Palestine and Zionism

 

 

The History of Oppression of the Palestinian People. A Critical Account of the Myths of Zionism

 

By Yossi Schwartz, Internationalist Socialist League (Section of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency in Israel / Occupied Palestine), April 2019, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

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Contents

 

 

 

Introduction

 

 

 

Part I

 

 

 

I. The Zionist Myths about the Jews

 

The Zionist Myth: Palestine belongs to “God’s chosen people”

 

The Patriarch Abraham

 

The Myth about Moses

 

King David

 

The People of the Second Temple

 

 

 

II. The Zionist Myth about the Palestinians

 

The UN Partition Plan in 1947

 

Genetic Evidence?

 

 

 

III. The Arabs Connection to Palestine

 

The Real History of Palestine

 

The Christians in Palestine

 

Palestine under the Moslems

 

The Crusaders

 

Palestine under the Ottomans

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

IV. Zionist Colonization

 

Zionism and British Imperialism

 

The 1929 Clashes

 

 

 

V. The Creation of Israel and the Expulsion of the Palestinians

 

The War of 1948

 

The Zionists Aim in the 1948 War

 

Stalinism supported Israel’s reactionary war in 1948

 

The Palestinian Refugees

 

The Jewish Refugees

 

 

 

VI. Israel as a Colonial Settler State and the Palestinians’ Resistance

 

The Military Regime

 

The War of 1956

 

The War of 1967

 

Why war?

 

Alone in the war?

 

The “Miracle”

 

The War of 1973

 

The PLO

 

The Left Fronts

 

Land Day

 

The First Intifada

 

The Oslo Agreement

 

The Wars in Lebanon

 

The Occupation of 1967

 

Gaza

 

 

 

VII. The Solution

 

 

About the Author

 

Tables

 

Table 1. Share of Palestinian vs. Jewish land ownership as of April 1st, 1943

 

Table 2. Population Growth in Palestine, 1922-1946

 

Table 3. Statistics: Total Casualties, Arab-Israeli Conflict

 

Table 4. Palestinians killed in the Occupied Territories (including East Jerusalem)

 

Table 5. Israelis killed in the Occupied Territories (including East Jerusalem)

 

Table 6. Palestinians within the Green Line

 

Table 7. Israelis killed within the Green Line

 

 

 

Maps

 

Map 1. British Promises of Arab Independence (1915)

 

Map 2. Arab Countries Occupied by Britain and France after World War One

 

Map 3. Palestinian Loss of Land 1946 - Present

 

Introduction

 

 

This book is written from a Marxist revolutionary perspective. Its aim is to provide a systematical analysis of the history of Palestine, a name given by the Greek and the Romans to the country that was known until then as Canaan.

 

Canaan was located in the Levant region of present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel. It was also known as Phoenicia. The origin of the name `Canaan’ is not clear. According to the Bible, the land was named after a man called Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10). The name Canaan first appears in documents from the 15th century B.C. and was variously written: Akkadian: Kinani (m), Kinaui, etc.; Egyptian: Knnw and Pknn; Ugaritic: Knaany ("a Canaanite"); Phoenician and Hebrew: Knaan. Most scholars connect the name with the Hurrian term kinau meaning (reddish) purple. Support for this is found in the similarity between the Greek Φοινιξ meaning reddish purple and Φοινίκη meaning Phoenicia. Those who derive the name from the Semitic root kn' consider it either a name for the conchiferous snail which yielded purple dye, or a term for the western clans. [1]

 

The name Palestine refers to the Philistines who ruled Canaan in different periods between the twelfth century B.C. and the eighth century B.C.

 

While the writer of this booklet recognizes the right of the oppressed Palestinian people to their land stolen by the Zionists, the right of the return of the Palestinian refugees, and opposes the right of self-determination for the Zionist settler colonialists, he advocates a socialist solution that will enable the Palestinians and the Israeli Jews to live peacefully as equals in the same workers state and as a part of the socialist federation of the Middle East, the most democratic form of states. [2]

 

History has shown that the right of self-determination for the Zionists excludes the right of self-determination for the oppressed Palestinians even in a mini state. The same was true for South Africa. Revisionists of Marxism claim that Marxists support the self determination of all nations. They ignore the fact that Marx did not support the right of self-determination for the South in the American civil war, Trotsky’s position on South Africa where he supported a Black workers state and not a state for the European colonialist settlers and Lenin advocated the right of self-determination only for oppressed nations. [3]

 

Lenin wrote: ”Imperialism means the progressively mounting oppression of the nations of the world by a handful of Great Powers; it means a period of wars between the latter to extend and consolidate the oppression of nations; it means a period in which the masses of the people are deceived by hypocritical social-patriots, i.e., individuals who, under the pretext of the “freedom of nations”, “the right of nations to self-determination”, and “defense of the fatherland”, justify and defend the oppression of the majority of the world’s nations by the Great Powers.[4]

 



[1] "Canaan, Land of." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/canaan-land

[2] We refer readers to the numerous publications on the Palestinian liberation struggle by the author of these lines as well as by the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), of which he is a leading member. See e.g. the program of the Palestinian RCIT section which can be read here: http://www.the-isleague.com/our-platform/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/summary-of-isl-program/; see also Yossi Schwartz: Israel's War of 1948 and the Degeneration of the Fourth International, http://the-isleague.com/1948-war-5-2013/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/israel-s-war-of-1948/; Yossi Schwartz: Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism 16 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-semitism-and-anti-zionism/; Yossi Schwartz: The Origins of the Jews, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/origins-of-jews/; Michael Pröbsting: On some Questions of the Zionist Oppression and the Permanent Revolution in Palestine, http://the-isleague.com/zionist-oppression-and-permanent-revolution/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/permanent-revolution-in-palestine/; We refer reader for more information on the ISL’s and the RCIT’s stand in solidarity with the Palestinian people to our websites http://www.the-isleague.com and https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/africa-and-middle-east/.

[3] On Lenin’s theory of imperialism and the national question see e.g. the RCIT’s book by Michael Pröbsting: The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/great-robbery-of-the-south/

[4] V.I.Lenin: The Revolutionary Proletariat and the Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1915), https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1915/oct/16.htm

 

 I. The Zionist Myths about the Jews

 

 

From this perspective it is important to deal with many myths and even lies that have been promoted by the Zionists in order to justify their colonialist project. In the process of the colonization of this country by the Zionists many lives were lost of Arabs and of Jews for a project that is irrational and it is not difficult to see that it has entered its decaying stage. It is still very strong militarily but it is rotting from within.

 

 

 

The Zionist Myth: Palestine belongs to “God’s chosen people”

 

 

 

A common Zionist claim is that Jews have lived in the biblical lands for three to four thousand years beginning with Abraham and that these lands belong to God’s chosen people: the Jews whose God promised them this land in the covenant with Abraham.

 

Thus the Israeli Embassy in Ghana in 2018 day of Israel independence stated:

 

“70 years shows only the number of years for the re-establishment of the State of Israel after many years of exile. It is well known that Israel is a very ancient nation and this fact has been well documented over 3 and half thousand years. Our independence goes over 3000 years ago and continued with some interruption for 1000 years. In the year 135 AD, we lost our independent completely, but even during the long diaspora, there were always Jewish communities living in the land of Israel. Moreover, the people of Israel never forgot their homeland and always prayed to return to Jerusalem.”

 

It was said that secular Zionists do not believe in God but believe that god promised them this land. Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israel, loved the book of Joshua of the bible. The book of Joshua has been popular, particularly among nationalist readers who found justification in its unified army, settlement project, and elimination of native inhabitants. These themes resonated all the more among nationalist settlers like the Boers and the Zionists. Because the Zionists need the bible to justify their crimes it is impossible to separate between the state and the Rabbinates.

 

In the Center for Israel Studies we find: “From the earliest days of the Bible—from the creation story itself—to the lives of most Jews today, the Land of Israel has been an important part of the Jewish story. The first verse of the Torah, “In the beginning G-d created the heavens and the land,” was understood by the rabbis as indicating G-d’s sovereignty over the world and over all its lands. According to this interpretation, the biblical text implied that the Land of Israel was given to the Jewish people.” [1]

 

This is a strange argument coming from people who claim that the intellectual roots of Zionism are anchored in the Jewish Haskalah, which from Hebrew translates as the “Enlightenment of the mind.” Fundamentally, so it was claimed, Zionism advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for more secular education. [2]

 

The argument that god promised the Jews this land has nothing to do with the Enlightenment. The American and French Revolutions were inspired by Enlightenment ideals. Zionism as a Jewish political nationalist and colonialist movement was born after the revolutionary period of the bourgeoisie. It was born at the time of the scramble for Africa (1881-1914) when the different imperialist states occupied the last remaining colonies and would begin the power struggle leading to WWI.

 

The Zionists slogan: “A land without people for people without a land” was influenced by the white spots doctrine of the imperialists. According to this doctrine a country that is not ruled by an imperialist state is a white spot on the map waiting to be discovered and ruled by an imperialist state that would bring progress to the native people. In 1885, two years before the first Zionist congress, European imperialist leaders met at the infamous Berlin Conference to divide Africa and arbitrarily draw up borders that exist to this day.

 

Today anyone who dares to call the Zionists colonialists and racists is going to face the accusation of being Anti-Semite. Not always it was so. The UN General Assembly passed in 1975 a resolution condemning Zionism as racism based on the UN’s own definition of racial discrimination, adopted in 1965. According to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, racial discrimination is “any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.” As a definition of racism and racial discrimination, this statement is correct and characterizes Zionism. However this resolution was reversed in 1991 because of the neo-liberal atmosphere of that time that since then became even uglier with a right-wing populists atmosphere in many countries.

 

The founders of the Zionist movement did not try to hide that they were colonialists. Herzl called the financial trust he founded the "Jewish Colonial Trust. “At the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland, in August 1897, the idea of a central fund to support the development of a Jewish home in Palestine was raised by Max Bodenheimer, a lawyer from Cologne, Germany. In May 1898, an initial committee, consisting of Bodenheimer, David Wolffsohn of Lithuania and Dr. Rudolph Schauer of Germany, was organized to lay the foundation for the new enterprise. The committee established that the new bank’s purpose would be the economic development and strengthening of Jewish colonies in Palestine, the purchase of land for new settlements on a legally recognized basis, the development of trade and industry in the colonies, the loaning of money for the purposes of colonization, and the establishment of savings-banks in the colonies.” [3]

 

It is well known that Herzl wrote: “If His Majesty the Sultan were to give us Palestine, we could in return undertake to regulate the whole finances of Turkey. We should there form a portion of a rampart of Europe against Asia, an outpost of civilization as opposed to barbarism.[4]

 

Herzl saw himself and his movement as part of the European plans for dismantling the Ottoman Empire.

 

Rodinson was the first to point out the political nature of Zionism as settler colonialists acting within the imperialists’ framework:

 

The [Zionist] perspective was inevitably placed within the framework of the European assault on the Ottoman Empire, this “sick man” whose complete dismemberment was postponed by the rivalries of the great powers but who, in the meantime, was subjected to all kinds of interference, pressures, and threats. An imperialist setting if there ever was one.” [5]

 

The Zionist movement was not only ready to serve European imperialism, it was born as a racist and Anti-Semite. Max Nordau, one of founders of the Zionist movement at the First Zionist Congress stated in his opening address, “The majority of Jews are a race of accursed beggars.[6] At the 1898 Second Zionist Congress, Nordau said: “We must think once again of creating a Jewry of muscles”. He envisioned a Jewish race that was physically strong, able to defend itself against anti-Semitism and be able to make the Zionist goal of a Jewish state become reality. [7]

 

As Herzl asserted Israel is a strategic asset to the other imperialists. This has been confirmed by many imperialist leaders. José María Aznar, the former Prime Minister of Spain, for example stated:

 

Israel is not only part of the Western world, in spite of being located in the Middle East. It is an indispensable and vital part of our civilization. Put aside our historical common roots; put aside the moral obligations to give and support a State for the Jewish people; put aside the thousands of years that link the Jewish people with the land where they live today. Just consider the many benefits we, the rest of the West and the world, enjoy thanks to Israel. [8]

 

The main Zionist justification for the creation of Israel is the need to provide the Jews a shelter against Anti-Semitic persecution, and yet Israel has become a close friend of many extreme right anti-Semitic parties and regimes in Europe and other places who identify with the Zionist repression of the Palestinians. They love Israel and hate the Jews. Israel has become the symbol of reaction everywhere. This moral bankruptcy has been a feature of Zionism from the very beginning. Herzl wrote on the Anti-Semites that they are the best friends of the Zionists: The Zionist founder Theodor Herzl wrote: “It is essential that the suffering of Jews….becomes worse….this will assist in (the) realization of our plans….I have an excellent idea….I shall induce anti-Semites to liquidate Jewish wealth….The anti-Semites will assist us thereby in that they will strengthen the persecution and oppression of Jews. The anti-Semites shall be our best friends.” [9]

 

To appeal to the Jews to join the colonialist project the Zionist have claimed that the Jews are a world nation and adopted religious symbols. For example the Zionist blue and white flag is based on the Jewish Tallit (Praying Shawl). We find in the Jewish Virtual Library the following definition for the Jewish nation: “Judaism can be thought of as being simultaneously a religion, a nationality and a culture. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the 20th century, most of the European world agreed that Jews constituted a distinct nation. This concept of nation does not require that a nation have neither a territory nor a government, but rather, it identifies, as a nation any distinct group of people with a common language and culture. Only in the 19th century did it become common to assume that each nation should have its own distinct government; this is the political philosophy of nationalism. In fact, Jews had a remarkable degree of self-government until the 19th century. So long as Jews lived in their ghettos, they were allowed to collect their own taxes, run their own courts, and otherwise behave as citizens of a landless and distinctly second-class Jewish nation.” [10]

 

This definition is confusing Judaism, which is religion, with Israel that was a kingdom and a nation, Judea that was a kingdom and a nation, and the ancient Hebrews who believed in many gods.

 

According to this definition all the English speaking Christians are one nation. All the Muslims who speak Arabic are one nation. What they ignore is the fact that Jews around the world do not speak the same language nor do they have the same culture. Not only this, but many Jews are not religious. Thus, this is a fake definition of nations. As a matter of fact this was the definition of nations by the Vatican in the Middle Age.

 

 

 

The Patriarch Abraham

 

 

 

The Zionists argue that their right to Palestine is rooted in the fact they have lived in Palestine for the last 3500- 4000 years from the days of the Patriarch Abraham. This claim raises some questions: Was such a person alive? If he lived what is the origin of his name? Why would he leave his country and settle in Palestine? Was he a Jew?

 

The bible tells us that originally Abraham was named Abram. Such a name indicates that he was a descendant of Ram. The native province of Ab Ram was called Aram, which means “land of Ram” and was inhabited by the Aramaeans. The bible says: ”A wandering Aramean was my father” (Deuteronomy 5). The name Hebrews related to Eber, a synonym for the earliest Hebrews (Genesis 10:21): ”Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.” It related to the wider group of Hebrew peoples including Abraham. Eber was an ancient city in Mesopotamia.

 

If Abraham was a real person according to the biblical story he lived around 2000 B.C. (Genesis Chapters 11 through 25.) He lived in Ur. Ur was a city-state in Sumer, a part of the Fertile Crescent located from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq to the Nile in Egypt. According to Genesis 11:31 the patriarch's father, Terah, took his son (who was then called Abram) and his family out of a city called Ur of the Chaldeans.

 

There is a problem with this account. Archaeologists discovered that the Chaldeans were a tribe that didn't exist until somewhere around the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., nearly 1,500 years after Abraham is believed to have lived.

 

It is possible that those priests who wrote the Bible were confused and Abraham came from the Ur of Haran, which was some 500 miles north of the Sumerian Ur. At that time the Amorite tribes ruled Haran. From his name and his father's name, Terah, and his brothers' names, Nahor and Haran, scholars have concluded that Abraham's family may have been Amorites, a Semitic tribe that began to migrate out of Mesopotamia around 2100 B.C. The Amorites' migration destabilized Ur, which scholars estimate collapsed around 1900 B.C. [11] Thus if Abraham was a real person he was not a Jew nor Aramaean but an Amorite. This probably indicates that the Hebrews were Amorites who invaded Canaan 4000 years ago. The Amorites were a Semitic people who seem to have emerged from western Mesopotamia (modern day Syria). In Sumerian they were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of Amurru, and in Egypt as Amar, all of which mean 'Westerners'. They had a pantheon of gods with a chief deity named Amurru (also known as Belu Sadi - 'Lord of the Mountains’ whose wife, Belit-Seri was 'Lady of the Desert’. [12]

 

The historian Kriwaczek wrote: "Terah’s family was not Sumerian. They have long been identified with the very people, the Amurru or Amorites, whom Mesopotamian tradition blamed for Ur’s downfall. William Hallo, Professor of Assyriology at Yale University, confirms that `growing linguistic evidence based chiefly on the recorded personal names of persons identified as Amorites…shows that the new group spoke a variety of Semitic ancestral to later Hebrew, Aramaic and Phoenician.[13]

 

According to Finkelstein and Silberman, the first Israelites dwelt in the country as early as around 1200 BC. At the beginning of the Iron Age they were new settlers in the hill country who had abandoned their former nomadic lifestyle, relinquished most of the animals, and moved to permanent agriculture. But where did these new settlers come from? According to Finkelstein and Silberman, they were Canaanites who lived in the area and were previously nomads. [14]

 

Finkelstein and Silberman could be right but there is a real possibility that the ancient Israelites were part of the Amorites invasion of Canaan. William Dever, Professor Emeritus at the University of Arizona, has investigated the archeology of the ancient Near East for more than 30 years and wrote many books on the subject. In an interview he stated: "One of the first efforts of biblical archeology in the last century was to prove the historicity of the patriarchs, to locate them in a particular period in the archeological history. Today I think most archeologists would argue that there is no direct archeological proof that Abraham, for instance, ever lived. We do know a lot about pastoral nomads, we know about the Amorites' migrations from Mesopotamia to Canaan, and it's possible to see in that an Abraham-like figure somewhere around 1800 B.C.E. But there's no direct connection." [15]

 

In an article in Haaretz we find: “In the Marriage of Martu, a Sumerian creation legend that took place in the distant past even in biblical times, in which the blushing bride weds an Amorite ("martu" in Sumerian), the stereotype is personified: “The Amorite he is dressed in sheep skins: he lives in tents in wind and rain; He doesn’t offer sacrifices. Armed vagabond in the steppes, he digs up truffles and is restless. He eats raw meat. Lives without a home; And when he dies, he is not buried according to proper rituals.” Over 4,000 years ago, mysterious herders who would become steeped in lore brought their flocks down from the mountains of Iran and western Syria into southern Mesopotamia. Sweeping on eastward into the Levant, they transformed the social landscape as they spread, destroying old power structures and building new dynasties. It is little surprise that the ancients would view incoming waves of Amorite shepherds as barbaric, inhuman raiders who eat "raw meat”. Whatever they ate, these Amorites spreading and simply taking whatever lands they needed to herd their flocks would have been among the forefathers of the Babylonians and Assyrians in the east, and the Canaanites in the west. And hence the Jews, probably." [16]

 

If there was such an Amorite person could he be a Jew who believed in one god and the Jewish Torah? The belief in gods is a projection of the existence socio-political order on earth. Monotheism could not exist before a strong empire. The Sumerian religion was polytheistic in nature, and the Sumerians worshipped a great number of deities. These deities were anthropomorphic beings, and were meant to represent the natural forces of the world. It has been estimated that the deities in Sumerian pantheon numbered in the hundreds or even in the thousands. Nevertheless, some gods and goddesses feature more significantly in the religion of Sumer, and thus may be considered to be the main deities of the Sumerian pantheon. These were Anu, the god of the sky; Enlil, the god of the storms and Enki, the god who created the human being. [17]

 

The first evidence of monotheism emerges from Egypt in the 14th century BC (1353-1336 BC) during the reign of Akhenaten. The king was known to have worshiped Aten, the sun disk god. [18]

 

Thus even if such a person as Abraham existed it is impossible that he believed in one god. Furthermore according to the bible the Jewish Torah was given to the Israelites in the time of Moses who lived according to the Bible hundreds of years after Abraham.

 

In any case according to the bible when Abraham arrived to Canaan it was inhabited by Canaanite clans not an empty land waiting for Abraham and his family to settle in. We find in the bible that when Abraham arrived to Canaan it was inhabited by “the sons of Ham were Kush, Mizraim, Put and Canaan. Canaan became the father of Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon, in the direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha” (Gen. 10:6, 15-19). Later on we are told by the bible that god told Abraham that although his descendants will inherit the land, this will have to wait four generations because (Gen. 15:16): “The sin of the Amorite is not yet complete”. Thus most probably the first known people of Canaan according to the Jewish bible were the Amorites and not Jews.

 

 

 

The Myth about Moses

 

 

 

A supporter of Zionism may say that may be Abraham was a Hebrew and an Amorite and not a Jew but Moses was a Jew and thus our history in this country is of 3500 years.

 

The ‘small’ problem with this argument is that the story of the Exodus and of the occupation of Canaan which included according to the bible the killing of the Canaanite is a myth.

 

It is likely a myth taken from the Babylonians myth Enuma Elish of the struggle of the warrior god Marduk with the sea Dragon Tiamat. [19] This myth is related also to the Jewish myth of the creation. The Epic of Creation of the Babylon begins after the killing of the Dragon Marduk divides her body into two halves. Out of one he makes a dome-shaped covering for the heavens and from the other half for Tiamat. The Hebrew story of the Creation opens with existing dark, turbulent, watery abyss named tehom (Gen. 1:2), a Hebrew word corresponding to the Babylonian Tiamat. He then divides it into two portions, making of the one the upper, and of the other the lower ocean. To keep the upper waters in their place, he creates a domelike support, rakia. [20]

 

As to the story of the occupation of Canaan by Joshua, first of all we should ask when these events took place according to the bible. We find in the bible Kings 1 6:1 "And it came to pass in the 480th year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the 4th year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD." Solomon's 4th Year was 966 B.C. Go back 480 Years and this is 1445 B.C.

 

According to the bible the Hebrews, led by Moses and his general Joshua, were the enemy of the Canaanites and were ordered to destroy all the Canaanites. “One of the difficult problems posed by events recorded in the Book of Joshua in the Old Testament concerns the destruction of the Canaanites. When the children of Israel entered the Promised Land they destroyed the Canaanites as ordered by the Lord. The Bible tells what happened when the Israelites conquered Jericho: And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, ox and sheep and donkey, with the edge of the sword (Joshua 6:21).[21]

 

Luckily enough for the Canaanites the story of the exodus and the occupation of Canaan by Joshua is another myth. In 1445 BC, the alleged time of the occupation of Canaan by Joshua, Canaan was an Egyptian colony with a strong army and the bible does not mention any battle with the Egyptian army in Canaan. In 1456 BCE, Pharaoh Thutmoses III won a decisive battle against a coalition of Canaanite rulers at Megiddo. The great Pharaoh recorded his triumph in Egypt: “Inasmuch as every prince of every northern land is shut up within it, the capture of Megiddo is the capture of a thousand towns!” [22] For three centuries, Egyptians ruled the land of Canaan. The Egyptians built fortresses, mansions, and agricultural estates from Gaza to Galilee, taking Canaan’s finest products—copper from Dead Sea mines, cedar from Lebanon, olive oil and wine from the Mediterranean coast, along with untold numbers of slaves and concubines and sending them overland and across the Mediterranean and Red Seas to Egypt to please the ruling class. [23]

 

There is no archaeological or historical evidence in support for the biblical story of slaves leaving Egypt, and certainly no extra-biblical evidence, in Egyptian inscriptions. Yet the Egyptian did mention the name Moses. The Egyptians told the story of Moses, but in their version, he wasn’t a miracle-working hero with God-given powers. In the version passed down by the Egyptian historian Manetho, Moses is a brutal and violent monster and he isn’t even Jewish. Moses, according to Manetho, was an Egyptian priest named Osarsiph who tried to take over Egypt. The pharaoh had quarantined everyone with leprosy into a city called Avaris, and Osarsiph used them to stage a revolt. He made himself the ruler of the lepers, changed his name to Moses, and turned them against the pharaoh. Moses and his army of lepers created the Jewish laws purely out of spite for the Egyptians. They deliberately made their laws the exact of opposite of everything the Egyptians believed. They sacrificed bulls, for example, purely because the Egyptians worshiped one.

 

Moses and his leper colony formed an alliance with the people living in Jerusalem. He built up an army of 200,000 people, and then invaded Egypt. They conquered Ethiopia first, where they reigned as brutal despots. According to the Egyptians, Moses and his people “abstained from no sort of wickedness or barbarity.” Eventually – after about 13 years – Amenophis known also as Amenhotep II (1427-1392 B.C.) managed to get a big enough army together to chase Moses out of Egypt. He chased him into Syria, where Moses and his people settled in Jerusalem. [24]

 

The Roman Historian Tacitus had another version like Manetho, his story begins with Egypt being plagued by leprosy, which he says was spread through pork. Moses and the other lepers were expelled from the country altogether and sent out into the wilderness. In the wilderness, Moses ordered his people to turn against god and man, telling them that “both had deserted them”. Once they made it to Canaan, Moses introduced a new religion – not because he believed in it, according to Tacitus, but because he believed it would “secure the allegiance of his people”. [25]

 

He introduced the kosher diet because eating pork had given them leprosy. He introduced fasting as a way to commemorate their journey through the wilderness. He had them keep the seventh day holy to commemorate their journey through the desert – which, in this version, didn’t take forty years. It took seven days. [26]

 

 

 

King David

 

 

 

At this point the Zionist may say: “well even if the story of Moses is a myth King David existed and therefore the history of the Jewish nation in this country goes back 3000 years”.

 

The ancient nations appeared in history at a stage when federations of tribes unify and create a political center usually in the form of a king. Thus the Hebrew Canaanites clans became nations with the construction of the kingdoms Judea and Israel. This happened around 1000 BC. This we can learn from the Jewish bible that tells us that each tribe was allotted an individual territory to settle. During this period of settlement, and the period of the Judges, there was no predetermined pattern of leadership among the tribes though various crises forced the tribes into joint defense against enemies.

 

Shiloh served as a center for all the tribes under the priestly family of Eli. Under the impact of military pressures, the Israelites felt compelled to turn to Samuel with the request that he will establish a monarchy, and Saul was crowned to rule over all the tribes of Israel. Thus the nation of Israel began according to this account with King Saul (1021–1000 B.C). However we have no evidence that King Saul existed. According to the bible he was killed by the Philistines in Gilboa and his body was hanged on the walls of Beth Shan. The only problem with this story is that Beth Shan was never a Philistine city.

 

“Unfortunately, due in part to later Roman and Byzantine construction at the base of the mound, excavators have not yet revealed any portion of the Beth Shean city wall from the 11th century B.C.E., when the Biblical story about King Saul’s death most likely occurred. And although the city was certainly occupied at this time, there is no evidence of a Philistine presence at the site then.[27]

 

Thus indeed there is evidence that there was a city state rule by King David. It was found in 1993 in Tel Dan. The broken and fragmentary inscription commemorates the victory of an Aramean king over his two southern neighbors: the “king of Israel” and the “king of the House of David.” In the carefully incised text written in neat Aramaic characters, the Aramean king boasts that he, under the divine guidance of the god Hadad, vanquished several thousand Israelite and Judahite horsemen and charioteers before personally dispatching both of his royal opponents. The inscription does not mention the names of the specific kings involved in this encounter, but most scholars believe the stela recounts a campaign of Hazael of Damascus in which he defeated both Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah. [28]

 

Thus there were two Hebrew nations in Canaan but were they Jewish? The answer is no. “Jehoram was King of Israel (852-842 B.C.); son of Ahab and Jezebel; brother and successor of Ahaziah. Like his predecessors, Jehoram worshiped Baal.[29]

 

The kingdom of David could not be very large as the Philistines occupied the coastal strip between the Mediterranean and the land of Canaan. Their land was known as Philistia, a reference to the land of the Five Lords of the Philistines in the south-western Levant. Today, these areas occupy Israel, Gaza, Lebanon and Syria. The Philistines settled on the southern coast of Palestine in the 12th century BC, about the alleged time of the arrival of Joshua who replaced Moses to Canaan. According to biblical tradition (Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4), the Philistines came from Caphtor (possibly Crete). The first records of the Philistines are inscriptions and reliefs in the mortuary temple of Ramses III at Madinat Habu, where they appear under the name prst. According to the Hebrew Bible, the Philistines were in a continuous struggle with the Israelites, Canaanites and Egyptians surrounding them. Egyptian records from the 12th-13th centuries B.C. mention the Philistines in connection with the Sea Peoples. Due to their similar maritime history, their association with each other was strong. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who were assumed to have moved in the eastern Mediterranean areas during the Bronze Age. It has been theorized that the Sea Peoples were originally Etruscan, Italian, Mycenaen or Minoan. As a group, they primarily focused their efforts on attacking Egypt during 1200-900 BCE. Known for their innovative use of iron, the Philistines used this superior material to bronze, which was used by the Israelites for weaponry and more. This allowed the Philistines to be invincible on the battlefield. In the 8th-7th century B.C., starting with Tilgath-Pileser III, the Assyrians rule in Philistia. In 604 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the Philistine cities. Following the occupation of Judea, the Romans replaced the name of the country that in the past was called Canaan and called her Palestine after the Philistines who ruled at least part of the country until the Assyrian occupation. The intention of the Romans was to erase the name of Judea from history.

 

The Philistines were partly defeated by King David (10th century) but they regained their independence and often engaged in border battles with Judea and Israel. We know very little of the Philistine religion; the Philistine gods mentioned in biblical and other sources such as Dagan, Ashteroth, Astarte, and Beelzebub have Semitic names and were probably borrowed from the conquered Canaanites. This probably indicates that they were intermingled with the Canaanite. The God El was a name the ancient Hebrews used for god and was the father of Dagon. During the Assyrian occupation of Canaan the Philistines lost their kingdom and were absorbed into the other Canaanite clans.

 

The Bible book of Judges Chapter 10 says:”Again the Israelites did evil in the eyes of the Lord. They served the Baals and the Ashtoreths, and the gods of Aram, the gods of Sidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of the Ammonites and the gods of the Philistines. And because the Israelites forsook the Lord and no longer served him, he became angry with them. He sold them into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites of Ashdod, Akron and Ashkelon.[30]

 

According to the bible and other sources like Assyrian there were two Hebrew kingdoms, Israel and Judea. They were a class society, the priests, were the upper class, the political ruler was the king and his court while the rest of the people were peasants, artisans, and slaves. Slaves of the establishment institutions of temple and palace were prisoners of war (Num 31:25-47; Josh 9:23), and they were used to build projects (1 Kings 9:21).

 

There was a kind of semi-slavery where a group of people owed a certain amount of labor, but otherwise lived as free people. This seems to have been what happened to the Gibeonites (Josh 9:23). Debt was the main factor in transforming a peasant farmer or artisan into a slave (Ex 22:2; 2 Kings 4:1) - though poverty that did not involve debt to the new master might also cause people to sell themselves as slaves (Lev 25:39).

 

In theory such slaves in Israel returned to free status at jubilee, however they could choose to remain in the household of the master (Ex 21:5-6; Dt 15:16-17). In practice as Jer 34:8 clearly shows this by no means always happened. Though the king and people agreed to release their slaves nevertheless they reneged on their promise.

 

According to the Bible, there was an almost constant state of war between the two kingdoms, with no clear outcome (1 Kings 14:30; 15:6,16). The biblical account does not correlate with the archaeological record, which shows that Israel had a far larger population than early Judah. It is infeasible that Judah could have held the Israelites in subjugation or that they could fight a protracted civil war against the northern kingdom. Israel was, for a short period, a minor regional power, while Judah was a more impoverished rural community.

 

The Kingdom of Israel, especially under King Ahab (869-850 B.C.), joined some Syrian states to stop temporarily the advance of the Assyrians, who had consolidated their kingdom to the northeast. But the power of Israel declined after Ahab and by the end of the ninth century the kingdom of Israel was forced to pay tribute to powerful Assyria. By 722 BC the Israeli kingdom was destroyed by the Assyrians and the population deported and disappeared as a nation. These people merged with neighboring peoples and gradually lost their identity. Thus Israel existed as a nation around 350 years, Judah was destroyed by the Babylonians in 598-582 BC and the upper class was taken to Babylon. Judea existed as a nation for around 500 years.

 

While these were two nations the question is whether the population of these kingdoms was Jews in the sense of worship of only Jehovah, the Canaanite god of metal that became the Jewish God. Israel’s religion evolved first through animism. After animism came polytheism, the belief in many gods. Polytheism was then followed by Totemism, “the belief that the members of a clan or tribe are related to some group of plants or animals” as descendants. Ancestor worship followed Totemism, and developed into belief in a local tribal deity…which finally evolved into monotheism. The Hebrew Bible provides ample evidence that many Israelites believed in the existence of multiple deities. This is the case for polytheistic Israelites whom biblical prophets criticize for worshipping other gods; but even some biblical texts are evidence of polytheistic. The Hebrew Bible refers to many heavenly creatures, calling them “gods” (Gen 6:2; Ps 29:1, Ps 82:6, Ps 86:8, Ps 89:7; Job 1:6).

 

 

 

The People of the Second Temple

 

 

 

The Zionist may say that even if these kingdoms were not Jewish, the people of the second temple beginning with Ezra and Nehemiah were Jews and thus the history of the Jewish nation in this country is of 2500 years.

 

In the book of Ezra we find: ”After these things had been done, the leaders came to me and said, “The people of Israel, including the priests and the Levites, have not kept themselves separate from the neighboring peoples with their detestable practices, like those of the Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Ammonites, Moabites, Egyptians and Amorites. 2 They have taken some of their daughters as wives for themselves and their sons, and have mingled the holy race with the peoples around them. And the leaders and officials have led the way in this unfaithfulness.” (Ezra 9)

 

As to the language, “The vast majority of the Hebrew Bible (Tanach) is written in Hebrew”. (Some of the last books of the Bible, Daniel and Ezra, contain significant chunks of Aramaic, the lingua franca of the Jewish people during their Babylonian exile.) [31]

 

But since then the people of Judea were Jews will say the Zionist. The bible tells us that king Josiah (seventh century B.C.) “removed the Asherah pole from the Lord’s Temple. He took the Asherah pole outside the city to the Kidron Valley and burned it there. Then he beat the burned pieces into dust and scattered the dust over the graves of the common people. Then King Josiah broke down the houses of the male prostitutes who were in the Lord’s Temple. Women also used these houses and made little tent covers to honor the false goddess Asherah. At that time the priests did not bring the sacrifices to Jerusalem and offer them on the Lord’s altar in the Temple. The priests lived in cities all over Judah. They burned incense and offered sacrifices at the high places in those cities” (2 Kings 23:6-9)

 

Thus will say the Zionist there was a Jewish nation at least from the seventh century B.C.

 

Is this true? We find in Psalm 95: “For y-h-v-h is a great god and a greater king than all (other) gods…. He is our god.” This psalm lists things that y-h-v-h did for the Israelites. Psalm 96: “Y-h-v-h is great and very praiseworthy. He is more awesome than other gods. For (while) the gods of the nations are gods, y-h-v-h made the heaven.” Psalm 97: “All gods bow to him…. You are exalted above all gods.” This surely a proof that the Jews believed in the existence of many gods.

 

Psalm songs were written by different people and probably the last ones were written in the first century BC. Psalm 22 says: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so v far from saving me, from the words of my groaning? O my God, I cry by day, but you do not answer, and by night, but I find no rest”. It seems that this is reference to the crucifixion of Jesus.

 

The Zionist may say but from the first century when the Jews were exiled they were Jews. Possibly but in the first century the Jews ceased being an ancient nation and became religious communities.

 



[1] The Center for Israel Education: The Place of Israel in Jewish Tradition for Israel Education, https://www.theicenter.org/aleph-bet/place-israel-jewish-tradition

[2] Nadia Marques de Carvalho: The Haskalah and the Emergence of Zionism, University of Oxford https://www.academia.edu/6342169/The_Haskalah_and_the_Emergence_of_Zionism

[3] Center for Israel Education: Jewish Colonial Trust Is Incorporated in London, https://israeled.org/jewish-colonial-trust/

[4] Theodor Herzl: The Jewish State, http://zionism-israel.com/js/Jewish_State_7.html

[5] With his 1967 article ‘Israël, fait colonial’ (Israel, a colonial fact), Rodinson is commonly credited as the first contemporary ‘Western’ scholar to have re-placed Zionism/Israel within its colonial, and more specifically settler colonial, context. The original French article first appeared in a special issue on the ‘Israeli-Arab conflict’ of Les Temps Modernes in June 1967. In 1973, it was published in English in book form under the title Israel: A Colonial-Settler State? All citations are from the 1973 English edition.

[6] Max Simon Nordau and Bentzion Netanyahu. “Address at the Second Congress,” Max Nordau to His People: A Summons and a Challenge. New York: Published for Nordau Zionist society by Scopus publishing company, inc., 1941. 73.

[7] Joshua Umland Max Nordau and the Making of Racial Zionism By History and Jewish Studies Departmental Undergraduate Honors Thesis University of Colorado at Boulder April 5, 2013

[8] José María Aznar, Former Prime Minister of Spain (1996-2004). Israel: A Vital Asset Of The West

[10] https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/are-jews-a-nation-or-a-religion

[11] Cynthia Astle Archaeological Evidence About the Biblical Story of Abraham 2018

[12] Joshua J. Mark: Amorites Ancient History Encyclopedia 28 April 2011, https://www.ancient.eu/amorite/

[13] Kriwaczek, P. Babylon. St. Martin's Griffin,163-164 2012

[14] Finkelstein Israel and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, 2001

[16] Philippe Bohstrom: Peoples of the Bible: The Legend of the Amorites, Haaretz Feb 06, 2017 https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium.MAGAZINE-the-legend-of-the-amorites-1.5493696

[17] The Sumerian Seven: The Top-Ranking Gods in the Sumerian Pantheon March, 2017, https://www.Ancient-Origins.Net/Human-Origins-Religions/Sumerian-Seven-Top-Ranking-Gods-Sumerian-Pantheon-007787

[18] Daily History Org.: How did Monotheism Develop? https://dailyhistory.org/How_did_Monotheism_Develop%3F

[19] Robert Luyster: Myth And History In The Book Of Exodus

[20] Rev. A. E. Whatham: The Yahweh-Tehom Myth, The Biblical World, Vol. 36, No. 5 (Nov., 1910), pp. 290 and 329-333

[21] Don Stewart: Why Did God Order the Destruction of the Canaanites? https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don_stewart/don_stewart_1382.cfm

[22] Annals of Thutmoses III

[23] Roger Atwood: The Fiery End Of The Last Egyptian Colony

[25] Ibid

[26] Ibid

[29] Emil G. Hirsch, Bernhard Pick, Ira Maurice Price; Jehoram (Joram): http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8564-jehoram-joram

[30] N.S. Gill: Understanding the Philistines: An Overview and Definition, https://www.thoughtco.com/the-philistines-117390

 

 II. The Zionist Myth about the Palestinians

 

At this point the Zionist may argues that the Palestinians do not have any national rights in this country because the Palestinians are not a nation, they never had a state and they came to this country after the arrival of the Zionist because they were attracted to the country that the Jews have developed.

 

Until the first Intifada, which began in 1987, denying that the Palestinians are a nation was a very common Zionist argument. It went like this: “It was only after the Jews re-inhabited their historic homeland of Judea and Samaria, that the myth of an Arab Palestinian nation was created and marketed worldwide. Jews come from Judea, not Palestinians. There is no language known as Palestinian, or any Palestinian culture distinct from that of all the Arabs in the area. There has never been a land known as Palestine governed by Palestinians. "Palestinians" are Arabs indistinguishable from Arabs throughout the Middle East. The great majority of Arabs in greater Palestine and Israel share the same culture, language and religion. Much of the Arab population in this area actually migrated into Israel and Judea and Samaria from the surrounding Arab countries in the past 100 years. The rebirth of Israel was accompanied by economic prosperity for the region. Arabs migrated to this area to find employment and enjoy the higher standard of living. In documents not more than hundred years, the area is described as a scarcely populated region. Jews by far were the majority in Jerusalem over the small Arab minority. Until the Oslo agreement the major source of income for Arab residents was employment in the Israeli sector. To this day, many Arabs try to migrate into Israel with various deceptions to become a citizen of Israel.[1]

 

Similarly another Zionist wrote: “Historical and archeological records attest to the continuous presence of Jewish communities from Biblical times to the present. In short, although they were no longer its rulers, Jews never abandoned the land they occupied for thousands of years. Modern Arab residents of the area have a very different history, one that goes back hundreds, not thousands, of years”…[ ] It is clear that although “a small Arab population in Palestine…could trace its roots back for centuries,” scholars believe Arabs, primarily nomadic Bedouin tribes, came to the area in the 7th century. Most Arab migration occurred during the middle of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century, as workers were brought in by the Ottoman Turks and later by British rulers to serve absentee landlords and work on various infrastructure and agricultural projects.[2]

 

There are many mistakes and falsifications in these passages.

 

To begin with there is no one Arab culture. Arab culture can roughly be categorized into different areas of the Arab world. Arab and North African culture share certain cultural similarities, while the same goes for Arab culture in the Levant areas and the Arabian Peninsula region.

 

It does not take a genius to recognize that there is a unique Palestinian culture. Even Wikipedia is aware that “Palestinian culture consists of food, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, and comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of Palestinian culture. The folklorist revival among Palestinian intellectuals such as Nimr Sirhan, Musa Allush, Salim Mubayyid, and the emphasized pre-Islamic (and pre-Hebraic) cultural roots, re-constructing Palestinian identity with a focus on Canaanite and Jebusite cultures. Such efforts seem to have borne fruit as evidenced in the organization of celebrations like the Qabatiya Canaanite festival and the annual Music Festival of Yabus by the Palestinian Ministry of Culture.” [3]

 

Secondly let us recall how the Zionist defines a nation when it suits him: “This concept of nation does not require that a nation have neither a territory nor a government, but rather, it identifies, as a nation any distinct group of people with a common language and culture”. This is not a criterion to nationhood only another proof to the cynicism of the Zionists.

 

It is true that the Palestinians are a new nation. This nation was formed in the struggle of the Palestinians against the British imperialists and the Zionist colonialists from the 1920s onwards. It is true that when the first waves of Zionist settlers arrived to Palestine, the Palestinians saw themselves as Arabs and not a separate nation. However this fact does give the Zionists the right to steal their lands by using force?

 

Arab Nationalism began only in the 19th century at the time of the decline of Ottoman Empire. “As the Ottoman Empire entered the First World War in 1914 this loyalty could no longer be taken for granted, for two reasons. The first was the growth of a nascent Arab nationalism that drew inspiration from 19th-century Western ideas. Some Arabs looked to the nationalist movements of the Slavic (and mostly Christian) minorities of the Ottoman Balkan territories, which had, by the end of 1912, all won their independence. This Arab nationalism was largely fostered by educated urban elites – intellectuals, civil servants and former or serving officers in the Ottoman Army – living in great Arab cities like Damascus and Baghdad. A number of secret societies were formed, although none of these succeeded in spreading their ideas to the wider Arab population before the outbreak of the First World War.” [4]

 

Does the fact that Arab nationalism began at the end of the 19th century gives anyone the right to conquer them on the ground that prior to the 19th century there were no Arab nationalist movements? The imperialist thought that it is permissible to conquer the Arabs and so have the Zionists.

 

The Zionists claim that they did not steal the lands but that they bought the lands in fair prices from the landlords. But who were these landlords? Here is what a Zionist wrote to justify the removal of the Palestinian peasants from the land they toiled for generations.

 

Until the passage of the Turkish Land Registry Law in 1858, there were no official deeds to attest to a man's legal title to a parcel of land; tradition alone had to suffice to establish such title— and usually it did. … The Palestinian peasant was indeed being dispossessed, but by his fellow-Arabs: the local sheikh and village elders, the Government tax-collector, the merchants and money-lenders; and, when he was a tenant-farmer (as was usually the case), by the absentee-owner. By the time the season's crop had been distributed among all these, little if anything remained for him and his family, and new debts generally had to be incurred to pay off the old.[5] From these characters they bought the lands and evicted the peasants. This led to bloody conflicts from 1920 onwards between the Palestinians and the Zionist settler colonialists.

 

In spite of the fact that the Zionist bought lands by 1948 the Zionists owned less than 6% of the lands of Palestine.

 

 

 

Table 1. Share of Palestinian vs. Jewish land ownership as of April 1st, 1943 [6]

 

 

 

Category of land                                               Palestinians & others                      Jews                      Total

 

(Fiscal categories)                                                             Dunums (1000 sq. meters)

 

 

 

Urban                                                                    76,662                                                   70,111                   146,773

 

Citrus                                                                    145,572                                                 141,188                 286,760

 

Bananas                                                               2,300                                                      1,430                      3,730

 

Rural built-on area                                           36,851                                                   42,330                   79,181

 

Plantation                                                            1,079,788                                              95,514                   1,175,302

 

Cereal land (taxable)                                        5,503,183                                              814,102                 6,317,285

 

Cereal land (not taxable)                                 900,294                                                 51,049                   951,343

 

Uncultivable                                                       16,925,805                                           298,523                 17,224.328

 

Total area:                                                            24,670,455                                           1,514,247              26,184,702

 

Percentage                                                           94.22%                                                  5.8%                       100%

 

Roads, railways, rivers,

 

and lakes                                                                                                                                                             135,803

 

Total Area including roads,

 

railways, etc.                                                                                                                                                       26,320,505

 

 

 

The Zionists took the rest of the lands by force in 1947-48 and after 1967 and today they rule the whole of Palestine.

 

The Zionist claim that Palestine was unpopulated is also a lie.

 

If the argument of the Zionist was correct they could show an unusual growth of Arab population from 1922 to 1948 as result of migration to Palestine. The population of Palestine increase between 1922 and 1939, from 750,000 and 1,500,000. An important reason for the growth was Jewish migration: 35,000 immigrants between 1919 and 1923, 82,000 (1924-31) and 217,000 (1932-38).

 

 

 

Table 2. Population Growth in Palestine, 1922-1946 [7]

 

Year                                       Arabs                    Jews                      Total

 

1922 (Census)                     668,238                 83,790                   752,048

 

1931(Census)                      858,708                 174,606                 1,033,314

 

1939 (Estimate)                  1,056,241              445,457                 1,502,698

 

1946(Estimate)                   1,200,000              600,000                 1,800,000

 

 

 

No record of substantial Arab immigration was recorded in Palestine by the British government. According to all the reports of the period, Arab recorded" immigration to Palestine was minimal, casual, and unquantifiable it main source of growth was of natural causes (rate of births).[8]

 

“Between 1933 and 1935, 150,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine, bringing the country's Jewish population to 443,000 - or 29.6% of the total - from 1926 to 1932 the average number of immigrants per year was 7,201. It rose to 42,985 between 1933 and 1936, as direct result of Nazi persecution in Germany. In 1932, 9,000 German Jews entered Palestine, 30,000 in 1933, 40,000 in 1934 and 61,000 in 1935.”

 

Another Zionist lie is that the Zionists advance Palestinian economy and raised the level of living of the Palestinians.

 

“In the real history, the Zionists bought lands from landlords who lived in Lebanon and removed by force the fallahins who worked the lands for many generations. In the 1920s, the Histadrut launched a campaign to promote Jewish labor (Avodat Ivrit) and Jewish produce (Totzeret Haaretz), which was essentially a boycott of Arab labor and produce. David HaCohen, former managing director of Solel Boneh, described what this meant:

 

“I had to fight my friends on the issue of Jewish socialism to defend the fact that I would not accept Arabs in my trade union, the Histadrut; to defend preaching to housewives that they should not buy at Arab stores; to defend the fact that we stood guard at orchards to prevent Arab workers from getting jobs there … to pour kerosene on Arab tomatoes; to attack Jewish housewives in the markets and smash Arab eggs they had bought … to buy dozens of dunums [of land] from an Arab is permitted but to sell God forbid one Jewish dunum to an Arab is prohibited; to take Rothschild the incarnation of capitalism as a socialist and to name him the ‘benefactor’ — to do all that was not easy.[9]

 

“The policy of dismissal of Palestinian Arab workers from firms and projects controlled by Jewish capital initiated violent clashes. In the four Jewish settlements of Malbis, Dairan, Wadi Hunain and Khadira, there were 6,214 Palestinian Arab workers in February 1935. After six months, this figure went down to 2,276, and in a year's time, went down to 617 Palestinian Arab workers only. Attacks against Palestinian Arab workers also took place. On one occasion, for instance, the Jewish community forced a Palestinian Arab contractor and his workers to leave their work in the Brodski building in Haifa. Among those who were systematically losing their jobs were workers in orchards, cigarette factories, mason's yards, construction, etc.[10]

 

As to the claim that Arab economics gained from Zionist colonization “the fact is that Between 1930 and 1935, Palestinian Arab pearl industry exports fell from PL 11,532 to PL 3,777 a year. The number of Palestinian Arab soap factories in Haifa alone fell from 12 in 1929 to 4 in 1935. Their export value fell from PL 206,659 in 1930 to PL 79,311 in 1935.” [11]

 

“The second wave of 30,000 Zionist immigrants came between 1905 and 1914, many of whom were Labor Zionists who wanted A Jewish state. The perceived threat of displacement was widespread among Arabs. Starting around 1910, Arab newspapers railed against Jewish land acquisition. Among the peasantry, rumors spread alleging an Anglo-Jewish conspiracy to remove Muslims from Palestine. Palestinians say evictions destroyed their way of life, forcing them to move from rural Palestine to crowded cities in search of work.” [12] They were right as the Nakba proves.

 

 

 

The UN Partition Plan in 1947

 

 

 

Another false Zionist claim is that if the Arabs would had accepted the partition plan the Palestinians would have a state and there will not be any problem of the refugees.

 

It is true that the Arabs Rejected the partition and the Zionists said that they accept it. However in reality they never accepted a Palestinian state even on a portion of Palestine.

 

The inevitable outcome of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine was the Nakba, the “cleansing” of the existing Arab population from Palestine, because a Jewish majority was necessary to make a Jewish state viable. The Zionists using massacres drove out most of the Palestinians. How could the Palestinians accept this plan? The Jewish state was to cover 56 percent of the area of Mandate Palestine, with 498,000 Jewish and approximately 494,000 Arab Palestinians residents (51 percent Jews and 49 percent Arab Palestinians). At that time, Jews owned just 10 percent of the land of the proposed Jewish state. The proposed Arab state was to occupy 43 percent of mandate Palestine with a population of 725,000 Arab Palestinians and around 11,000 Jews. [13]

 

The Zionist consent to the partition was a political and diplomatic dishonest maneuver. First of all the Zionists knew that the Arabs would not accept this grossly unfair partition. Secondly Ben Gurion, the first Prime Minister of Israel, wrote to his son Amos on 5 October 1937 (about the first plan to divide the country):

 

”…Of course the partition of the country gives me no pleasure. But the country that they [the Royal (Peel) Commission] are partitioning is not in our actual possession; it is in the possession of the Arabs and the English. What is in our actual possession is a small portion, less than what they [the Peel Commission] are proposing for a Jewish state. If I were an Arab I would have been very indignant. But in this proposed partition we will get more than what we already have, though of course much less than we merit and desire. … What we really want is not that the land remains whole and unified. What we want is that the whole and unified land be Jewish. A unified Eretz Israeli would be no source of satisfaction for me-- if it were Arab. … we can no longer tolerate that vast territories capable of absorbing tens of thousands of Jews should remain vacant, and that Jews cannot return to their homeland because the Arabs prefer that the place [the Negev] remains neither ours nor theirs. We must expel Arabs and take their place. I am confident that the establishment of a Jewish state, even if it is only in a part of the country, will enable us to carry out this task. Once a state is established, we shall have control over the Eretz Israeli Sea. Our activities in the sea will then include astonishing achievements. Because of all the above, I feel no conflict between my mind and emotions. Both declare to me: A Jewish state must be established immediately, even if it is only in part of the country. The rest will follow in the course of time.[14]

 

Third of all, just days before Israel will declare its independence, Golda Meir, then head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency traveled to Amman to meet with King Abdullah of Transjordan. This was the second meeting between the two, with the first occurring in early November 1947 at Naharayim on the banks of the Jordan River.

 

Abdullah shares the Zionist leadership’s fear of a Palestinian state led by the Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al Husayni emerging as a result of the UN Partition decision. In the November 1947 meeting with Golda Meir, he states his intention to annex the Arab parts of Palestine. Meir responds that the Zionist leadership will not oppose that plan if it means that there would be no clashes between Jewish and Jordanian forces. [15]

 

In addition the Zionists oppose the return of the Palestinian refugees on the ground it will destroy Israel as a Jewish state. This argument shows that the Zionists would expel the Palestinians who were supposed to live in Israel according to the partition plan to create a state with Jewish majority.

 

 

 

Genetic Evidence?

 

 

 

Finally in their attempt to prove that the European Zionist settlers are the same people as the ancient Jews they rely on the doubtful method of genetic studies.

 

A very doubtful method that easily leads to racist theories, however even these genetic studies do not prove the Zionist claims. What they prove according to the research is that the Jews from the Arab countries and Muslim Arabs have very similar Y chromosomes from the ancestors who lived in the region some thousands years ago. Geneticist Ariella Oppenheim of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, who examined the Y chromosomes of 143 Arab Palestinians citizens of Israel and 119 Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews found that Arabs could trace their ancestry to men who had lived in the region for centuries or longer. Also Oppenheim's team found that “Jews have mixed more with European populations, which makes sense because some of them lived in Europe during the last millennium.[16] In other words Arab Muslims and Arab Jews have very similar Y chromosomes while the Ashkenazi Jews have a different one.

 

The Israeli biologists Falk wrote: “By the 1870s and 1880s the claims that Jews belonged to a race that could be discerned in terms of the natural sciences, were repeatedly brought up, and the traditional hatred against them became increasingly physical in character…., the Zionists-to-be stressed that Jews were not merely members of a cultural or a religious entity, but were an integral biological entity, even though they had been dispersed and had no country of their own. In other words, when the Zionists adopted the concept of Volk in terms of a nation-race, they claimed a different meaning to Jewishness than the centuries-long claims that the Jewish people were a distinct religious socio-cultural entity, rather than a biological entity.. The term anti-Semitism was coined in the 1870s by the German publicist Wilhelm Marr (1819–1904). Anti-Semitism conceived the socio-cultural traits of Jews to be a consequence of their biological essence. Jew-hatred became racism: hatred of the Semitic race, anti-Semitism; it endowed biological justification to socio-cultural discrimination.

 

The insistence on the biological identity of the Jews, and the search for the phylogenetic relation of present-day Jewish communities to each other and to the ancient people of the Land of Israel, always applying the most updated scientific techniques, became a common obsession among Israeli and non-Israeli researchers.

 

The Jewish-British physician-virologist and eugenicist Redcliffe Nathan Salaman (1874–1955) was one of the first to examine the implications of the young science of genetics to Jews. Already in 1911, in the first volume of the Journal of Genetics, he published a paper entitled “Heredity and the Jews” (Salaman, 1911). In this paper Salaman tried to examine the distinct biology of the Jews with the new tools of Mendelian inheritance, which provided the basis for modern hereditary theory:

 

Salaman put special emphasis on the claim that Jews comprised a coherent biological entity. He pointed out that “Ethnologists may be said to agree that the Jew is not racially pure, but on the other hand […] the Jews constitute a definable people in something more than a political sense, and that they possess though not a uniform, still a distinguishable type” (Salaman, 1911, p. 278). Since Jews vary with respect to color, cephalic index and stature as any other population, “Jews cannot be defined according to any of these standards. There is, however, one characteristic which rarely escapes attention, and that is the Jewish facial expression” (Salaman, 1911–1912, p. 190). A Jew, according to Salaman, may be recognized by his facial features. (…)

 

Many efforts were made to find “typical” Jewish blood-type combination, and phylogenetic kinships between geographically and culturally close and distinct Jewish communities. These studies were summarized in 1978 by Mourant and colleagues in The Genetics of the Jews (Mourant et al., 1978). Efforts to deduce from such studies converging blood group frequencies of the hypothetical ancient Jews were not successful, yet as a rule, they did not discourage the authors from claiming for the reality of communities of progeny of common ancestry (see, e.g., Muhsam, 1964)

 

These models of Darwinian evolution interpreted into vertical phylogenies are, of course, in agreement with the traditional Jewish historical lore of the contemporary Jews being the direct progeny of the historic residents of the Land of Israel.

 

Historian Shlomo Sand (2009) and many others brings evidence of extensive community-wide proselytizing events, from North-Africa all the way to Southern Russia.[17]

 

Another example for the use of ethnic-biological racist argument is the right wing Begin-Sadat center for strategic studies that in order to deny the colonialist character of the Zionist settler state claims that the real colonialist settlers are the Palestinians, because the Israelites were the original people of Palestine. Alex Joffe wrote:

 

The concept of “settler colonialism” has been applied with almost unique vehemence against Israel. But the fact that Jews are the indigenous population of the Southern Levant can be proved with ease. In contrast, historical and genealogical evidence shows Palestinians descend primarily from three primary groups: Muslim invaders, Arab immigrants, and local converts to Islam. The Muslim conquest of Byzantine Palestine in the 7th century CE is a textbook example of settler-colonialism, as is subsequent immigration, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries under the Ottoman and British Empires. The application of the concept to Jews and Zionism by Palestinians is both ironic and unhelpful…..A wealth of evidence demonstrates that Jews are the indigenous population of the Southern Levant; historical and now genetic documentation places Jews there over 2,000 years ago, and there is indisputable evidence of continual residence of Jews in the region." [18]

 

It is not difficult to grasp why this entire pseudo-intellectual argument is false. The indigenous population of the Southern Levant was Canaanites and not Jews. 2000 years ago the Jews were exiled by the Romans and ceased to be a nation. Since the 7th century for 1400 years the majority of the people of Palestine have been Arabs. The Zionists, who arrived to this country in the last 120 years and expelled most of the Arabs, are European settler colonialists and not the same Jews who went to exile.

 



[1] Israel Science and Technology Directory History of Israel: What is Palestine and Palestinians

[2] Judith Davis: How “Palestinians” Arrived in Palestine, Times of Israel Nov 20 2014, https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/how-palestinians-arrived-in-palestine/

[5] Moshe Aumann: Land Ownership in Palestine, 1880-1948

[6] A Survey of Palestine, prepared by the British Mandate for the UN, p. 566, http://www.palestineremembered.com/Acre/Maps/Story573.html

[7] Sources: Palestine Government, A Survey of Palestine (3 vols., Jerusalem, 1946), vol. 1, p. 41 and Cunningham Papers (St. Antony’s College Oxford, Middle East Centre), Box 1, File 2, tg 1775 of 23 September 1946

[8] Joseph E. Katz: Middle Eastern Political and Religious History Analyst, Brooklyn, New York (Substantial Immigration of Arab Migrant workers into Western Palestine from 1880-1948)

[9] David Hirst: The Gun and the Olive Branch, Nation Books, 2003, Second edition, p.185, citing Haaretz, 15 November 1969

[10] Ghassan Kanafani: The 1936-39 Revolt in Palestine, published in English by Committee for a Democratic Palestine, New York, 1972 and by Tricontinental Society, London, 1980 http://www.shoah.org.uk/2011/02/13/the-1936-1939-revolt-in-palestine/ and https://www.marxists.org/archive/kanafani/1972/revolt.htm

[11] Ibid

[12] Franklin Foer: Selling Land To Jews, May 18, 1997, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/1997/05/selling-land-to-jews.html

[13] Muhsin Yusuf: The Partition of Palestine - An Arab Perspective

[15] Center for Israel Education: Golda Meir Has Secret Meeting with King Abdullah in Amman, 2018, https://israeled.org/golda-meir-secret-meeting-king-abdullah-amman/

[16] Ann Gibbons: Jews and Arabs Share Recent Ancestry, 30 October 2000, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2000/10/jews-and-arabs-share-recent-ancestry

[17] Raphael Falk Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent. Front Genet. 2014, 5: 462, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4301023/

 

III. The Arabs Connection to Palestine

 

 

While relying heavily on the bible what the Zionists “forget” to tell us that we can find references to Arabs living in Canaan 4000 years ago in the Jewish bible and other sources.

 

While the Jewish bible is not an historical records and was written many hundreds years after the events that the bible tells, it is a useful tool that tells us what the priests of Judea and Israel believed in the Seventh century BC, the time the stories of bible were collected and began to be edited. Thus it is of interest what the bible and other sources tell us about the Arabs in Canaan.

 

According to the bible book of Genesis, some of the children of Isma’il – son of Hagar, Abraham's woman – are the Naba’aithi, Kedar, Massa.

 

The bible says: "as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: behold I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation." Genesis 17:20

 

"Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore unto Abraham: And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth, and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, and Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, Hadad and Tema, Jetur, Naphish and Kedmah. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns and by their encampments; twelve princes according to their nations." Genesis 25:12-16

 

According to Achtemeier, the term “Ishamelite” was the same as “Midianites.” [1] According to the Jewish Bible the wife of Moses was a Midianites.

 

"Zipporah is a Midianite woman who becomes the wife of Moses. After Moses kills an Egyptian, he flees from the pharaoh and settles among the Midianites, an Arab people who occupied desert areas in southern Transjordan, northern Arabia, and the Sinai. He meets the seven daughters of Reuel, priest of Midian, at a well; rescues them from shepherds who are harassing them; and fills their jugs with water. In gratitude, Reuel (called Jethro or Hobab in other biblical passages) offers Moses hospitality, then gives him his daughter Zipporah in marriage (Exod 2:21–22). She and Moses have two sons, Gershom and Eliezer (Exod 18:3–4).[2]

 

According to the Bible after the death of his beloved Sarah, Abraham took another wife, Keturah, (Genesis 25). She became the mother of Abraham’s six sons: Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah who became the progenitors of six Arabian tribes of Southern and Eastern Palestine. [3]

 

Thus according to the Jewish bible the Arabs have the same old ties to the country as the ancient Hebrews. Is it possible?

 

According to the genetic and paleontological record, people began to leave Africa between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago possibly because of major climatic changes during the last Ice Age. This cold almost killed the African ancestors and reduced them may be to fewer than 10,000. Once the climate began to improve the population expanded, and some intrepid explorers moved beyond Africa. The earliest people to colonize the Eurasian landmass likely did so across the Bab-al-Mandab Strait separating present-day Yemen from Djibouti. [4] After settling Yemen they moved on. One of the places these African Yemen people settled was Canaan. The kings of Assyria called these people Qidar, Tamudi, Naba’aiti, Ma’asei and Kushi. The Nab’aiti were occupants of Petra and Jordan and were among the “Amurru” or Amorites. [5]

 

In addition the Jews who remained in Palestine after the Jews were exiled by the Romans converted to Islam. Thus while the history of Arabs in this country goes back probably of 4000 years, the history of Islam in this country is of 1400 years and the history of Zionism in this country is about 120 years.

 

To be sure modern Arabs neither Palestinians are not the same people as the ancient Amories and Canaanites. It is a different society. Among Palestinians are people of different origins. The only reason we pointed out to the historical ties of the Arabs to Palestine is to show the hypocrisy of the Zionists. However it is clear that the Arabs have a long history as native to Palestine unlike the European Zionists.

 

What is beyond the understanding of the Zionists is that in the real world nations appears under certain conditions and disappear under certain conditions, for example a major military defeat. For example the Babylonians, Sumerians, Mohavites Edomites the nation based on the ten tribes of the kingdoms of Israel have disappeared. The ancient nation of Judea disappeared with the occupation of Canaan and the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. The Jews of today are no more the same people of ancient Judea than the Germans of today are the same people like the Teutonic tribes, and the Italians of today are the same people of the ancient Romans. Such claims are based on racial arguments of genetic.

 

Palestine was not an empty land waiting for the Zionists. It was inhabited by Muslims, Christians and Jews. The fact is that prior to Zionism tens of thousands of Jews lived in Palestine as a small minority in four cities: Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias, and Hebron. They were mostly old people who were supported economically by Jewish European communities and in general had good relations with the Arabs neighbors. They came to Palestine after the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. They arrived for religious reason not because they saw themselves as a nation returning to the promise land to form a state.

 

The Zionists were aware of the fact that Palestine was inhabited. No other than Israel Zangwill, a leading Zionist, stated in 1905: “Palestine proper has already its inhabitants. The pashalik of Jerusalem is already twice as thickly populated as the United States, having fifty-two souls to the square mile, and not 25% of them Jews..... [We] must be prepared either to drive out by the sword the [Arab] tribes in possession as our forefathers did or to grapple with the problem of a large alien population, mostly Mohammedan and accustomed for centuries to despise us.[6]

 

The Zionists of course were not the first one to use the bible to justify colonization. The White European Puritans who colonized North America claimed that they are the chosen people settling in the Promised Land.

 

“The Puritans were obsessed with the Bible and came to identify their political struggle against England with that of the ancient Hebrews against Pharaoh or the King of Babylon. Because they identified so strongly with ancient Israel, they chose to identify with the Old Testament (Heb