commission recommended a partition of the land into a Jewish state and an Arab state. The Peel Commission recommended transfer of close to a quarter of a million Palestinians from the area located for the Jewish state. Naturally the Arab rejected the plan and while Ben Gurion was ready to accept it as a first step for occupying later on the rest of the country, other Zionist leaders rejected it as well. In 1938, the British declared the plan not implementable. The following is a part of the Peel’s report:


“The political aspect of the land problem is still more important. Owing to the fact that there has been no census since 1931 it is impossible to calculate with any precision the distribution of population between the Arab and Jewish areas; but, according to an approximate estimate, in the area allocated to the Jewish State (excluding the urban districts to be retained for a period under Mandatory Administration) there are now about 225,000 Arabs. In the area allocated to the Arab State there are only about 1,250 Jews; but there are about 125,000 Jews as against 85,000 Arabs in Jerusalem and Haifa. The existence of these minorities clearly constitutes the most serious hindrance to the smooth and successful operation of Partition. If the settlement is to be clean and final, the question must be boldly faced and firmly dealt with. It calls for the highest statesmanship on the part of all concerned. A precedent is afforded by the exchange effected between the Greek and Turkish populations on the morrow of the Greco-Turkish War of 1922. A convention was signed by the Greek and Turkish Governments, providing that, under the supervision of the League of Nations, Greek nationals of the Orthodox religion living in Turkey should be compulsorily removed to Greece, and Turkish nationals of the Moslem religion living in Greece to Turkey. The numbers involved were high–no less than some 1,300,000 Greeks and some 400,000 Turks. But so vigorously and effectively was the task accomplished that within about eighteen months from the spring of 1923 the whole exchange was completed. The courage of the Greek and Turkish statesmen concerned has been justified by the result. Before the operation the Greek and Turkish minorities had been a constant irritant. Now Greco-Turkish relations are friendlier than they. Now Greco-Turkish relations are friendlier than they have ever been before.” [63]



Map 1: The Peel Commission Plan 1937 [64]



Part II: On the Eve of the Nakba


Chapter 7: Zionist Terror Prior to the 1948 War


The Zionist narrative is that the Arabs used terror against innocent Jews. Yet the Zionists military organization carried out terrorist actions against Arab civilians in 1936-9 and even before November 1947. The following is only a sample of Zionists’ terrorist actions.


“On July 22, 1946: The ETZEL collaborating with the Hagan blew up of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. Ninety-two persons lost their lives in that stealthy attack, and 45 were injured.


On August 15, 1947 at about 1:20 A. M. between 15 and 20 Zionist terrorists, armed with machine guns and pistols, entered the orange grove of Haj Rashid Abu Laban, situated between Jaffa and Mulabis. They approached a house in the said grove where a family of 7 were sound asleep inside and there were 9 other laborers asleep nearby. The terrorists threw mines around the building and exploded them with electric wires found on the scene of the crime. The building was razed to the ground. Four of the laborers who were sleeping nearby were caught and shot.


On October 9-10, 1947 a group of Zionist , armed with bombs and automatics, attacked two Arab tents in the lands of Majdal Sadek and killed two Arabs and wounded four. Among the latter were a woman and her young son.


October 20, 1947, a band of Zionists disguised in British military uniforms, near Raanana called out Shaykh Ahmed Salameh Shobaki and four young men related to him, pretending to search for arms. On coming out in response to what they thought was an official military mission, the five men were shot in cold blood.


 On December 30, 1947 the occupants of a Jewish pick-up car threw two milk cans containing bombs at a group of about two hundred Arab laborers standing at the gate of the oil refinery waiting to register for work. The explosions that rocked the city of Haifa killed six Arab laborers and wounded forty six, twenty-five seriously.


On January 1, 1948: At about one o'clock in the morning the villagers of Balad El-Sheikh and Hanasa were asleep. Hagana men disguised in British uniforms made a surprise attack bombing and demolishing houses, shooting and killing the villagers indiscriminately, men, women and children. Among those killed were a pregnant woman, 35 years old, and a child eleven years old, and five other men, while thirty-two were wounded, twenty-five, seriously, among them many women and children.


On January 5, 1948 Hagana terrorists made a most barbarous attack at one o'clock in the early morning of Monday, January 5, 1948, at the Simiramis Hote l in the Katamon section of Jerusalem, killing innocent people and wounding many. The Jewish Agency terrorist forces blasted the entrance to the hotel by a small bomb and then placed bombs in the basement of the building. As a result of the explosions the whole building collapsed with its residents. As the terrorists withdrew, they started shooting at the houses in the neighborhood.


February 18, 1948: At 2:30 in the afternoon, an Irgun Zvai Leumi terrorist disguised as an Arab and riding a donkey, arrived at the Ramleh vegetable market. The terrorist started to bargain for some vegetables from a woman vendor, paid her the price and asked her to look after his donkey and the basket on its back, while the terrorist left, saying he was going to buy some meat from an adjacent market. In less than ten minutes the mines and high explosives in the basket exploded killing 12 and wounding 43 persons. Among the killed were 4 children less than ten years of age and four less than fourteen.” [65]


Chapter 8: The War of 1947-49


In November 1947, the UN announced its support to the two-state solution, granting the Zionists 55% of Palestine even though they were outnumbered by a 3 to 1 ratio. As it could be expected it was rejected by the Arabs, but the Zionists, including the previously anti-Zionist communist party already a Stalinist party, supported the partition plan and a new violent episode would quickly ensue. Jewish and Arab militias had begun campaigns to seize control over the entire territory of Palestine.


In 1948, with the withdrawal of the British forces from Palestine, leaving behind the military bases to the Zionists, neighboring Arab troops from Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Saudi Arabia entered Palestine, to aid the Palestinian people. In turn, the Zionist militias had already begun a massive occupation and ethnic cleansing campaign against the Palestinian Arab population.


In this war, as in 1936-1939, Marxists would have supported the Palestinians against the Zionists, once again without giving any political support to the reactionary Palestinian leadership. The Communist Party, however, sided with the Zionists, mimicking the Stalinists in the Kremlin and claiming that the neighboring Arab armies were controlled by British imperialism, and that the Zionists were actually fighting an anti-imperialist war.


The timing and magnitude of the Arab armies' invasion does raise some suspicions at the motives behind it. They were obviously partially controlled by the British, but so were the Zionist militias who already collaborated with them in the suppression of the Arab revolt in 1936-1939, and who now also enjoyed the aid of US nationals as pilots and other volunteers. Furthermore, these armies conducted themselves in a manner which was not designed to defeat the Zionists, but one which perfunctorily adhered to the pressure of the masses by perhaps carving out additional pieces of land from the would-be Arab Palestinian state they allegedly protected. Evidence for this can be found in the fact that whatever territory these armies have managed to keep was not given back to the Palestinians but rather kept in the hands of the respective countries that invaded them.


Nevertheless, regarding the Arab invasion of Palestine, working class revolutionaries would have welcomed any aid given to the Palestinians from outside. Should Marxists had comrades in the region, they would have sided with the Arab armies for the purpose of most effectively defending the Palestinians. They would also have worked to expose the Arab regimes' traitorous schemes to the Palestinians and the Arab masses, and attempted to turn this war into a revolutionary war which would have created a Palestinian workers' state from the river to the sea – a state where Jews and Arabs would be able to live together without discrimination and violent ethnic tensions.


In the first phase of the war from November 1947 to 1 April 1948 the Palestinian guerrilla forces, with help from volunteers from neighboring countries had many victories. The Palestinians were twice as large as the Zionists, they occupied the higher altitudes. But isolated and outnumbered as they were, the Zionists were far better organized, financed, equipped and trained than the Palestinians, who were fragmented by geography and tradition and clan.


From 1 April 1948 until the declaration of independence of Israel on May 14 1948, the Zionist military force the “Haganah” captured several major Palestinian towns including Tiberias and Haifa. According to the crude Zionist propaganda: "The Palestinians left their homes in 1947-48 for a variety of reasons. Thousands of wealthy Arabs left in anticipation of a war, thousands more responded to Arab leaders’ calls to get out of the way of the advancing armies, a handful were expelled, but most simply fled to avoid being caught in the cross fire of a battle. Had the Arabs accepted the 1947 UN resolution, not a single Palestinian would have become a refugee and an independent Arab state would now exist beside Israel." [66]


In the real world in this period, the Zionists terrorized the Palestinian civilian. The most infamous event was the massacre of the Arab village of Dayr Yāsīn on April 9, 1948 killing tents of unarmed Palestinians. According to Benny Morris, Jewish forces were responsible for 24 massacres during the war. However, according to the Historian Saleh Abdel Jawad: “For the time period between the beginning of the war, December 1947, and January 1949 at the end of the war, I documented nearly 70 massacres.[67]


According to Al Jazeera: "Between 1947 and 1949, at least 750,000 Palestinians from a 1.9 million population (including 650,000 Jews) were made refugees beyond the borders of the state. Zionist forces had taken more than 78 percent of historic Palestine, ethnically cleansed and destroyed about 530 villages and cities, and killed about 15,000 Palestinians in a series of mass atrocities, including more than 70 massacres.”[68]


The Zionist propaganda is false for various reasons. First of all, as we have seen already in 1919 it was clear even to the American and the British imperialists that the Zionists plan to turn entire Palestine to a Zionist state. Secondly the Peel commission in its recommendation to create two states recommended a transfer of the Arabs living in what would be a Zionist state.


In 1937, David Ben Gurion wrote to Amos his son who was upset because Ben Gurion supported Peel’s plans. “Of course the partition of the country gives me no pleasure. But the country that they [the Royal (Peel) Commission] are partitioning is not in our actual possession; it is in the possession of the Arabs and the English. What is in our actual possession is a small portion, less than what they [the Peel Commission] are proposing for a Jewish state. If I were an Arab I would have been very indignant. But in this proposed partition we will get more than what we already have, though of course much less than we merit and desire. The question is: would we obtain more without partition? If things were to remain as they are [emphasis in original], would this satisfy our feelings? What we really want is not that the land remain whole and unified. What we want is that the whole and unified land be Jewish [emphasis original]. A unified Eretz Israeli would be no source of satisfaction for me–if it were Arab…. We must expel Arabs and take their place. Up to now, all our aspirations have been based on an assumption – one that has been vindicated throughout our activities in the country – that there is enough room in the land for the Arabs and ourselves. But if we are compelled to use force – not in order to dispossess the Arabs of the Negev or Transjordan, but in order to guarantee our right to settle there – our force will enable us to do so.”[69]


In 1937, the Zionists owned no more than 6 percent of the land, but were offered 20 percent of Palestine; and, in 1947, Jews (one third of the population) owned approximately 7 percent of the land and were offered 55 percent of the country. In 1937, the new Jewish state was to contain 396,000 Jews and 225,000 Arabs, with a proposition that those Arabs would be transferred, forcibly if necessary, to the new Arab state. In 1947, almost half of the Arab population was to come under Jewish state, and it was impossible to create a Zionist state with Jewish majority without an ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians. Thus, the UN partition plan could not but leads to Arab rejection of the plan to a war and to ethnic cleansing.


Following the first cease fire the Zionist received massive military weapons from Stalinist Czechoslovakia and as result they were able to crash the Arab armies that in spite of their numerical superiority, were ill-equipped, inexperienced and unprepared. They went to fight in Palestine because of the anger of the Arab masses that learned about the massacres of the Palestinians by the Zionist. The local Arab rulers held to power, did not dare not to go to a war they could not win.


“As far as the military balance is concerned, it was always assumed that the Arabs enjoyed overwhelming numerical superiority. The war was accordingly depicted as one between the few against the many, as a desperate, tenacious, and heroic struggle for survival against horrifyingly heavy odds. The desperate plight and the heroism of the Jewish fighters are not in question. Nor is the fact that they had inferior military hardware at their disposal, at least until the first truce, when illicit arms supplies from Czechoslovakia decisively tipped the scales in their favour. But in mid-May 1948 the total number of Arab troops, both regular and irregular, operating in the Palestine theatre was under 25,000, whereas the Israel Defence Force (IDF) fielded over 35,000 troops. By mid-July the IDF mobilized 65,000 men under arms, and be December its numbers had reached a peak of 96,441. The Arab states also reinforced their armies, but they could not match this rate of increase. Thus, at each stage of the war, the IDF outnumbered all the Arab forces arrayed against it, and, after the first round of fighting, it outgunned them too. The final outcome of the war was therefore not a miracle but a faithful reflection of the underlying military balance in the Palestine theatre. In this war, as in most wars, the stronger side prevailed.” [70]


This war came to an end with the Armistice agreements signed under the aegis of the UN in 1949 with Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt. In accordance with these agreements, at that time the Israeli territory extended over 20,000 km, almost four fifths of former Palestine under the British mandate. At the same time, no more than approximately 130,000 Arabs remained within the Israeli borders.


The Zionists claim that Israel accepted the UN partition plan. This is another lie. On the eve of the declaration of the state of Israel, the Zionist leadership debated whether to declare the borders of Israel according to the UN plan in the “declaration of independence”.


Felix Rosenblueth (later Pinhas Rosen) was a member of the People’s Administration (who would later become Israel’s first minister of justice). “In the May 12 session, Rosenblueth insisted that the state be declared “in the framework” of the UN partition plan and that its borders be defined accordingly. As a matter of law, he contended, “it is impossible not to treat borders.” He had also distributed in advance a proposed draft in which the People’s Council “declares a free, sovereign Jewish state in the borders set forth in the resolution of the UN General Assembly of November 29, 1947.”


Ben Gurion opposed him saying on May 12, 1948: “Why not mention [borders]? Because we don’t know [what will happen]. If the UN stands its ground, we won’t fight the UN. But if the UN doesn’t act, and [the Arabs] wage war against us and we thwart them, and we then take the western Galilee and both sides of the corridor to Jerusalem, all this will become part of the state, if we have sufficient force. Why commit ourselves?”[71]



Map 2: The Partition of the UN Plan in 1947 [72]

Map 3: Israel in 1949 [73]


Chapter 9: The Right of Return


Following the war Israel would prevent the return of the refugees in spite of the fact that the United Nations General Assembly adopts resolution 194 (III), resolving that “refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible”. [74]


Yet because Israel is in the front line of the imperialists in the region the UN Security council has never acted to enforce this resolution. The simple truth is that “without expelling the Palestinian population that was present in areas set aside for the establishment of a Jewish State by the U.N. Partition Plan it would not have been possible to establish a state with a distinct Jewish character and political culture. Jews were only a slim majority of the population (55 percent Jewish vs. 45 percent Palestinian) in the area proposed for the state. They also owned less than 10% of the land in the area set aside for the new Jewish state and were clear demographic minorities in both the northern (Eastern Galilee) and southern (Negev) sectors of the proposed state where they constituted approximately 30 percent and 1 percent of the population respectively. The Jewish population was only a majority in the middle (coastal) section of the proposed state, but even here 65 percent of the Jewish population lived in the two cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa meaning that Palestinians were the majority population in nearly all of the area set aside for the new Jewish State.” [75]


After the war of 1948, many Palestinian refugees tried to return to their homes fields and trees and were killed by the Zionist army and police. “The Palestinian refugees constituted the national movement’s core constituency and main political leaders. Through armed resistance, Palestinian factions sought to liberate their homeland and obtain the return that refugees in other conflicts were routinely allowed, and that was guaranteed under international law. Israel met that resistance with violence of its own, killing thousands of refugees as they tried to sneak home under cover of darkness in the years following the war.” [76]


Stalinist Russia supported not only the creation of Israel and provided it with weapons including tanks and airplanes but voted in the UN against the right of return of the Palestinian refugees. “Moscow also supported Israel in another aspect of its demographic battle: the homogenisation of its population, which led to the departure — mainly through expulsion — of over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs. The USSR absolved Israel of responsibility and blamed the British. In 1948 the Soviet Union voted against UN resolution 194 on the possible return of Palestinian refugees.” [77]


Even today, you can find some left-wingers in Israel and other countries who try to reconcile the creation of the Israeli settler state with the mass expulsion of the Palestinian masses. After so many years they still think that a better partition, one that could have been fairer to the two peoples was possible.


In reality, the partition of Palestine – like the partition of Ireland, India and Cyprus – was a device used by the big powers, the imperialists and the Stalinist bureaucracy to divert the class struggle in order to restore the imperialist order that had been shattered after the war.


The lie that partition, including partition along ethnic lines, could bring peace between different nations and ethnic or religious groups was no more than crude propaganda aimed at hiding the real aims of the imperialists. A review of a few historical examples will show that they all brought the same result, blood baths, ethnic cleansing and hatred that served to put many millions of workers and peasants under the control of a handful of rich imperialists.


After World War I, Ireland was divided by the British imperialists into the Catholic South and the North which had a Catholic-Protestant divide, with a Protestant majority. This led to many years of conflicts.


The island of Cyprus is another example. After the invasion by Turkey in 1974, evidently with the approval of the U.S. imperialists, the island was divided. In the ethnic cleansing that took place 20,000 Turks went north while ten times that number of Greeks went south. The island is now divided.


After World War II, the British divided India into a Muslim section and a section for the remainder who were mostly Hindu. As a result, some 17 million people were forced out of their homes and became refugees and countless others were killed in the pogroms. More Muslims remained in India, however, than went to Pakistan, which declared itself a Muslim country. Later, East Pakistan, aided by India, broke away from Pakistan. The Moslem majority in Kashmir are oppressed by India.


The problem with those who adopted the line that the Zionists have the right of self-determination is that they fail to grasp the nature of the Zionists as settler colonialist-oppressors. Marxists support the right of self-determination only of oppressed people. [78]


The Zionists from the very beginning of the colonization of Palestine ignored the fact that Palestine had native population. At the time the Zionists used the phrase “land without people for a people without land”, Palestine was already home to 700,000 Palestinians as the census of 1919 showed. Out of these 700,000, only 10% were Jews and half of them were not Zionists.


The hypocritical Zionist argument that the local Arab opposition to their own self-destruction constituted a form of anti-Semitism has been contradicted not only by the direct victims of Zionism, and not only by the Marxists, but by many progressive Jews.


Albert Einstein said: “I should much rather see reasonable agreement with the Arabs on the basis of living together in peace than the creation of a Jewish State.” [79]


Erich Fromm, a noted Jewish writer and thinker, stated: “In general, international law, the principle holds true that no citizen loses his property or his rights of citizenship; and the citizenship right is de facto a right to which the Arabs in Israel have much more legitimacy than the Jews. Just because the Arabs fled? Since when is that punishable by confiscation of property, and by being barred from returning to the land on which a people’s forefathers have lived for generations? Thus, the claim of the Jews to the land of Israel cannot be a realistic claim. If all nations would suddenly claim territory in which their forefathers had lived two thousand years ago, this world would be a madhouse... A Jewish Home in Palestine built upon bayonets and oppression [is] not worth having, even though it succeed, whereas the very attempt to build it up peacefully, cooperatively, with understanding, education, and good will, [is] worth a great deal even though the attempt should fail.” [80]


Since the 1980s some of Israel’s new historians have refuted the myths of the founding of the state. Those “new Israeli historians” such as, Tom Segev or Ilan Pappe, have shown that the departure of the refugees was largely caused by the attitude of the Israeli army acting with impunity (expulsions, harassment, and massacres especially that of Deir Yasir but also in Lydda, Ramleh, Dawimiyya, Sa’sa, Ein Zietun and other places).


These new historians concurred with their Palestinian counterparts that the program of Zionism was carried out as a pure colonialist act against the local population: a mixture of exploitation and expropriation.


The Zionist justification for the ethnic cleansing of 1947-1948 is the myth of annihilation. The new historians like, Ilan Pappe (“The Link”, January, 1998) challenged the official history that says the Jewish community faced possible annihilation on the eve of the 1948 war. Archival documents expose the fact that the Arab rulers controlled by the British masters had no intention of stirring up the Arab masses. They feared the Arab masses more than they feared the British masters or a Palestinian nation, which possessed no military ability with which it could fight the strong Jewish army that had been armed with the help of the Soviet bureaucracy. [81]


The Jewish military advantage was translated into an act of mass expulsion of 700,000 to one million Palestinians. Many of them were expelled long before the Arab states invaded Palestine. These mass expulsions began shortly after the UN declaration of November 29, 1947.


Some hypocritical supporters of the creation of the Israeli state were very surprised to discover that as a result of the partition 900,000 Palestinians became refugees. But they cannot deny that the idea of partition included from its very first beginning the plan of ethnic cleansing. The Peel Commission of 1937, sent to investigate the causes of the unrest, resulted in a report and the White Paper. Their major recommendations were the partition of the land into two unequal states, as well as a population transfer.


After considerable debate, the Zionist executive accepted the Peel plan. Berl Katznelson, an influential leader of the Mapai party favoured a population transfer, including a “compulsory” transfer. However, the “compulsion” was to come about as the result of agreement, and not through war or violent action. He wrote: “The matter of population transfer has provoked a debate among us: Is it permitted or forbidden? My conscience is absolutely clear in this respect. A remote neighbour is better than a close enemy. They [the Palestinians] will not lose from it. In the final analysis, this is a political and settlement reform for the benefit of both parties. I have long been of the opinion that this is the best of all solutions... I have always believed and still believe that they were destined to be transferred to Syria or Iraq.” [82]


The PKP (the Palestine Communist Party – under its Stalinist leadership) and Mapam (a left wing Social Democratic Zionist party) were in the beginning opposed to the idea of the partition of Palestine. To understand the reason for the shift in their position we must understand the role of the Social Democrats and the Stalinists in helping to restore the imperialist order after the Second World War.


The Zionists Aim in the 1948 War


If Israel was a progressive society and if it was fighting a revolutionary anti-imperialist war in 1948 as the Stalinists claimed at the time, the outcome in the region would be the weakening of the imperialist control over the region. In the real world the opposite happened.


It is sufficient to read the articles, diaries, speeches of the leading Zionists including of the left-wing Zionists, to realize that the Zionists aim in the war of 1948 was to crash and force the Palestinian to flee their homeland. It also demonstrates that the Zionists were made in the same mold of the South African Afrikaners. This becomes evident from the leading Zionists own words. Let us quote first Vladimir Jabotinsky, the leader of the Revisionist Zionists:


Zionist colonization, even the most restricted, must either be terminated or carried out in defiance of the will of the native population. This colonization can, therefore, continue and develop only under the protection of a force independent of the local population – an iron wall which the native population cannot break through. This is, in total, our policy towards the Arabs. To formulate it any other way would only be hypocrisy.[83]


Later Jabotinsky proclaimed the “iron law of every colonizing movement, a law which knows of no exceptions, a law which existed in all times and under all circumstances. If you wish to colonize a land in which people are already living, you must provide a garrison on your behalf. Or else – or else, give up your colonization, for without an armed force which will render physically impossible any attempts to destroy or prevent this colonization, colonization is impossible, not "difficult", not "dangerous" but IMPOSSIBLE!... Zionism is a colonizing adventure and therefore it stands or falls by the question of armed force. It is important to build, it is important to speak Hebrew, but, unfortunately, it is even more important to be able to shoot – or else I am through with playing at colonialization.[84]


Joseph Weitz, head of the Jewish Agency's Colonization Department, said: “There are some who believe that the non-Jewish population, even in a high percentage, within our borders will be more effectively under our surveillance; and there are some who believe the contrary, i.e., that it is easier to carry out surveillance over the activities of a neighbor than over those of a tenant. [I] tend to support the latter view and have an additional argument (...) the need to sustain the character of the state which will henceforth be Jewish (...) with a non-Jewish minority limited to 15 percent. I had already reached this fundamental position as early as 1940 [and] it is entered in my diary." [85]


David Ben Gurion, future Prime Minister of Israel, already wrote in 1937 in a letter to his son about the Zionist plans for the expulsion of the Palestinian people: "We must expel Arabs and take their places." [86]


Other quotes from Ben Gurion underline the Zionist expansionist plans: "We should prepare to go over to the offensive. Our aim is to smash Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, and Syria. The weak point is Lebanon, for the Moslem regime is artificial and easy for us to undermine. We shall establish a Christian state there, and then we will smash the Arab Legion, eliminate Trans-Jordan; Syria will fall to us. We then bomb and move on and take Port Said, Alexandria and Sinai”. [87]


Yitzhak Rabin reported in his memoirs: "We walked outside, Ben-Gurion accompanying us. Allon repeated his question, What is to be done with the Palestinian population?' Ben-Gurion waved his hand in a gesture which said 'Drive them out!'" [88]


Later Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin would express Zionist racism in its most brutal frankness in a speech to the Knesset (Israeli Parliament): “Our race is the Master Race. We are divine gods on this planet. We are as different from the inferior races as they are from insects. In fact, compared to our race, other races are beasts and animals, cattle at best. Other races are considered as human excrement. Our destiny is to rule over the inferior races. Our earthly kingdom will be ruled by our leader with a rod of iron. The masses will lick our feet and serve us as our slaves." [89]

Chapter 10: The Use of Biological Weapons


In the years prior to the war of 1967 the Zionist propaganda was that former Nazi scientists were developing rockets programmed to use radioactive waste for Nasser Egypt.[90]


In the real word Israel recruited the head of the Nazi commando Otto Skorzeny.Otto Skorzeny was one of the most outstanding military men of the 20th century. His specialty was daring, guerrilla-style, commando raids. He was an unrepentant Nazi, a senior SS officer, who remained involved in right-wing causes his whole life. And now it’s emerged that he was also an agent and hitman for Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service.” [91]


“The Israelis had made stopping the Egyptian project a top priority and were threatening the scientists and considered killing Skorzeny. Instead, the Mossad decided to recruit him to allow them to get closer to the scientists. According to journalists Dan Raviv and Yossi Melman, an Israeli agent and a female helper met Skorzeny and his wife at a bar in Madrid. The two couples ended up at Skorzeny’s villa where the German pulled a gun out and threatened to kill the others because he believed they were Israeli agents sent to kill him… The Israelis said they wanted to hire him, not kill him. Skorzeny said he didn’t want any money, but would help in exchange for the Israelis convincing Simon Wiesenthal to remove Skorzeny from his list of outstanding war criminals. The Israelis agreed and later made the request to Wiesenthal. The Nazi hunter refused, so the Mossad forged a document they presented to Skorzeny saying that he had been removed from Wiesenthal’s list.” [92]


Not only this, but Israel used biological weapons already in the war of 1947-9. The opening of archive material clearly demonstrates that Israel used biological weapons against the Palestinian population back in 1948. Israel to this day does not abide by internationally recognized agreements on the use of such weapons. The US imperialists turn a blind eye to all this, as they have their own “weapons of mass destruction”.


The Palestinian historian Salman Abu-Sitta has written a very interesting article under the title: "Israel's Dark History revealed", that deals with an unknown episode of the 1948 war. This article proves that the Israeli ruling elite used biological weapons even before the state of Israel was created, under the nose of the British imperialists in the last days of the mandate. The Zionist ruling class of course denies this. However, the shooting of over 4 million exploding bombs on the civilian population during the war in Lebanon has revealed the extent of the barbarism of the rulers of the Israeli state and what they are capable of. The following is a summary of this article. [93]


"Poisoning Acre's water supply


Israel’s use of biological weapons in 1948 in the wake of Haifa's occupation on 23 April 1948 by the Zionists, under the nose of the British Mandate forces commended by General Stockwell, Acre was attacked. The Zionists besieged the city from the land side, and started showering the population with a hail of mortar bombs day and night. Famous for its historical walls, Acre could stand the siege for some time. The city water supply came from a nearby village, Kabri, about 10kms to the north, through an aqueduct. The Zionists injected typhoid into the aqueduct at some intermediate point which passed through Zionist settlements.


The story can now be told, thanks to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) files which have become available, 50 years after the event. A series of reports, under the reference G59/1/GC, G3/82, sent by ICRC delegate de Meuron from 6 May to about 19 May 1948, describe the conditions of the city population, struck by a sudden typhoid epidemic, and the efforts to combat it.


Of particular importance are the minutes of an emergency conference that was held at the Lebanese Red Cross Hospital in Acre on 6 May, to deal with the typhoid epidemic. The meeting was attended by Brigadier Beveridge, Chief of British Medical Services and Colonel Bonnet of the British Army, Dr Maclean of the Medical Services, Mr de Meuron, ICRC delegate in addition to other officials of the city. The minutes stated that there were at least 70 known civilian casualties; others may not have been reported. It was determined that the infection was "water borne", not due to crowded or unhygienic conditions as claimed by the Israelis. It was decided that a substitute water supply should come from artesian wells or from the agricultural station, just north of Acre [see map], not from the aqueduct. Water chlorine solution was applied, inoculation of civil population started, movement of civil population was controlled (lest refugees heading north towards Lebanon might carry the typhoid epidemic with them, as intended by the Zionists).


In his other reports, de Meuron mentioned 55 casualties among British soldiers, who were spirited away to Port Said for hospitalisation. General Stockwell arranged for de Meuron to fly on a military plane to Jerusalem to fetch medicine. The British, who left Palestine in the hands of the Jews, did not want another embarrassing incident to delay their departure.


Brigadier Beveridge told de Meuron that this was "the first time this happened in Palestine". This belies the Israeli story, including that of the Israeli historian Benny Morris, that the epidemic was due to "unhygienic conditions" of the refugees. If that was so, how come there was an almost equal number of casualties among British soldiers? Why did such conditions not cause epidemics in such other concentrations of refugees, under far worse conditions, in Jaffa, Lydda, Nazareth and Gaza?


ICRC delegate, de Meuron admired greatly the heroic efforts of the Arab doctors, Al-Dahhan and Al-Araj from the Lebanese Red Cross hospital in Acre, Dr Dabbas from Haifa and Mrs Bahai from Haifa.


The city of Acre, now burdened by the epidemic, became easy prey to the Zionists. They intensified their bombardment. Trucks carrying loudspeakers proclaimed, "Surrender or commit suicide. We will destroy you to the last man."

Chapter 11: The War of 1956


After WWII, the Western imperialists' fear of the possible expanding influence of Stalinist Russia viewed the Middle East as an important element in the containment of the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden saw the Suez Canal as a lifeline for the Empire. When the Egyptian Prime Minister Nuqarshi demanded in December 1945 that the British army evacuate Egypt, Britain under the Labor government refused. This led to large demonstrations of workers and students in Egypt that clashed with the British army. This could have led to a revolution. In the negotiation of the new Egyptian Sidiqi with the labor government led by Clement Atlee Britain agreed to remove the British army in 1949.


This led to further strengthening of the anti-imperialist movement. The Moslem Brotherhood called for Jihad against British imperialism and newspapers called for guerrilla war. The defeat of the Arab armies in the 1948 war intensified the anger of the masses against British Imperialism. The big landowners were afraid of any change and the small capitalist class was too afraid of losing control of the mass movement. The brotherhood gained popularity because members of this movement fought against the Zionist state. However they also could not lead a revolution and the Egyptian government detained in concentration camps thousand members of the Brotherhood and members of the Stalinist party that was weak because of their support for the creation of Israel.


In 1952, the masses were in the streets to fight against the British and the government. Riding on the revolutionary movement that lacked a revolutionary working-class leadership a group of young “free officers” led by Gamal Abdul Nasser with general Nagib as a symbolic figure disposed of king Faruk and his Wafdist bourgeois government in a military coup on July 26, 1952. After the coup, the Free Officers asked Ali Mahir, a previous prime minister, to head the government. The Free Officers formed the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) that dictated policy to the civilian government. Nasser was Anti-British and he wanted to free Egypt from Britain and to modernize Egypt. However in the first years of his rule he had a pro-American orientation. In August 1952 his government crashed a strike of 10,000 workers of the textile factories in the Delta region. The army shut the workers and a military tribune convicted some of the leaders of the strike, two of them were hanged and others were sent to prison. Then he arrested 30 members of the Stalinist party, the CPE. At the same time the military government passed the Agrarian Reform law that limited the landholding to 200 feddans. Poor farmers were able to buy two to five feddans. Nasser established a public industry. The government raised the minimum, wages and created more jobs. It spent more money on education. In 1953, all political parties were banned. Thus Egypt under Nasser was a form of state capitalism with a Bonapartist regime.


The western imperialists pressured Nasser to join the Anti-Soviet Bagdad pact. He refused and joined the Nonaligned Movement with Tito and Nero’s India. While it was neither pro-Soviet nor pro-West, the West was hostile to this movement. While Nasser joined this movement he kept a friendly attitude towards the USA.


“To Dulles (secretary of state ) and Eisenhower, it was always the Russian specter that made Nasser a force to contend with. Arab nationalists, like nationalists throughout the Third World, could be expected to seek help where they might find it. If aid were unavailable from the West, they would undoubtedly look to the Soviet bloc. In much of the Third World, American leaders sought to keep countries on the side of the West through economic and military aid. It would have been natural for Eisenhower and Dulles to apply a similar policy to Egypt. To a certain degree, they did.”