The Ukraine War is Highly Profitable for Russia’ Billionaires

In contrast to other countries, the oligarchs could massively increase their fortune since March 2022

By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 24 April 2023, www.thecommunists.net

 

The Ukraine War has claimed myriads of victims. Tens of thousands of Ukrainian soldiers as well as civilians have died and many more injured. About 1/3 of the population has been displaced of whom about 8 million are currently refugees outside of the country. Putin systematically tries to bomb the Ukraine back to the stone age. [1] In addition, tens of thousands of Russian soldiers – many of whom have been pressed into service or pushed to do out of poverty – have been killed.

However, for some, the war has been a gold mine! According to the 2023 issue of the Forbes World’s Billionaires list – published by the prestigious U.S. business magazine Forbes – Russia’s billionaires could massively increase their wealth since March 2022. [2]

True, in the chaotic first weeks of the war, the oligarchs were in trouble and lost a share of their fortune. However, since then they could regain most of their wealth. The combined wealth of Russia’s creme de la crème rose from $320 billion in 2022 to $474 billion this year. According to the Forbes list, Andrei Melnichenko – the founder and ex-beneficiary of fertilizer producer EuroChem Group and coal energy company SUEK – is currently the wealthiest Russian. He saw his net worth swell by $14.1 billion over the past year to $25.2 billion since the beginning of the Ukraine War.

Melnichenko is followed by Vladimir Potantin, a nickel and banking magnate whose net worth grew by $6.4 billion from March 2022 to March 2023. The third place goes to Vladimir Lisin, who heads NLMK Group, a leading Russian manufacturer of steel products, with a fortune of $22.1 billion. Other oligarchs who massively increased their fortune last year are oil tycoon Vagit Alekperov (up $10 billion) and steel magnate Alexey Mordashov (up $7.7 billion).

The number of super-rich Russians – those whose wealth totals more than $1 billion — jumped from 83 to 110 people. This puts Russia in the 5th place in the global Forbes list. This number could have been even larger had five billionaires not revoked their Russian citizenship last year. Such an increase of the number of Russia’s super-rich is all the more remarkable given the fact that the U.S. and Western Europe have imposed massive sanctions on Russia. In fact, 46 of Russia’s 110 billionaires are currently sanctioned by Western powers.

What is even more remarkable is the fact that Russia is one of the very few countries around the globe where the fortune of the super-rich increased in the last 12 months. While Russia’s wealth rose by $154 billion, the super-rich in the two leading countries of the Forbes list – the U.S. and China – lost $200 resp. $300 billion!

 

Russia super-rich – an imperialist monopoly bourgeoisie

 

The figures from the 2023 Forbes World’s Billionaires list confirm once more the Marxist analysis of Russia as an imperialist power. Contrary to the ridiculous claims of various Stalinists and advocates of the so-called “World-System theory”, Russia is neither a “semi-colonial”, “periphery” or “sub-imperialist” country. [3]

Russia’s Great Power status has been demonstrated in the last 14 months not only by its reactionary war of aggression against the Ukraine but also by its global position. Despite unprecedented sanctions by Western powers, Russia was able to avoid a serious recession. [4] It continues to play a key role in the capitalist world economy given its leading position in global trade of crucial commodities. In addition, determined efforts of the U.S. and the EU to isolate Russia in world politics, the Kremlin continues to act as a Great Power with spheres of influence in Asia, Africa and Latin America. [5]

The successful development of Russia’s billionaires in the last 14 months also demonstrates that this country does not play a subordinated role. There should be no doubt that Russia’s ruling class is a monopoly bourgeoisie, i.e. a capitalist class which dominates its own country and which, at the same time, participates in the super-exploitation of the Global South.

We reiterate that authentic socialists can not have a correct orientation in the current world situation without recognizing the imperialist nature of Russia. Only such an understanding allows to recognize the inter-imperialist rivalry between the Great Powers as a key feature of the current historic period.

Such an approach is the basis for socialists to take an internationalist and anti-imperialist position of revolutionary defeatism in conflicts between Great Powers (the U.S., China, Russia, Western Europe and Japan), i.e. intransigent opposition against each and every of these powers.

At the same time, socialists need to support the struggle of oppressed nations against any of these Great Powers. This means, among others, to side unambiguously with the legitimate struggle of the Ukraine – a capitalist semi-colony – against Putin’s invasion. [6] The RCIT has summarised such an approach in the slogan: Defend the Ukraine against Putin’s invasion! Beware of NATO and Zelensky – transform the resistance against the Russian occupation into a Popular War! Against Russian and against NATO imperialism! [7]

 



[1] See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The Gigantic Destruction of the Ukrainian Society, LINKS, 15 December 2022, http://links.org.au/gigantic-destruction-ukrainian-society

[2] John Hyatt: The Countries With The Most Billionaires And Their Richest Citizens 2023, Forbes Staff, 4 April 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnhyatt/2023/04/04/the-countries-with-the-most-billionaires-and-their-richest-citizens-2023/; Giacomo Tognini: Why Western Sanctions Failed To Truly Impact The Wealth Of Russia’s Billionaire Oligarchs, 13 April 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/giacomotognini/2023/04/13/why-western-sanctions-failed-to-truly-impact-the-wealth-of-russias-billionaire-oligarchs/?sh=28f6cb4f516a. All figures in this article are from these sources if not indicated otherwise.

[3] The RCIT has published numerous documents about capitalism in Russia and its rise to an imperialist power. The most important ones are several pamphlets by Michael Pröbsting: The Peculiar Features of Russian Imperialism. A Study of Russia’s Monopolies, Capital Export and Super-Exploitation in the Light of Marxist Theory, 10 August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-peculiar-features-of-russian-imperialism/; by the same author: Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014 (this pamphlet contains a document written in 2001 in which we established for the first time our characterisation of Russia as imperialist), http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/; see also these essays by the same author: Russia: An Imperialist Power or a “Non-Hegemonic Empire in Gestation”? A reply to the Argentinean economist Claudio Katz, in: New Politics, 11 August 2022, at https://newpol.org/russia-an-imperialist-power-or-a-non-hegemonic-empire-in-gestation-a-reply-to-the-argentinean-economist-claudio-katz-an-essay-with-8-tables/; Russian Imperialism and Its Monopolies, in: New Politics Vol. XVIII No. 4, Whole Number 72, Winter 2022, https://newpol.org/issue_post/russian-imperialism-and-its-monopolies/; Once Again on Russian Imperialism (Reply to Critics). A rebuttal of a theory which claims that Russia is not an imperialist state but would be rather “comparable to Brazil and Iran”, 30 March 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/once-again-on-russian-imperialism-reply-to-critics/. See various other RCIT documents on this issue at a special sub-page on the RCIT’s website: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

[4] Our latest article on Russia‘s resilience in face of Western sanctions is by Michael Pröbsting: Less Than 9%. Many Western corporations continue to make business with Russia despite the official sanction policy, 11 February 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/western-corporations-continue-to-make-business-with-russia/; see also by the same author: Where is Russia hiding its money? Why EU authorities claim they can not find most of Russia’s foreign assets, LINKS, 16 April 2023, https://links.org.au/where-russia-hiding-its-money-why-eu-authorities-claim-they-can-not-find-most-russias-foreign.

[5] See on this e.g. RCIT: Lula Meets Lavrov and Xi – We Say: Neither Washington nor Moscow and Beijing! For a socialist Latin America, independent of all imperialist powers! 19 April 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/lula-meets-lavrov-and-xi/

[6] For a political and economic analysis of the Ukraine see e.g. the pamphlet by Michael Pröbsting: Ukraine: A Capitalist Semi-Colony. On the exploitation and deformation of Ukraine’s economy by imperialist monopolies and oligarchs since capitalist restoration in 1991, January 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/ukraine-a-capitalist-semi-colony/

[7] We refer readers to a special page on our website where more than 170 RCIT documents on the Ukraine War and the current NATO-Russia conflict are compiled: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/compilation-of-documents-on-nato-russia-conflict/. In particular we refer to the RCIT Manifesto: Ukraine War: A Turning Point of World Historic Significance. Socialists must combine the revolutionary defense of the Ukraine against Putin’s invasion with the internationalist struggle against Russian as well as NATO and EU imperialism, 1 March 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-ukraine-war-a-turning-point-of-world-historic-significance/; see also: Manifesto on the First Anniversary of the Ukraine War. Victory to the heroic Ukrainian people! Defeat Russian imperialism! No support whatsoever for NATO imperialism! 10 February 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-on-first-anniversary-of-ukraine-war/.

Украинская война очень выгодна российским миллиардерам

В отличие от других стран, олигархи могут значительно увеличить свое состояние с марта 2022 года.

Михаэль Пребстинг, международный секретарь Революционной коммунистической интернациональной тенденции (RCIT) , 24 апреля 2023 г., www.thecommunists.net

 

Украинская война принесла мириады жертв. Десятки тысяч украинских военных и мирных жителей погибли, многие получили ранения. Около 1/3 населения было перемещено, из них около 8 миллионов в настоящее время являются беженцами за пределами страны. Путин систематически пытается вернуть Украину в каменный век. [1] Кроме того, были убиты десятки тысяч русских солдат, многие из которых были призваны на службу или вынуждены призваться, чтобы уйти от нищеты.

Однако для некоторых война была золотой жилой! Согласно выпуску списка миллиардеров мира Forbes за 2023 год, опубликованному престижным американским деловым журналом Forbes , российские миллиардеры могут значительно увеличить свое состояние с марта 2022 года. [2]

Правда, в суматошные первые недели войны олигархи попали в беду и потеряли часть своего состояния. Однако с тех пор они смогли вернуть себе большую часть своего богатства. Совокупное состояние сливок российского общества выросло с 320 миллиардов долларов в 2022 году до 474 миллиардов долларов в этом году. Согласно списку Forbes, Андрей Мельниченко — основатель и бывший бенефициар производителя удобрений группы «ЕвроХим» и угольной энергетической компании СУЭК — на данный момент является самым богатым россиянином. Его собственный капитал увеличился на 14,1 миллиарда долларов за последний год до 25,2 миллиарда долларов с начала войны в Украине.

За Мельниченко следует Владимир Потантин, никелевый и банковский магнат, чей собственный капитал вырос на 6,4 млрд долларов с марта 2022 по март 2023 года. Третье место занимает Владимир Лисин, возглавляющий Группу НЛМК, ведущего российского производителя металлопродукции, с состоянием в размере 22,1 млрд долларов. Другими олигархами, которые значительно увеличили свое состояние в прошлом году, являются нефтяной магнат Вагит Алекперов (рост на 10 миллиардов долларов) и сталелитейный магнат Алексей Мордашов (рост на 7,7 миллиарда долларов).

Число сверхбогатых россиян — тех, чье состояние превышает 1 миллиард долларов, — подскочило с 83 до 110 человек. Это ставит Россию на 5- е место в мировом списке Forbes. Это число могло бы быть еще больше, если бы в прошлом году пять миллиардеров не лишились российского гражданства. Такой рост числа сверхбогатых в России тем более примечателен, учитывая тот факт, что США и Западная Европа ввели против России масштабные санкции. Фактически, 46 из 110 российских миллиардеров в настоящее время находятся под санкциями западных держав.

Что еще более примечательно, так это то, что Россия — одна из очень немногих стран мира, где состояние сверхбогатых увеличилось за последние 12 месяцев. В то время как богатство России выросло на 154 миллиарда долларов, сверхбогатые в двух ведущих странах списка Forbes – США и Китае – потеряли 200 долларов и 300 миллиардов долларов соответственно!

 

Россия страна сверхбогатой империалистической монополистической буржуазии

 

Цифры из списка миллиардеров мира Forbes за 2023 год еще раз подтверждают марксистский анализ России как империалистической державы. Вопреки смехотворным утверждениям различных сталинистов и сторонников так называемой «теории мир-системы», Россия не является ни «полуколониальной», ни «полупериферийной», ни «субимпериалистической» страной. [3]

Статус России как великой державы за последние 14 месяцев был продемонстрирован не только ее реакционной агрессивной войной против Украины, но и ее глобальным положением. Несмотря на беспрецедентные санкции западных держав, России удалось избежать серьезной рецессии. [4] Она продолжает играть ключевую роль в капиталистической мировой экономике, учитывая еë ведущее положение в мировой торговле важнейшими товарами. Кроме того, на фоне решительных усилий США и ЕС по изоляции России в мировой политике Кремль продолжает действовать как великая держава со сферами влияния в Азии, Африке и Латинской Америке. [5]

Успешное развитие российских миллиардеров за последние 14 месяцев также свидетельствует о том, что эта страна не играет подчиненной роли. Не должно быть никаких сомнений в том, что правящий класс России является монополистической буржуазией, т. е. капиталистическим классом, господствующим в своей стране и одновременно участвующим в сверхэксплуатации Глобального Юга.

Мы повторяем, что подлинные социалисты не могут иметь правильной ориентации в современном мире без признания империалистической природы России. Только такое понимание позволяет признать межимпериалистическое соперничество между великими державами ключевой чертой нынешнего исторического периода.

Такой подход является основой для занятия социалистами интернационалистической и антиимпериалистической позиции революционного пораженчества в конфликтах между великими державами (США, Китаем, Россией, Западной Европой и Японией), т. е. непримиримого противостояния каждой из этих держав.

В то же время социалистам необходимо поддерживать борьбу угнетенных наций против любой из этих великих держав. Это означает, среди прочего, недвусмысленно встать на сторону законной борьбы Украины — капиталистической полуколонии — против путинского вторжения. [6] RCIT резюмировал такой подход в лозунге: Защитим Украину от путинского вторжения! Остерегайтесь НАТО и Зеленского — превратите сопротивление российской оккупации в Народную войну! Против русского и против натовского империализма! [7]

 

1) Michael Pröbsting: The Gigantic Destruction of the Ukrainian Society, LINKS, 15 December 2022, http://links.org.au/gigantic-destruction-ukrainian-society

2) John Hyatt: The Countries With The Most Billionaires And Their Richest Citizens 2023, Forbes Staff, 4 April 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnhyatt/2023/04/04/the-countries-with-the-most-billionaires-and-their-richest-citizens-2023/; Giacomo Tognini: Why Western Sanctions Failed To Truly Impact The Wealth Of Russia’s Billionaire Oligarchs, 13 April 2023, https://www.forbes.com/sites/giacomotognini/2023/04/13/why-western-sanctions-failed-to-truly-impact-the-wealth-of-russias-billionaire-oligarchs/?sh=28f6cb4f516a.

3) Михаэлем Прёбстингом: Особенности российского империализма. Исследование российских монополий, вывоза капитала и сверхэксплуатации в свете марксистской теории, август 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-peculiar-features-of-russian-imperialism/#anker_13; Lenins Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/; Russia: An Imperialist Power or a “Non-Hegemonic Empire in Gestation”? A reply to the Argentinean economist Claudio Katz, in: New Politics, 11 August 2022, at https://newpol.org/russia-an-imperialist-power-or-a-non-hegemonic-empire-in-gestation-a-reply-to-the-argentinean-economist-claudio-katz-an-essay-with-8-tables/; Russian Imperialism and Its Monopolies, in: New Politics Vol. XVIII No. 4, Whole Number 72, Winter 2022, https://newpol.org/issue_post/russian-imperialism-and-its-monopolies/; Once Again on Russian Imperialism (Reply to Critics). A rebuttal of a theory which claims that Russia is not an imperialist state but would be rather “comparable to Brazil and Iran”, 30 March 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/once-again-on-russian-imperialism-reply-to-critics/; https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

4) Michael Pröbsting: Less Than 9%. Many Western corporations continue to make business with Russia despite the official sanction policy, 11 February 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/western-corporations-continue-to-make-business-with-russia/; Where is Russia hiding its money? Why EU authorities claim they can not find most of Russia’s foreign assets, LINKS, 16 April 2023, https://links.org.au/where-russia-hiding-its-money-why-eu-authorities-claim-they-can-not-find-most-russias-foreign.

5) RCIT: Lula Meets Lavrov and Xi – We Say: Neither Washington nor Moscow and Beijing! For a socialist Latin America, independent of all imperialist powers! 19 April 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/lula-meets-lavrov-and-xi/

6) Михаэля Прёбстинга: Украина: Капиталистическая полуколония. Об эксплуатации и деформации экономики Украины империалистическими монополиями и олигархами после капиталистической реставрации 1991 года, январь 2023 года, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/ukraine-a-capitalist-semi-colony/#anker_36

7) https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/compilation-of-documents-on-nato-russia-conflict/. Война в Украине: переломный момент всемирно-исторического значения. Социалисты должны соединить революционную оборону от вторжения Путина в Украину с интернационалистской борьбой против российского империализма, а также империализма НАТО и ЕС., 1 марта 2022 года, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-ukraine-war-a-turning-point-of-world-historic-significance/#anker_6; Манифест к первой годовщине войны в Украине. Победу героическому украинскому народу! За победу над русским империализмом! Никакой поддержки НАТОвскому империализму! 10 февраля 2023, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-on-first-anniversary-of-ukraine-war/#anker_1

 

러·우 전쟁: 러시아 재벌들에게 엄청난 돈벌이가 되고 있는 전쟁

남달리 러시아 지배계급은 개전 이래로 거대하게 부를 늘렸다

 

미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 국제서기, 2023 4 24, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

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우크라이나 전쟁은 수많은 희생자를 냈다. 수만 명의 우크라이나 병사들과 민간인이 죽고 많은 사람들이 부상을 입고 불구자가 됐다. 주민의 3분의 1 난민이 되었고, 800 명가량이 현재 국외 난민이다. 푸틴은 조직적으로 우크라이나에 폭탄을 퍼부어 석기시대로 돌려놓으려고 한다.[1] 뿐만 아니라 러시아 병사들도 수만 명이 죽임을 당했다. 대부분이 군복무를 강요당하거나 가난에서 벗어나기 위해 어쩔 없이 전장에 투입된 사람들이다.

그러나 누군가에게는 전쟁이 노다지를 캐는 금광이었다! 미국 자본가들 사이에 권위 있는 경제지 포브스가 발행하는 <포브스 세계 억만장자 순위> 2023 호에 따르면, 러시아의 억만장자들은 전쟁이 시작되고 2022 3 이후 부와 자산을 엄청나게 늘렸다.[2]

혼란스러운 개전 당초의 , 러시아의 과두재벌 올리가르히가 곤경에 처해 재산의 일부를 잃었던 것은 사실이다. 하지만 이후로 그들은 대부분의 부를 되찾을 있었다. 최고 재벌들의 자산을 합친 총액이 2022 3200 달러에서 올해 4740 달러로 증가했습니다. 포브스 순위표에 따르면, 석탄·에너지 기업 SUEK 비료 생산업체 유로켐 그룹의 설립자인 안드레이 멜니첸코는 러시아에서 현재 최고 부자다. 그는 우크라이나 전쟁 개전 이래로 순자산이 지난 141 달러가 증가하여 252 달러가 됐다.

멜니첸코 다음으로는 2022 3월부터 2023 3월까지 순자산이 64 달러 증가한 은행계 블라디미르 포탄틴이 뒤를 잇는다. 3위는 221 달러의 재산을 가진 러시아의 대표적인 철강제품 제조업체인 NLMK 그룹의 회장 블라디미르 리신이다. 작년에 재산을 대대적으로 늘린 올리가르히 중에는 석유 재벌 바짓트 알렉페로프 (100 달러 증가) 철강 재벌 알렉세이 모르다쇼프 (77 달러 증가) 있다.

재산 총액이 10 달러 이상인 러시아 슈퍼리치의 수는 83명에서 110명으로 훌쩍 뛰었다. 숫자로 러시아는 억만장자를 많이 가진 세계 5위에 랭크되었다. 5명의 억만장자가 작년에 러시아 시민권을 버리지 않았다면 순위가 올라갔을 것이다. 미국과 서유럽이 러시아에 대규모 제재를 가한 사실을 감안할 같은 러시아 슈퍼리치 수의 증가는 더욱 눈길을 끈다. 실제로 러시아의 110 억만장자 46명이 현재 서방 열강에 의해 제재를 받고 있다.

훨씬 놀라운 것은 러시아가 지난 12개월 동안 슈퍼리치의 재산이 증가한 세계 되는 나라 하나라는 사실이다. 러시아의 부는 1,540 달러 증가한 반면, 포브스 순위표의 1,2 나라들 미국과 중국 슈퍼리치는 2천억 달러와 3천억 달러를 각각 잃었다.

 

러시아 슈퍼리치 제국주의 독점 부르주아지

<포브스 세계 억만장자 순위> 2023 호의 수치는 제국주의열강 러시아라는 맑스주의적 평가분석을 다시 확인시켜준다. 각종 스탈린주의자들 소위 "세계체제론" 제창자들의 우스꽝스러운 주장과 달리, 러시아는 "반식민지", "주변부", "()제국주의" 아니다.[3]

러시아의 강대국 지위는 지난 14개월 우크라이나에 대한 반동적인 침략 전쟁에 의해서뿐만 아니라 글로벌 위상에 의해서도 입증되었다. 서방 열강들의 전례 없는 제재에도 불구하고, 러시아는 심각한 경제침체를 피할 있었다.[4] 세계 주요 상품 무역에서 선두 지위를 고수하면서 자본주의 세계경제에서 계속 핵심적인 역할을 이어가고 있다. 세계정치에서 러시아를 고립시키려는 미국과 EU 결사적인 시도들에도 불구하고 아시아/아프리카/라틴아메리카에 세력권을 가진 강대국으로 계속 영향력을 행사하고 있다.[5]

지난 14개월 러시아의 억만장자들이 남달리 성공적으로 부를 늘릴 있은 것도 나라가 세계경제와 세계정치에서 종속적인 역할을 하는 것이 아니라는 것을 보여준다. 러시아의 올리가르히/억만장자/슈퍼리치는 제국주의 독점 부르주아지라는 사실, 자국 경제를 지배하면서 동시에 남반구 (글로벌 사우스) 초과착취에 참여하는 자본가계급이라는 사실에는 의심의 여지가 없다. 러시아의 지배계급은 반식민지 노획물 분배를 놓고 패권경쟁을 벌이고 있는 제국주의 자본가계급이다.

러시아의 제국주의적 성격을 인식하지 않고는 세계정세에서 올바른 투쟁방향을 가질 없다는 것을 거듭 강조하는 바다. “제국주의열강 러시아라는 인식을 명확히 하자. 그러면 시기 정세의 핵심 사항인 강대국들 간의 <제국주의 상호 패권경쟁> 명확하게 인식할 있게 된다.

이러한 토대 위에서 사회주의자들은 강대국들 (미국, 중국, 러시아, 서유럽 일본) 간의 분쟁·충돌에서 혁명적 패전주의 입장을 취한다. 오늘 제국주의 패권경쟁에서 사회주의자들은 이들 열강 모두에 대한, 그리고 하나하나에 대한 비타협적 반대라는 국제주의·반제국주의 입장을 취한다.

동시에 사회주의자들은 이들 강대국 미국이든, 중국·러시아든, 어느 강대국이든 대항하는 피억압 민족들의 투쟁을 지지하는 것이 필요하다. 이는 무엇보다도 푸틴의 침공에 대항하는 우크라이나 자본주의 반식민지 정당한