The Ukraine in the Imperialist Debt Trap

The international workers and popular movements must campaign for the total cancellation of the Ukraine’s foreign debts

By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 9 July 2022, www.thecommunists.net

 

The Ukraine currently faces a barbarous war of aggression by Russian imperialism. The RCIT and all authentic socialists call for the unconditional defense of the country against the threat of brutal colonialization [1] – without lending any support to NATO and its imperialist policy of Great Power rivalry. [2]

However, it would be a dangerous mistake to ignore another danger: the financial enslavement of the Ukraine by Western imperialism. The country is already highly indebted to foreign banks and financial institutions. Currently, Ukraine’s total external government debt amounts to $54 billion. More than half is due to private lenders like banks and hedge funds, while most of the rest is owed to imperialist institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the European Investment Bank. [3]

This year alone, the country is set to pay $7.3 billion in debt repayments. Heidi Chow, executive director at the Jubilee Debt Campaign, calculates that “if Ukraine continues to make its debt payments, Western banks and hedge funds could make profits of 300 percent.” [4]

This is a dramatic example of imperialist super-exploitation! It confirms the Marxist analysis of foreign debt as a capitalist instrument to squeeze surplus value from semi-colonial countries – like the Ukraine – and to transfer it to the imperialist monopolies. [5]

 

Additional burden by Putin’s war

 

Putin’s invasion dramatically exacerbates this situation. Morgan Stanley Global Financial Services expects the Ukraine’s GDP to drop at least 39% in 2022. If Ukraine loses access to the Black Sea, GDP is predicted to shrink by as much as 60%! [6]

Already now, the war has put a huge strain on the economy. Ukraine's government budget has a roughly $5bn a month shortfall as tax collection has collapsed due to the fighting. The government’s tax revenues and other domestic sources of funding only cover 62% of the state’s current budget expenditures. [7] Hence, every month of war dramatically increases the Ukraine’s indebtedness!

A recently published report warns: “Despite the talks of hundreds of billions of dollars of reconstruction money and tens of billions of dollars of weapons deliveries, Kyiv has so far this year only received a total of about $9bn in cash to support government expenditure. As a result, it has had to dip into its international reserves to fund spending. Reserves were down $3bn in May to $25.1bn. [8]

It is hardly surprising that the Ukraine could soon default, i.e. not being able to service its foreign debts.

 

Cancel Ukraine’s foreign debt! For a popular war against the invasion!

 

All this demonstrates that the talk of Western state leaders about their “unwavering solidarity“ with the Ukraine is pure smokescreen! In fact, all the promised economic and military aid packages serve to deepen the financial enslavement of the Ukraine by the American and European imperialists! As the quote above shows, these monopolies are about to make profits of 300%! Effectively, they get rich by the blood of the Ukrainian popular masses!

It is therefore urgent that the international workers and popular movements – in particularly in North America and Western Europe – campaign for the total cancellation of the Ukraine’s foreign debts! Likewise, socialists have to demand free military aid for the Ukraine without political conditions.

At the same time, socialists in the Ukraine must warn against any illusions and any support for Western imperialists. Sure, the Russian invasion is currently the main threat for the Ukrainian people. But socialists must strongly oppose the pro-NATO and pro-EU policy of the bourgeois Zelensky government. One does not fight one robber by becoming a slave of another robber!

The resistance of the Ukraine against the Russian invasion must be transformed into a popular war. Such a perspective also includes the transformation of the economy. All key sectors in industry, services, finances and agriculture must be nationalized under workers’ control. Foreign imperialist monopolies – both Russian as well as Western – should be expropriated without compensation. The national resources should be used to serve the defense of the country instead of interest payments to foreign banks.

All this can only be achieved if the country is led not by a pro-Western comedian but by a workers’ government opposing all imperialist powers and opening the road towards socialist transformation.

Defend the Ukraine! Defeat Putin’s invasion!

Neither Russian nor Western imperialism but international socialism!



[1] We refer readers to a special page on our website where nearly 100 RCIT documents on the current NATO-Russia conflict and the Ukraine War are compiled: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/compilation-of-documents-on-nato-russia-conflict/. The most important documents are: RCIT Manifesto: Ukraine War: A Turning Point of World Historic Significance. Socialists must combine the revolutionary defense of the Ukraine against Putin’s invasion with the internationalist struggle against Russian as well as NATO and EU imperialism, 1 March 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-ukraine-war-a-turning-point-of-world-historic-significance/; Joint Statement of Socialist Tendency (Russia) and RCIT: Defend the Ukrainian People against Putin’s Invasion! Down with Russian and NATO Imperialism! 4.6.2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/joint-statement-with-ct-russia-on-ukraine-war-4-6-2022/

[2] The RCIT has dealt on numerous occasions with the inter-imperialist rivalry of the Great Powers. See e.g. RCIT: World Perspectives 2021-22: Entering a Pre-Revolutionary Global Situation, 22 August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2021-22/; see also our book by Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/; see also the following works by the same author: “A Really Good Quarrel”. US-China Alaska Meeting: The Inter-Imperialist Cold War Continues, 23 March 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/us-china-alaska-meeting-shows-continuation-of-inter-imperialist-cold-war/; Servants of Two Masters. Stalinism and the New Cold War between Imperialist Great Powers in East and West, 10 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/servants-of-two-masters-stalinism-and-new-cold-war/; for more works on this issue see these sub-pages: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/ and https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-the-global-trade-war/.

[3] Heidi Chow: It’s Time to Cancel Ukraine’s Foreign Debt, 06.04.2022, https://jacobin.com/2022/03/ukraine-foreign-debt-cancellation-imf-global-finance

[4] Ibid

[5] See on this e.g. the book by Michael Pröbsting: The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/great-robbery-of-the-south/

[6] Alexander Nepogodin: What does the future hold for the regions of Ukraine now controlled by Russia? Russia Today, June 3, 2022, https://www.rt.com/russia/556495-restoring-peaceful-life-kherson/

[7] Ben Aris: Ukraine mulling debt restructuring as the cost of war drains the government’s coffers, Intellinews, July 5, 2022, https://intellinews.com/ukraine-mulling-debt-restructuring-as-the-cost-of-war-drains-the-government-s-coffers-249594/?source=ukraine.

[8] Ibid

제국주의 부채의 덫에 걸린 우크라이나

우크라이나 외채 무효화! 침략에 맞선 인민 전쟁으로 나아가자!

미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 국제서기, 2022, 7 9, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

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우크라이나는 현재 러시아 제국주의에 의한 야만적인 침략 전쟁을 맞고 있다. RCIT 비롯한 모든 진정한 사회주의자들은 잔학한 식민지화 위협에 대항하여 우크라이나의 무조건적인 방어를 요구한다.[1] 나토와 나토의 제국주의 패권경쟁 정책에 어떠한 지지도 주지 않고 그에 일관되게 반대하며 우크라이나를 방어하라![2]

여기에 결코 간과되어선 되는 다른 위험이 있다. 서방 제국주의에 의한 우크라이나의 금융적 노예화다. 우크라이나는 이미 외국 은행 금융기관에 많은 부채를 지고 있다. 현재 우크라이나의 대외 부채 (정부 부채) 540 달러에 달한다. 절반 이상이 은행과 헤지펀드 같은 사적 자본에 대한 부채고, 나머지는 대부분이 IMF(국제통화기금), 세계은행, 유럽투자은행과 같은 제국주의 기관에 대한 부채다.[3]

올해만 해도 우크라이나는 73 달러의 채무 상환을 앞두고 있다. 외채 탕감 캠페인을 하는 주빌리 캠페인의 하이디 차우 사무총장은 "우크라이나가 채무 변제를 계속한다면 서방 은행과 헤지펀드가 300% 수익을 올릴 있을 "이라고 계산한다.[4]

이것은 제국주의의 초과착취의 극적인 예다! 맑스주의자들이 외채에 대해 말해온 것을 다시 확인해주는 예다. (일본, 한국을 포함한) 서방 제국주의로부터 비롯한 외채든, · 제국주의로부터 비롯한 외채든, 외채는 반식민지 나라들 우크라이나 같은 로부터 잉여가치를 짜내서 그것을 제국주의 독점체들에게 이전하는 자본주의 도구다.[5]

 

푸틴의 전쟁이 안긴 추가 부담

푸틴의 침공은 상황을 급격히 악화시킨다. ‘모건스탠리 글로벌 투자은행 2022 우크라이나 GDP 최소 39% 감소할 것으로 예상한다. 만약 전쟁에서 우크라이나가 흑해 접근권을 잃는다면, GDP 60%까지 줄어들 것으로 예측되고 있다.[6]

이미 지금, 전쟁은 경제에 부담을 안겼다. 우크라이나의 정부 예산은 전투로 인해 세금 징수 체계가 붕괴하면서 매달 50 달러가 부족하다. 정부의 세수 기타 국내 자금원은 국가 경상 지출의 62%만을 감당할 있는 수준이다.[7] 그리하여 개전 이래 달마다 우크라이나의 부채는 급격히 증가하고 있다.

최근 발표된 보고서는 다음과 같이 경고한다. "수천억 달러의 재건 자금과 수백억 달러의 무기 제공에 대한 이야기에도 불구하고, 키이우는 올해 지금까지 정부 지출 지원 용도로 90 달러 가량의 현금을 받았을 뿐이다. 결과, 키이우는 지출 자금을 마련하기 위해 자국 국제준비금을 꺼내 써야만 했다. 준비금은 5월에 30 달러가 감소하여 251 달러가 되었다."[8]

우크라이나가 디폴트에 빠질 것이라는, 외채를 상환할 없게 된다는 것은 놀라운 일이 아니다.

 

국제 노동자·민중운동, 우크라이나 외채 무효화 요구를 내걸자!

모든 것은 우크라이나와의 "변치 않는 연대" 운운하는 서방 국가 지도자들의 이야기가 연막임을 보여준다. 실제로는, 약속된 모든 경제·군사 원조 패키지는 미국·유럽 제국주의자들에 의한 우크라이나의 금융적 노예화를 심화시키는 봉사하는 도구다! 위의 인용문이 보여주듯이, 이들 독점체가 300% 이윤을 거둘 참이다! 실제로 제국주의 독점자본이 우크라이나 인민대중의 피로 곳간을 터지게 늘리고 있다!

그러므로 국제 노동자·민중운동 조직들 특히 북미와 서유럽의 우크라이나 외채의 전면 무효화를 요구로 내거는 것이 절실하게 필요하다. 사회주의자들도 정치적 조건 없는 우크라이나 무상 군사원조를 요구해야 한다.

동시에, 우크라이나의 사회주의자들은 서방 제국주의자들에 대한 대중의 환상에 경고를 발해야 한다. 물론, 러시아의 침공이 현재 우크라이나 인민에게 주된 위협이다. 그러나 사회주의자들은 부르주아 젤렌스키 정부의 친나토 · EU 정책에 강력히 반대해야 한다. 강도의 노예가 되는 것으로 다른 강도와 싸우는 , 그것과도 싸워야 한다!

러시아의 침략에 대한 우크라이나의 저항은 인민 전쟁으로 전화(轉化)돼야 한다. 이러한 정세 지향에는 경제의 전화도 포함된다. 기간산업과 서비스, 금융, 농업의 모든 주요 부문을 노동자의 통제 하에 국유화해야 한다. 서방이든 러시아든 제국주의 독점기업들도 무상 몰수해야 한다. 국내 자원은 외국 은행에 대한 이자 지불 대신 나라의 방위에 사용해야 한다.

모든 것은 친서방 마름정부가 아니라 노동자정부가 우크라이나를 이끌고 인민 전쟁을 지도할 때만 오직 성취될 있다. 모든 제국주의 열강에 반대하고 사회주의 전화로 가는 길을 열어젖힐 노동자정부 수립으로 외채 무효화와 몰수 국유화로, 인민전쟁으로 나아가자!

- 우크라이나 방어! 푸틴의 침략에 패배를!

- 러시아 제국주의 반대! 서방 제국주의 반대!

- 노동자·피억압자 국제 연대 만세!

- 세계프롤레타리아혁명 만세!

 

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[1] 우크라이나 전쟁과 나토-러시아 분쟁에 관한 80 편의 RCIT 문서가 다음의 우리 웹사이트 특별 페이지에 수록되어 있다. https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/compilation-of-documents-on-nato-russia-conflict/. 가장 중요한 다음 문서들을 보라. < [RCIT 선언문] 우크라이나 전쟁: 세계사적 의의를 갖는 전환점에서 사회주의자들의 임무> https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-ukraine-war-a-turning-point-of-world-historic-significance/#anker_1; 사회주의동맹 & RCIT 공동성명: <푸틴의 침공에 맞서 우크라이나 인민 방어! 러시아 제국주의와 나토 제국주의 타도!>, 2022 6 4, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/joint-statement-with-ct-russia-on-ukraine-war-4-6-2022/#anker_5/

[2] RCIT 강대국들의 제국주의 패권 경쟁을 여러 차례 다루었다. 예를 들어 다음을 보라. <세계 정세전망 2021-22: 혁명적 세계정세 진입> https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2021-22/#anker_14; 다음도 보라. Michael Pröbsting: <<강대국 패권쟁투 시대에 반제국주의>> https://www.thecommunists.net/home/%ED%95%9C%EA%B5%AD%EC%96%B4/book-anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/; 같은 저자의 다음 팜플렛도 보라; <제국주의 냉전은 어떻게 바이든 하에서도 계속되고 있나> https://www.thecommunists.net/home/%ED%95%9C%EA%B5%AD%EC%96%B4/us-china-cold-war-continues-after-alaska-meeting/; < 주인을 섬기는 시종 - 스탈린주의와 제국주의 신냉전> https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/servants-of-two-masters-stalinism-and-new-cold-war/#anker_10; 문제에 관한 많은 문서들을 다음 링크로 들어가서 있다.: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/ https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-the-global-trade-war/.

[3] Heidi Chow: It’s Time to Cancel Ukraine’s Foreign Debt, 06.04.2022, https://jacobin.com/2022/03/ukraine-foreign-debt-cancellation-imf-global-finance

[4] 같은

[5] 이에 대해서는 다음 책을 보라. Michael Pröbsting: The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/great-robbery-of-the-south/

[6] Alexander Nepogodin: What does the future hold for the regions of Ukraine now controlled by Russia? Russia Today, June 3, 2022, https://www.rt.com/russia/556495-restoring-peaceful-life-kherson/

[7] Ben Aris: Ukraine mulling debt restructuring as the cost of war drains the government’s coffers, Intellinews, July 5, 2022, https://intellinews.com/ukraine-mulling-debt-restructuring-as-the-cost-of-war-drains-the-government-s-coffers-249594/?source=ukraine.

[8] 같은

 

Ucrania en la trampa de la deuda imperialista

Los movimientos obreros y populares internacionales deben hacer campaña por la cancelación total de la deuda externa de Ucrania

Por Michael Pröbsting, Secretario Internacional de la Corriente Comunista Revolucionaria Internacional (CCRI), 9 de julio de 2022, www.thecommunists.net

 

Ucrania enfrenta actualmente una bárbara guerra de agresión por parte del imperialismo ruso. La CCRI y todos los socialistas auténticos llaman a la defensa incondicional del país contra la amenaza de una colonialización brutal [1] – sin prestar ningún apoyo a la OTAN y su política imperialista de rivalidad entre las Grandes Potencias. [2]

Sin embargo, sería un peligroso error ignorar otro peligro: la esclavitud financiera de Ucrania por parte del imperialismo occidental. El país ya está muy endeudado con bancos e instituciones financieras extranjeras. Actualmente, la deuda externa total del gobierno de Ucrania asciende a $54 mil millones. Más de la mitad se debe a prestamistas privados como bancos y fondos de cobertura, mientras que la mayor parte del resto se debe a instituciones imperialistas como el Fondo Monetario Internacional, el Banco Mundial y el Banco Europeo de Inversiones. [3]

Solo este año, el país está listo para pagar $7.3 mil millones en pagos de deuda. Heidi Chow, directora ejecutiva de Jubilee Debt Campaign, calcula que “si Ucrania continúa pagando su deuda, los bancos y fondos de cobertura occidentales podrían obtener ganancias del 300 por ciento”. [4]

¡Este es un ejemplo dramático de superexplotación imperialista! Confirma el análisis marxista de la deuda externa como instrumento capitalista para exprimir la plusvalía de los países semicoloniales -como Ucrania- y transferirla a los monopolios imperialistas. [5]

 

Carga adicional por la guerra de Putin

 

La invasión de Putin exacerba dramáticamente esta situación. Morgan Stanley Global Financial Services espera que el PIB de Ucrania caiga al menos un 39% en 2022. Si Ucrania pierde el acceso al Mar Negro, ¡se prevé que el PIB se reduzca hasta en un 60%! [6]

Ya ahora, la guerra ha ejercido una enorme presión sobre la economía. El presupuesto del gobierno de Ucrania tiene un déficit de aproximadamente $5 mil millones al mes debido a que la recaudación de impuestos se ha derrumbado debido a los combates. Los ingresos fiscales del gobierno y otras fuentes internas de financiamiento solo cubren el 62% de los gastos del presupuesto actual del estado. [7] ¡Por lo tanto, cada mes de guerra aumenta dramáticamente el endeudamiento de Ucrania!

Un informe publicado recientemente advierte: “A pesar de las conversaciones sobre cientos de miles de millones de dólares en dinero para la reconstrucción y decenas de miles de millones de dólares en entregas de armas, en lo que va de año, Kiev solo ha recibido un total de unos 9.000 millones de dólares en efectivo para apoyar los gastos del gobierno. Como resultado, ha tenido que recurrir a sus reservas internacionales para financiar el gasto. Las reservas cayeron $3 mil millones en mayo a $25.1 mil millones”. [8]

No es de extrañar que Ucrania pronto pueda incumplir, es decir, no ser capaz de pagar sus deudas externas.

 

¡Cancelar la deuda externa de Ucrania! ¡Por una guerra popular contra la invasión!

 

¡Todo esto demuestra que el discurso de los líderes estatales occidentales sobre su "solidaridad inquebrantable" con Ucrania es pura cortina de humo! De hecho, ¡todos los paquetes de ayuda económica y militar prometidos sirven para profundizar la esclavitud financiera de Ucrania por parte de los imperialistas estadounidenses y europeos! Como muestra la cita anterior, ¡estos monopolios están a punto de obtener ganancias del 300%! ¡Efectivamente, se enriquecen con la sangre de las masas populares ucranianas!

Por lo tanto, ¡es urgente que los trabajadores internacionales y los movimientos populares, en particular en América del Norte y Europa Occidental, hagan campaña por la cancelación total de la deuda externa de Ucrania! Asimismo, los socialistas tienen que exigir ayuda militar gratuita para Ucrania sin condiciones políticas.

Al mismo tiempo, los socialistas de Ucrania deben advertir contra cualquier ilusión y apoyo a los imperialistas occidentales. Claro, la invasión rusa es actualmente la principal amenaza para el pueblo ucraniano. Pero los socialistas deben oponerse enérgicamente a la política pro-OTAN y pro-UE del gobierno burgués de Zelensky. ¡Uno no lucha contra un ladrón convirtiéndose en esclavo de otro ladrón!

La resistencia de Ucrania contra la invasión rusa debe transformarse en una guerra popular. Tal perspectiva también incluye la transformación de la economía. Todos los sectores clave de la industria, los servicios, las finanzas y la agricultura deben ser nacionalizados bajo el control de los trabajadores. Los monopolios imperialistas extranjeros, tanto rusos como occidentales, deben ser expropiados sin compensación. Los recursos nacionales deben utilizarse para servir a la defensa del país en lugar de pagos de intereses a los bancos extranjeros.

Todo esto solo se puede lograr si el país no está dirigido por un comediante pro occidental sino por un gobierno de trabajadores que se opone a todos los poderes imperialistas y abre el camino hacia la transformación socialista.

¡Defender Ucrania! ¡Derrotar a la invasión de Putin!

¡Ni el imperialismo ruso ni el occidental, sino el socialismo internacional!



[1] Remitimos a los lectores a una página especial en nuestro sitio web donde se compilan casi 100 documentos de la CCRI sobre el conflicto actual entre la OTAN y Rusia y la Guerra de Ucrania: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/compilation-of-documents-on-nato-russia-conflict/. Los documentos más importantes son: Guerra de Ucrania: un punto de inflexión de importancia histórica mundial. Los socialistas deben combinar la defensa revolucionaria de Ucrania contra la invasión de Putin con la lucha internacionalista contra el imperialismo ruso, la OTAN y la UE, 1 de marzo de 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/manifesto-ukraine-war-a-turning-point-of-world-historic-significance/#anker_3; Declaración Conjunta de Corriente Socialista (CS) y la CCRI: ¡Defender al pueblo ucraniano contra la invasión de Putin! ¡Abajo el imperialismo ruso y de la OTAN!, 4 de abril de 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/rcit/joint-statement-with-ct-russia-on-ukraine-war-4-6-2022/#anker_2.

[2] La CCRI se ha ocupado en numerosas ocasiones de la rivalidad interimperialista de las Grandes Potencias. Véase, por ejemplo, Perspectivas mundiales 2021-22: Entrando en una situación global prerrevolucionaria, 22 de agosto de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/world-perspectives-2021-22/#anker_1; véase también nuestro libro de Michael Pröbsting:

Anti-imperialismo en la Era de la Rivalidad de las Grandes Potencias. Los factores detrás de la Rivalidad acelerada entre los E.U, China, Rusia, la U.E y Japón. Una crítica del análisis de la izquierda y una semblanza de la Perspectiva Marxista, RCIT Books, Viena 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/ukraine-in-imperialist-debt-trap/; ver también las siguientes obras del mismo autor: "Una pelea bastante buena" Encuentro EE.UU.-China en Alaska: Continúa la Guerra Fría Interimperialista, 23 de marzo de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/home/espa%C3%B1ol/encuentro-ee-uu-china-en-alaska-continua-la-guerra-fr%C3%ADa-interimperialista/; Siervos de dos amos. El estalinismo y la nueva guerra fría entre las grandes potencias imperialistas de Oriente y Occidente, 10 de julio de 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/servants-of-two-masters-stalinism-and-new-cold-war/#anker_9; para más trabajos sobre este tema, consulte estas subpáginas: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/ y https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-the-global-trade-war/

[3] Heidi Chow: It’s Time to Cancel Ukraine’s Foreign Debt, 06.04.2022, https://jacobin.com/2022/03/ukraine-foreign-debt-cancellation-imf-global-finance

[4] Ibidem

[5] Ver, por ejemplo, el libro de Michael Pröbsting: The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/great-robbery-of-the-south/

[6] Alexander Nepogodin: What does the future hold for the regions of Ukraine now controlled by Russia? Russia Today, June 3, 2022, https://www.rt.com/russia/556495-restoring-peaceful-life-kherson/

[7] Ben Aris: Ukraine mulling debt restructuring as the cost of war drains the government’s coffers, Intellinews, July 5, 2022, https://intellinews.com/ukraine-mulling-debt-restructuring-as-the-cost-of-war-drains-the-government-s-coffers-249594/?source=ukraine.