The I Word

 

On the LIS/MST statement about the popular uprising in Kazakhstan and its silence about Russian imperialism

 

By Michael Pröbsting, International Secretary of the Revolutionary Communist International Tendency (RCIT), 10 January 2022, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

Unfortunately, there are many self-proclaimed Marxist organizations who use the category “imperialism” dozens of times when they publish an article about the foreign policy of the U.S. But when it comes to other Great Powers – let us say Russia – they might denounce its foreign policy. But in such cases the category of imperialism is a … taboo word.

 

The International Socialist League (ISL or LIS by its Spanish-language acronym) is an example for such double standards. The LIS is an international Trotskyist organization whose largest section is the MST in Argentina (which is part of the FITu alliance). However, it has also groups in various other countries including the Ukraine and Belarus.

 

The LIS/MST recently published a statement about the popular uprising in Kazakhstan. [1] It expresses the organizations support for the popular uprising against the capitalist dictatorship of Tokayev and calls for international solidarity. This is of course correct and reflects the basic position of all socialists and democrats. [2] Only the most reactionary forces – like various Stalinists and friends of Putin & Xi – denounce this heroic mass struggle as a “color revolution directed by the CIA”. [3]

 

 

 

The meaning of Russia’s military intervention in Kazakhstan

 

 

 

Fortunately, the LIS/MST has nothing to do with such Putin’s poodles. Nevertheless, its statement is astonishing – not so much by what it says but rather by what it does not say. As it is of common knowledge, Russia – and other states of its CSTO alliance – has send 3,000 troops to Kazakhstan in order to save the dictatorship and to help drowning the uprising in blood. According to an official report by the Kazakhstan authorities, published on 9 January, 164 people have been killed until now. [4] No doubt, the real figures are much higher!

 

As we did explain somewhere else, Putin is determined to smash the uprising so that it does not provoke similar events in other Central Asian countries or in Russia itself. Furthermore, the military intervention allows Moscow to strengthen its domination of Kazakhstan – a political and economically crucial country since it is home of considerable oil, gas, uranium and other raw materials. In addition, it is an important transit country for a key project of Chinese imperialism – the so-called Belt & Road Initiative. [5]

 

In other words, Russia’s military intervention in Kazakhstan is not only an important factor for the popular uprising, but it is also of regional as well as global relevance. It demonstrates the imperialist nature of the Russian Empire. This is not the first time – just remember Chechnya 1999, Georgia 2008, Ukraine 2014 or Syria 2015.

 

 

 

A major issue in Central Asia as well as in world politics

 

 

 

While the LIS/MST briefly mentions Russia’s intervention and expresses its opposition against such, they do not have the heart to characterize Russia resp. its foreign policy as imperialist.

 

This is highly remarkable! Just think about the U.S. sending troops in a country of Latin America (e.g. Grenada) or the Middle East (e.g. Syria). Or France sending troops to Mali. In such cases, organizations like the LSI/MST would pull no punches in denouncing such actions as imperialist. And rightly so!

 

But when it comes to Russia or China, the world looks entirely different. Yes, such foreign policy might be bad. But you will not find the I word – “imperialist” in any of their statements!

 

One could think that this is a simple oversight in this statement on Kazakhstan. However, this is simply not true. There is method in such failure. Looking to the LIS/MST documents of the two congresses it held since 2019, one gets the same picture. Neither their documents on the world situation nor those on Europe characterize Russia as imperialist. As a matter of fact, Russia is hardly mentioned at all if it is not simply forgotten. [6] Obviously, it difficult to see the Kremlin from the towers of Buenos Aires!

 

This is a major failure on a key issue of world politics! We are living in a world which is not dominated by a single imperialist power (like the U.S.) or by a united imperialist camp (the myth of Kautskyanism). No, global politics is characterized by the existence of several imperialist Great Powers (U.S., China, EU, Russia and Japan) which are increasingly engaged in rivalry. Without recognizing the imperialist nature of these different powers, it is impossible to find a correct orientation in world politics! [7]

 

As the RCIT elaborated in a number of studies, Russia is one of these Great Powers. True, its strength is unevenly developed. While it is the world's eleventh-largest (by nominal GDP) resp. the sixth-largest (by PPP), it is one of the leading powers in military and political terms. It has the largest number of nuclear warheads – together with the U.S. – and is the world’s second-largest arms exporter. Furthermore, Russia plays a crucial role in world politics as one of the five veto powers in the United Nations and wields important influence in the Middle East, in North, East and Central Africa, in Europe as well as in Asia. [8]

 

In summary, Moscow’s military intervention in Kazakhstan is a practical example that Russia is an imperialist power which acts as the Gendarme of Eurasia. Ignoring this fact, refusing to name the beast by its name – imperialism – is wrong and can only result in confusion among the ranks of socialists! It would be great if the comrades of LIS/MST could overcome such weakness!

 



[1] LIS: No more repression against the people! General Strike, Workers’ Councils and Self-Defense Committees! January 2022, https://lis-isl.org/en/2022/01/08/kazajstan-basta-de-represion-al-pueblo-por-una-huelga-general-consejos-de-trabajadores-y-comites-de-auto-defensa/

[2] The RCIT has published several documents on the popular uprising in Kazakhstan. They are all compiled at a special page on our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/compilation-of-articles-on-the-popular-uprising-in-kazakhstan/.

[3] See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The Popular Uprising in Kazakhstan and Putin’s Patriotic “Communists”. The Stalinist KPRF of Gennady Zyuganov supports the bloody crackdown of the protests and the imperialist intervention of Russian troops, 8 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/kazakhstan-and-putin-s-patriotic-communists/

[4] Jim Heintz: Kazakhstan says 164 killed in last week’s protests, 9.1.2022, https://apnews.com/article/europe-russia-kazakhstan-almaty-e8041ebee995d41050e6919ea0cdca64

[5] Michael Pröbsting: Russia’s Military Intervention in Kazakhstan: An Imperialist Power Takes Action, 7 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/russia-s-military-intervention-in-kazakhstan/

[6] See e.g. the following LIS/MST congress documents: Our strategy for the socialist revolution( 2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/nuestra-estrategia-para-la-revolucion-socialista/; The capitalist world economy after almost 2 years of pandemic (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/13/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-economia-capitalista-mundial-despues-de-casi-2-anos-de-pandemia/; Resolution about Europe (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/resolucion-sobre-europa/; Class Struggle is Rising all over the World as the Crisis of Capitalism Deepens (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/14/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-lucha-de-clases-asciende-en-todo-el-mundo-mientras-se-profundiza-la-crisis-del-capitalismo/; Notes on the international economic situation (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/apuntes-sobre-la-situacion-economica-internacional/; Resolution on Europe (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/10/1-congreso-de-la-lis-resolucion-sobre-europa/.

[7] See on this e.g. the book by Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/;

[8] The RCIT has published numerous documents about capitalism in Russia and its rise to an imperialist power. See on this e.g. several pamphlets by Michael Pröbsting: The Peculiar Features of Russian Imperialism. A Study of Russia’s Monopolies, Capital Export and Super-Exploitation in the Light of Marxist Theory, 10 August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-peculiar-features-of-russian-imperialism/; Russia and China: Neither Capitalist nor Great Powers? A Reply to the PO/CRFI and their Revisionist Whitewashing of Chinese and Russian imperialism, 28 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/russia-and-china-neither-capitalist-nor-great-powers-reply-to-po-crfi/; The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of “Catastrophism”. On the Marxist Theory of Capitalist Breakdown and its Misinterpretation by the Partido Obrero (Argentina) and its “Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International”, 27 May 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-catastrophic-failure-of-the-theory-of-catastrophism/; Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 21, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/. See various other RCIT documents on this issue at a special sub-page on the RCIT’s website: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

 

Das I-Wort

 

Zur Erklärung der LIS/MST zum Volksaufstand in Kasachstan und ihrem Schweigen zum russischen Imperialismus

 

Von Michael Pröbsting, Internationaler Sekretär der Revolutionär-Kommunistischen Internationalen Tendenz (RCIT), 10. Januar 2022, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

Leider gibt es viele selbsternannte marxistische Organisationen, die die Kategorie "Imperialismus" Dutzende Male verwenden, wenn sie einen Artikel über die Außenpolitik der USA veröffentlichen. Aber wenn es um andere Großmächte - sagen wir Russland - geht, prangern sie vielleicht dessen Außenpolitik an. Aber in solchen Fällen ist die Kategorie des Imperialismus ein ... Tabuwort.

 

Die Internationale Sozialistische Liga (ISL oder LIS mit ihrem spanischsprachigen Akronym) ist ein Beispiel für eine solche Doppelmoral. Die LIS ist eine internationale trotzkistische Organisation, deren größte Sektion die MST in Argentinien ist (die auch Teil des FITu-Bündnisses ist). Sie hat aber auch Gruppen in verschiedenen anderen Ländern, darunter in der Ukraine und in Weißrussland.

 

Die LIS/MST hat kürzlich eine Erklärung zum Volksaufstand in Kasachstan veröffentlicht. [1] Darin bringt die Organisation ihre Unterstützung für den Volksaufstand gegen die kapitalistische Diktatur von Tokajew zum Ausdruck und ruft zur internationalen Solidarität auf. Das ist natürlich richtig und spiegelt die Grundhaltung aller Sozialisten und Demokraten wider. [2] Nur die reaktionärsten Kräfte - wie verschiedene Stalinisten und Freunde von Putin & Xi - denunzieren diesen heldenhaften Massenkampf als eine "von der CIA gelenkte Farbenrevolution". [3]

 

 

 

Die Bedeutung von Russlands militärischer Intervention in Kasachstan

 

 

 

Glücklicherweise hat die LIS/MST nichts mit solchen Putin‘schen Pudeln zu tun. Dennoch ist ihre Erklärung erstaunlich - nicht so sehr durch das, was sie sagt, sondern eher durch das, was sie nicht sagt. Bekanntlich hat Russland - und andere Staaten seines CSTO-Bündnisses - 3.000 Soldaten nach Kasachstan entsandt, um die Diktatur zu retten und dabei zu helfen, den Aufstand in Blut zu ertränken. Nach einem offiziellen Bericht der kasachischen Behörden, der am 9. Januar veröffentlicht wurde, sind bis jetzt 164 Menschen getötet worden. [4] Zweifellos sind die tatsächlichen Zahlen viel höher!

 

Wie wir bereits an anderer Stelle erklärt haben, ist Putin entschlossen, den Aufstand niederzuschlagen, damit er nicht ähnliche Ereignisse in anderen zentralasiatischen Ländern oder in Russland selbst auslöst. Darüber hinaus ermöglicht die militärische Intervention Moskau, seine Vorherrschaft über Kasachstan zu stärken - ein politisch und wirtschaftlich wichtiges Land, da es über beträchtliche Mengen an Öl, Gas, Uran und anderen Rohstoffen verfügt. Darüber hinaus ist es ein wichtiges Transitland für ein Schlüsselprojekt des chinesischen Imperialismus - die sogenannte Belt & Road Initiative. [5]

 

Mit anderen Worten: Das militärische Eingreifen Russlands in Kasachstan ist nicht nur ein wichtiger Faktor im Hinblick auf den Volksaufstand, sondern auch von regionaler und globaler Bedeutung. Es unterstreicht einmal mehr den imperialistischen Charakter des russischen Imperiums. Dies ist nicht das erste Mal - denken wir nur an Tschetschenien 1999, Georgien 2008, die Ukraine 2014 oder Syrien 2015.

 

 

 

Ein wichtiges Thema in Zentralasien wie auch in der Weltpolitik

 

 

 

Die LIS/MST erwähnt zwar kurz die Intervention Russlands und spricht sich gegen diese aus, traut sich aber nicht, Russland bzw. seine Außenpolitik als imperialistisch zu bezeichnen.

 

Das ist höchst bemerkenswert! Nehmen wir andere Beispiele, wenn z.B. die USA Truppen in ein lateinamerikanisches Land (z.B. Grenada) oder in den Nahen Osten (z.B. Syrien) schicken. Oder Frankreich entsendet Truppen nach Mali. In solchen Fällen würden Organisationen wie die LSI/MST nicht zögern, solche Aktionen als imperialistisch anzuprangern. Und das zu Recht!

 

Aber wenn es um Russland oder China geht, sieht die Welt ganz anders aus. Ja, eine solche Außenpolitik mag schlecht sein. Aber das I-Wort – "imperialistisch" – werden Sie in keiner ihrer Äußerungen finden!

 

Man könnte meinen, dass es sich um ein einfaches Versehen in dieser Erklärung zu Kasachstan handelt. Dies ist jedoch nicht der Fall. Ein solches Versagen hat Methode. Ein Blick in die zentralen LIS/MST-Dokumente der beiden Kongresse, die seit 2019 stattgefunden haben, ergibt das gleiche Bild. Weder in ihren Dokumenten zur Weltlage noch in denen zu Europa wird Russland als imperialistisch bezeichnet. In der Tat wird Russland kaum erwähnt, wenn es nicht sogar vergessen wird. [6] Offensichtlich ist es schwierig, den Kreml von den Türmen von Buenos Aires aus zu sehen!

 

Dies ist ein großes Versagen in einer Schlüsselfrage der Weltpolitik! Wir leben in einer Welt, die nicht von einer einzigen imperialistischen Macht (wie den USA) oder von einem geeinten imperialistischen Lager (der Mythos des Kautskyanismus) beherrscht wird. Nein, die Weltpolitik ist durch die Existenz mehrerer imperialistischer Großmächte (USA, China, EU, Russland und Japan) gekennzeichnet, die zunehmend in Rivalität miteinander stehen. Ohne den imperialistischen Charakter dieser verschiedenen Mächte anzuerkennen, ist es unmöglich, eine richtige Orientierung in der Weltpolitik zu finden! [7]

 

Wie die RCIT in einer Reihe von Studien dargelegt hat, ist Russland eine dieser Großmächte. Sicherlich ist seine Stärke ungleichmäßig entwickelt. Es hat zwar „nur“ die elftgrößte (gemessen am nominalen BIP) bzw. die sechstgrößte (gemessen an der Kaufkraftparität) Wirtschaft der Welt, aber militärisch und politisch gehört es zu den führenden Mächten. Es verfügt - zusammen mit den USA - über die meisten Atomsprengköpfe und ist der zweitgrößte Waffenexporteur der Welt. Darüber hinaus spielt Russland als eine der fünf Vetomächte in den Vereinten Nationen eine entscheidende Rolle in der Weltpolitik und übt wichtigen Einfluss im Nahen Osten, in Nord-, Ost- und Zentralafrika, in Europa sowie in Asien aus. [8]

 

Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen, dass die militärische Intervention Moskaus in Kasachstan ein praktisches Beispiel dafür ist, dass Russland eine imperialistische Macht ist, die als Gendarm Eurasiens agiert. Diese Tatsache zu ignorieren, sich zu weigern, die Bestie beim Namen zu nennen - Imperialismus - ist falsch und kann nur zu Verwirrung in den Reihen der Sozialisten führen! Es wäre begrüßenswert, wenn die Genossinnen und Genossen der LIS/MST diese Schwäche überwinden könnten!

 

 

 

[1] LIS: Schluss mit der Repression gegen das Volk! Generalstreik, Arbeiterräte und Selbstverteidigungskomitees! Januar 2022, https://lis-isl.org/en/2022/01/08/kazajstan-basta-de-represion-al-pueblo-por-una-huelga-general-consejos-de-trabajadores-y-comites-de-auto-defensa/

 

[2] Das RCIT hat mehrere Dokumente über den Volksaufstand in Kasachstan veröffentlicht. Sie sind alle auf einer speziellen Seite auf unserer Website zusammengestellt: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/compilation-of-articles-on-the-popular-uprising-in-kazakhstan/.

 

[3] Siehe hierzu z.B. Michael Pröbsting: Der Volksaufstand in Kasachstan und Putins patriotische "Kommunisten". Die stalinistische KPRF von Gennadi Sjuganow unterstützt die blutige Niederschlagung der Proteste und das imperialistische Eingreifen der russischen Truppen, 8. Januar 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/kazakhstan-and-putin-s-patriotic-communists/

 

[4] Jim Heintz: Kasachstan: 164 Tote bei Protesten in der vergangenen Woche, 9.1.2022, https://apnews.com/article/europe-russia-kazakhstan-almaty-e8041ebee995d41050e6919ea0cdca64

 

[5] Michael Pröbsting: Russlands Militärintervention in Kasachstan: Eine imperialistische Macht ergreift Maßnahmen, 7. Januar 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/russia-s-military-intervention-in-kazakhstan/

 

[6] Siehe z.B. die folgenden LIS/MST-Kongressdokumente: Unsere Strategie für die sozialistische Revolution (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/nuestra-estrategia-para-la-revolucion-socialista/; Die kapitalistische Weltwirtschaft nach fast 2 Jahren Pandemie (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/13/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-economia-capitalista-mundial-despues-de-casi-2-anos-de-pandemia/; Resolution zu Europa (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/resolucion-sobre-europa/; Klassenkampf nimmt weltweit zu, während sich die Krise des Kapitalismus vertieft (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/14/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-lucha-de-clases-asciende-en-todo-el-mundo-mientras-se-profundiza-la-crisis-del-capitalismo/; Anmerkungen zur internationalen Wirtschaftslage (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/apuntes-sobre-la-situacion-economica-internacional/; Resolution zu Europa (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/10/1-congreso-de-la-lis-resolucion-sobre-europa/.

 

[7] Siehe hierzu z.B. das Buch von Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialismus im Zeitalter der Großmachtrivalität. Die Faktoren der sich beschleunigenden Rivalität zwischen den USA, China, Russland, der EU und Japan. Eine Kritik an der Analyse der Linken und ein Abriss der marxistischen Perspektive, RCIT Books, Wien 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/

 

[8] Das RCIT hat zahlreiche Dokumente über den Kapitalismus in Russland und dessen Aufstieg zu einer imperialistischen Macht veröffentlicht. Siehe dazu z.B. mehrere Broschüren von Michael Pröbsting: The Peculiar Features of Russian Imperialism. Eine Untersuchung von Russlands Monopolen, Kapitalexport und Superausbeutung im Lichte der marxistischen Theorie, 10. August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-peculiar-features-of-russian-imperialism/; Russland und China: Weder kapitalistisch noch Großmächte? A Reply to the PO/CRFI and their Revisionist Whitewashing of Chinese and Russian imperialism, 28 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/russia-and-china-neither-capitalist-nor-great-powers-reply-to-po-crfi/; The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of "Catastrophism". Zur marxistischen Theorie des kapitalistischen Zusammenbruchs und ihrer Fehlinterpretation durch die Partido Obrero (Argentinien) und ihr "Koordinationskomitee für die Neugründung der Vierten Internationale", 27. Mai 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-catastrophic-failure-of-the-theory-of-catastrophism/; Lenins Theorie des Imperialismus und der Aufstieg Russlands zur Großmacht. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today's Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin's Theory of Imperialism. Eine weitere Antwort an unsere Kritiker, die Russlands imperialistischen Charakter leugnen, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russland als imperialistische Großmacht. Die Entstehung des russischen Monopolkapitals und seines Imperiums - Eine Antwort an unsere Kritiker, 18. März 2014, in: Revolutionärer Kommunismus Nr. 21, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/. Siehe verschiedene andere RCIT-Dokumente zu diesem Thema auf einer speziellen Unterseite auf der Website des RCIT: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

 

 

 

Sobre la declaración de la LIS/MST en cuanto a Kasajstán

 

Sobre la declaración LIS/MST sobre el levantamiento popular en Kazajstán y su silencio sobre el papel del imperialismo ruso

 

Por Michael Pröbsting, Secretario Internacional de la Corriente Comunista Revolucionaria Internacional, CCRI, 10 de enero de 2022, www.thecommunists.net

 

 

 

Desafortunadamente, hay muchas organizaciones autoproclamadas marxistas que usan la categoría "imperialismo" docenas de veces cuando publican un artículo sobre la política exterior de los EE. UU. Pero, cuando se trata de otras grandes potencias, digamos Rusia, se niegan a denunciar su la política exterior. Allí, la categoría de imperialismo es una palabra tabú.

 

La Liga Internacional Socialista (ISL o LIS por sus siglas en español) es un ejemplo de este doble rasero. La LIS es una organización trotskista internacional cuya sección más grande es el MST de Argentina (que forma parte de la alianza FITu). Sin embargo, también tiene grupos en varios otros países, incluidos Ucrania y Bielorrusia.

 

El LIS/MST publicó recientemente un comunicado sobre el levantamiento popular en Kazajstán. [1] Expresa el apoyo de las organizaciones al levantamiento popular contra la dictadura capitalista de Tokayev y llama a la solidaridad internacional. Por supuesto, esto es correcto y refleja la posición básica de todos los socialistas y demócratas. [2] Solo las fuerzas más reaccionarias, como varios estalinistas y amigos de Putin y Xi, denuncian esta heroica lucha de masas como una “revolución de color dirigida por la CIA”. [3]

 

 

 

El significado de la intervención militar de Rusia en Kazajistán

 

 

 

Afortunadamente, el LIS/MST no tiene nada que ver con esos caniches de Putin. Sin embargo, su declaración es asombrosa, no tanto por lo que dice sino por lo que no dice. Como es bien sabido, Rusia -y otros estados de su alianza CSTO- ha enviado 3.000 soldados a Kazajstán para salvar la dictadura y ayudar a ahogar en sangre el levantamiento. Según un informe oficial de las autoridades de Kazajistán, publicado el 9 de enero, hasta el momento han muerto 164 personas. [4] ¡Sin duda, las cifras reales son mucho más altas!

 

Como explicamos en otro lugar, Putin está decidido a aplastar el levantamiento para que no provoque eventos similares en otros países de Asia Central o en la propia Rusia. Además, la intervención militar permite a Moscú fortalecer su dominio sobre Kazajstán, un país política y económicamente crucial ya que alberga una cantidad considerable de petróleo, gas, uranio y otras materias primas. Kasajstán es, en ese marco, un importante país de tránsito para un proyecto clave del imperialismo chino: la llamada Iniciativa de la Franja y la Ruta. [5]

 

En otras palabras, la intervención militar de Rusia en Kazajstán no solo es un factor importante para el levantamiento popular, sino que también tiene una relevancia regional y mundial. Demuestra la naturaleza imperialista del Imperio Ruso. Esta no es la primera vez, solo recuerda Chechenia 1999, Georgia 2008, Ucrania 2014 o Siria 2015.

 

 

 

Un problema importante en Asia Central, así como en la política mundial.

 

 

 

Si bien LIS/MST menciona brevemente la intervención de Rusia y expresa su oposición a la misma, no tienen valor para caracterizar a Rusia en cuanto a su política exterior como imperialista. ¡Esto es muy notable! Solo piense en el envío de tropas de EE. UU. a un país de América Latina (por ejemplo, Granada) o el Medio Oriente (por ejemplo, Siria). O Francia enviando tropas a Malí. En tales casos, organizaciones como LSI/MST no se andarían con rodeos al denunciar tales acciones como imperialistas. ¡Y con razón!

 

Pero cuando se trata de Rusia o China, el mundo se ve completamente diferente. Sí, esa política exterior podría ser mala. ¡Pero no encontrará la palabra I – “imperialista” en ninguna de sus declaraciones! Se podría pensar que se trata de un simple descuido en esta declaración sobre Kazajistán. Sin embargo, esto simplemente no es cierto, sino que forma parte de un análisis más general. Mirando los documentos LIS/MST de los dos congresos que celebró desde 2019, se obtiene la misma imagen. Ni sus documentos sobre la situación mundial ni los de Europa caracterizan a Rusia como imperialista. De hecho, Rusia apenas se menciona si no se olvida simplemente. [6] ¡Obviamente, es difícil ver el Kremlin desde las torres de Buenos Aires!

 

¡Este es un gran fracaso en un tema clave de la política mundial! Vivimos en un mundo que no está dominado por un solo poder imperialista (como los EE. UU.) o por un campo imperialista unido (el mito del kautskyanismo). No, la política global se caracteriza por la existencia de varias Grandes Potencias Imperialistas (EE. UU., China, la Unión Europea, Rusia y Japón) que están cada vez más involucradas en rivalidades. ¡Sin reconocer la naturaleza imperialista de estas diferentes potencias, es imposible encontrar una orientación correcta en la política mundial! [7]

 

Como la CCRI elaboró en una serie de estudios, Rusia es una de estas grandes potencias. Es cierto que su fuerza está desarrollada de manera desigual. Si bien es el undécimo más grande del mundo (por PIB nominal) es una de las principales potencias en términos militares y políticos. Tiene la mayor cantidad de ojivas nucleares, junto con los EE. UU., y es el segundo mayor exportador de armas del mundo. Además, Rusia juega un papel crucial en la política mundial como uno de los cinco poderes de veto en las Naciones Unidas y ejerce una influencia importante en el Medio Oriente, en el norte, este y centro de África, en Europa y en Asia. [8]

 

En resumen, la intervención militar de Moscú en Kazajstán es un ejemplo práctico de que Rusia es una potencia imperialista que actúa como Gendarme de Eurasia. ¡Ignorar este hecho, negarse a nombrar a la bestia por su nombre, el imperialismo, es un error y solo puede generar confusión entre las filas de los socialistas! ¡Sería grandioso que los compañeros de LIS/MST pudieran comprender esta realidad, que no es una cuestión teórica en "abstracto" sino que tiene implicancias prácticas en cuanto a la política!

 

 

 

[1] LIS: No more repression against the people! General Strike, Workers’ Councils and Self-Defense Committees! January 2022, https://lis-isl.org/en/2022/01/08/kazajstan-basta-de-represion-al-pueblo-por-una-huelga-general-consejos-de-trabajadores-y-comites-de-auto-defensa/

 

[2] The RCIT has published several documents on the popular uprising in Kazakhstan. They are all compiled at a special page on our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/compilation-of-articles-on-the-popular-uprising-in-kazakhstan/.

 

[3] See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The Popular Uprising in Kazakhstan and Putin’s Patriotic “Communists”. The Stalinist KPRF of Gennady Zyuganov supports the bloody crackdown of the protests and the imperialist intervention of Russian troops, 8 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/kazakhstan-and-putin-s-patriotic-communists/

 

[4] Jim Heintz: Kazakhstan says 164 killed in last week’s protests, 9.1.2022, https://apnews.com/article/europe-russia-kazakhstan-almaty- 8041ebee995d41050e6919ea0cdca64

 

[5] Michael Pröbsting: Russia’s Military Intervention in Kazakhstan: An Imperialist Power Takes Action, 7 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/russia-s-military-intervention-in-kazakhstan/

 

[6] See e.g. the following LIS/MST congress documents: Our strategy for the socialist revolution( 2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/nuestra-estrategia-para-la-revolucion-socialista/; The capitalist world economy after almost 2 years of pandemic (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/13/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-economia-capitalista-mundial-despues-de-casi-2-anos-de-pandemia/; Resolution about Europe (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/resolucion-sobre-europa/; Class Struggle is Rising all over the World as the Crisis of Capitalism Deepens (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/14/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-lucha-de-clases-asciende-en-todo-el-mundo-mientras-se-profundiza-la-crisis-del-capitalismo/; Notes on the international economic situation (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/apuntes-sobre-la-situacion-economica-internacional/; Resolution on Europe (2021), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/10/1-congreso-de-la-lis-resolucion-sobre-europa/.

 

[7] See on this e.g. the book by Michael Pröbsting: Anti-Imperialism in the Age of Great Power Rivalry. The Factors behind the Accelerating Rivalry between the U.S., China, Russia, EU and Japan. A Critique of the Left’s Analysis and an Outline of the Marxist Perspective, RCIT Books, Vienna 2019, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/anti-imperialism-in-the-age-of-great-power-rivalry/.

 

[8] The RCIT has published numerous documents about capitalism in Russia and its rise to an imperialist power. See on this e.g. several pamphlets by Michael Pröbsting: The Peculiar Features of Russian Imperialism. A Study of Russia’s Monopolies, Capital Export and Super-Exploitation in the Light of Marxist Theory, 10 August 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-peculiar-features-of-russian-imperialism/; Russia and China: Neither Capitalist nor Great Powers? A Reply to the PO/CRFI and their Revisionist Whitewashing of Chinese and Russian imperialism, 28 November 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/russia-and-china-neither-capitalist-nor-great-powers-reply-to-po-crfi/; The Catastrophic Failure of the Theory of “Catastrophism”. On the Marxist Theory of Capitalist Breakdown and its Misinterpretation by the Partido Obrero (Argentina) and its “Coordinating Committee for the Refoundation of the Fourth International”, 27 May 2018, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-catastrophic-failure-of-the-theory-of-catastrophism/; Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism and the Rise of Russia as a Great Power. On the Understanding and Misunderstanding of Today’s Inter-Imperialist Rivalry in the Light of Lenin’s Theory of Imperialism. Another Reply to Our Critics Who Deny Russia’s Imperialist Character, August 2014, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialism-theory-and-russia/; Russia as a Great Imperialist Power. The formation of Russian Monopoly Capital and its Empire – A Reply to our Critics, 18 March 2014, in: Revolutionary Communism No. 21, http://www.thecommunists.net/theory/imperialist-russia/. See various other RCIT documents on this issue at a special sub-page on the RCIT’s website: https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/china-russia-as-imperialist-powers/.

 

 

 

군사개입은 보여도 러시아 ‘제국주의’는 안 보인다?

트로츠키주의 조직이 규탄 성명을 내면서 러시아 제국주의에 대해서는 침묵하다

 

미하엘 프뢰브스팅, 혁명적 공산주의인터내셔널 동맹 (RCIT) 국제서기, 2022 1 10, www.communists.net

 

Download
KOR trans of The I Word.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 89.7 KB

 

 

 

 

미국의 대외정책에 관한 기사를 때는 제국주의라는 범주를 수십 사용하지만, 다른 강대국에 대해서는 대외정책을 비난하면서도 제국주의라는 말을 금기시 하는 맑스주의 자임 조직들이 있다.

 

국제사회주의동맹 (ISL) 그러한 이중잣대의 예다. ISL 국제 트로츠키주의 단체로 아르헨티나의 노동자사회주의운동(MST) 국제 단체 가장 조직이다. (MST 통합노동자좌파전선[FITu] 일원이다). 우크라이나와 벨라루스를 포함하여 여러 다른 나라에도 조직들이 있다.

 

며칠 LIS/MST 카자흐스탄 민중봉기에 대한 성명을 냈다.[1] 성명은 토카예프 자본가 독재에 대항하는 민중봉기에 대한 지지를 표하며 국제연대를 촉구한다. 이것은 물론 옳고 모든 사회주의자와 민주주의자의 기본 입장을 반영한다.[2] 각종 스탈린주의자들과 푸틴·시진핑의 벗들 같은 가장 반동적인 세력들만이 영웅적인 대중투쟁을 "CIA 지도하는 색깔혁명"이라고 비난한다.[3]

 

 

 

러시아의 카자흐스탄 군사 개입의 의미

 

다행히도, LIS/MST 그러한 푸틴의 푸들과는 아무 관련이 없다. 그럼에도 성명은 놀라운데, 많은 말을 하면서도 정작 말해야 것들은 하나도 말하고 있지 않기 때문이다. 알고 있듯이, 러시아와 CSTO 동맹기구는 독재정권을 구하고 봉기를 피바다로 몰아넣기 위해 3,000명의 병력을 카자흐스탄에 파견했다. 1 9 발표한 카자흐스탄 당국의 공식 보도에 따르면 지금까지 164명이 살해됐다.[4] 의심의 여지없이, 실제 숫자는 훨씬 높다!

 

우리가 다른 곳에서 설명했듯이, 푸틴은 카자흐 봉기가 다른 중앙아시아 나라나 러시아 자체에서 유사한 사태를 촉발하는 도화선이 되지 않도록 봉기를 박살내고자 작정했다. 더욱이 군사개입으로 러시아는 상당한 양의 석유, 가스, 우라늄과 밖의 원자재 매장량을 가진, 정치적·경제적으로 중요한 나라 카자흐스탄에 대한 지배를 강화할 있게 된다. 이에 더해 카자흐스탄은 중국 제국주의의 유라시아 경영 프로젝트인 일대일로 사업에서 중요한 환승 국가다.[5]

 

러시아의 카자흐스탄 군사개입은 카자흐 민중봉기에 대해서만이 아니라 아시아 지역 차원과 글로벌 차원에서도 중요한 사건이다. 군사개입은 러시아의 제국주의적 본질을 보여준다. 이번이 처음이 아니다. 체첸 1999, 조지아 2008, 우크라이나 2014, 시리아 2015년을 기억하시라.

 

 

 

중앙아시아뿐만 아니라 세계 정치에서도 주요 이슈

 

LIS/MST 러시아의 개입에 대해 간략히 언급하고 개입에 대한 반대 입장을 표하지만, 러시아 국가와 대외정책을 제국주의로 성격규정 심장은 감히 가지고 있다.

 

미국이 라틴아메리카 나라 (예로 그레나다) 중동 나라 (예로 시리아) 군대를 파견하는 경우, 또는 프랑스가 말리에 군대를 보내는 경우, LSI/MST 같은 조직들은 같은 군사행동을 제국주의라고 규탄하는 데서는 치의 망설임도 없다. 물론 당연히 그래야지!

 

하지만 러시아나 중국에 이르면 세상은 완전히 다르게 보인다. 러시아나 중국의 대외정책을 규탄하는 성명에서조차도 제국주의라는 말은 하나도 찾을 없다.

 

이번 카자흐스탄 성명에서 이것이 단순한 간과라고 생각할 있다. 그러나 이것은 전혀 사실이 아니다. 그런 실패에는 고유한 방법() 깔려 있다. LIS/MST 2019 이래로 개최한 대회의 문서를 보면 같은 그림이 나온다. 세계정세에 대한 문서에서도, 러시아 포함 유럽에 대한 문서에서도 러시아는 제국주의로 성격규정 되고 있지 않다. 아예 러시아에 대한 언급 자체가 거의 없다.[6]

 

이것은 세계정치의 핵심 이슈에서 중대한 실패다! 우리는 단일 제국주의 강대국 (미국 같은) 의해 지배되는, 또는 통합 제국주의 진영 (카우츠키주의적 신화의 초제국주의 같은) 의해 지배되는 세계에 살고 있지 않다. 아니, 글로벌 정치는 지금도 시시각각 패권전쟁을 고조시켜가고 있는 복수의 제국주의 강대국들 (미국, 중국, EU, 러시아, 일본) 존재로 특징지어진다. 이들 열강의 제국주의적 본질을 인식하지 않고는 세계정치에서 올바른 방향을 찾는 것은 불가능하다.[7]

 

RCIT 여러 연구보고서에서 상세히 설명했듯이, 러시아는 이러한 강대국들 하나다. 힘이 불균등하게 발전하고 있는 것은 사실이다. 명목 GDP로는 세계 11, 구매력평가지수(PPP)로는 6 국가지만, 군사·정치적 차원에서는 선두 국가 하나다. 미국과 함께 가장 많은 핵탄두를 보유하고 있으며 세계 2 무기 수출국이다. 또한 러시아는 거부권을 가진 유엔 5 상임이사국 하나로 세계정치에서 중요한 역할을 하며, 중동과 ··중앙아프리카와 유럽, 아시아에서 남다른 영향력을 행사하고 있다.[8]

 

요약하자면 러시아의 카자흐스탄 군사개입은 러시아가 유라시아의 헌병 역할을 하는 제국주의 열강임을 보여주는 하나의 실제적인 사례다. 사실을 무시하고 짐승을 이름으로, 제국주의로 부르길 거부하는 것은 중대한 과오이며, 사회주의자 대열 속에 혼란을 초래할 있을 뿐이다! LIS/MST 동지들이 어서 이러한 약점을 극복할 있기를 바란다!

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

[1] LIS: No more repression against the people! General Strike, Workers’ Councils and Self-Defense Committees! January 2022, https://lis-isl.org/en/2022/01/08/kazajstan-basta-de-represion-al-pueblo-por-una-huelga-general-consejos-de-trabajadores-y-comites-de-auto-defensa/

 

[2] RCIT 카자흐스탄 민중봉기에 관해 일련의 문서들을 발표했다. 다음 링크로 들어가서 문서들을 있다. https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/compilation-of-articles-on-the-popular-uprising-in-kazakhstan/.

 

[3] 이에 대해서는 다음을 보라. Michael Pröbsting: The Popular Uprising in Kazakhstan and Putin’s Patriotic “Communists”. The Stalinist KPRF of Gennady Zyuganov supports the bloody crackdown of the protests and the imperialist intervention of Russian troops, 8 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/kazakhstan-and-putin-s-patriotic-communists/ [<카자흐스탄 민중봉기와 푸틴의 애국적 공산주의자들”> https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/kazakhstan-and-putin-s-patriotic-communists/#anker_1]

 

[4] Jim Heintz: Kazakhstan says 164 killed in last week’s protests, 9.1.2022, https://apnews.com/article/europe-russia-kazakhstan-almaty-e8041ebee995d41050e6919ea0cdca64

 

[5] Michael Pröbsting: Russia’s Military Intervention in Kazakhstan: An Imperialist Power Takes Action, 7 January 2022, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/russia-s-military-intervention-in-kazakhstan/ [<러시아의 카자흐스탄 군사개입 - 제국주의 강대국이 자신의 세력권에서 행동을 취하다> https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/asia/russia-s-military-intervention-in-kazakhstan/#anker_2]

 

[6] 다음 LIS/MST 대회 문서들을 보라. Our strategy for the socialist revolution( 2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2019/05/24/nuestra-estrategia-para-la-revolucion-socialista/; The capitalist world economy after almost 2 years of pandemic (2019), https://lis-isl.org/en/2021/12/13/1-congreso-de-la-lis-la-economia-capitalista-mundial-despues-de-casi-2-anos-de-pandemia/; Resolution about Europe (2019),